Warm-Up Monday Nov. 5, 2012 List the two components that make up the “backbone "of DNA. Warm- Up Tuesday Nov. 6, 2012 Define translation in your own words. Protein Synthesis Objectives 1.Define the term protein synthesis 2.Relate translation to the process of protein synthesis 3.Describe the role of RNA in protein synthesis Protein Synthesis Synthesis = to make Protein synthesis = to make proteins Translation = process of synthesizing proteins Translation: Review Translation = process of decoding mRNA to produce a sequence of amino acids in a chain (protein) mRNA = messenger RNA Amino Acids = building blocks of DNA Location: cytoplasm Translation: Review Which process must occur before translation can take place? Translation 1) mRNA attaches to ribosome 2) tRNA brings amino acids (a.acids) to ribosome 3) A. acids attached along “assembly line” 4) Continues until a “stop” codon is reached Translation: making proteins from amino acids Making Proteins Sequence of nucleotides = instructions for the order of amino acids Proteins = long chain of a. acids Code is read 3 letters at a time Codon = sequence of three nucleotides in DNA & RNA Each codon codes for proper amino acid Example: AUG-CGU-AAC-UGA Codons Start codon- "AUG" - Methionine Signals initiation translation Initiation = start Stop Codon- "UAG, UAA, and UGA" Signals termination translation Termination = stop Review: RNA’s role in Protein Synthesis Type RNA Messenger RNA Abbreviation Function mRNA Carry copies of instructions for making proteins Ribosomal RNA rRNA Makes up ribosomes Transfer RNA tRNA Brings specific a.acids to ribosome according to mRNA instructions DNA Rap http://www.dnatube.com/video/3446/BioRap-DNA- Replication-and-Protein-Synthesis-with-a-Beat Avid Thinking Strategy: Protein Synthesis Rap/Rhyme Directions (#11 on pg 11) - Concept: Protein Synthesis - Rap/Rhyme requirements: 1) Title (reflects main concept of poem) 2 ) Minimum 2 stanzas 4 lines each (grouping of lines, set off by a space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhyme) 3) Illustration depicting concept of poem (2 colors) 4) 4 sentence explanation explaining how the song & illustration demonstrate the concept of protein synthesis Warm Up Wednesday Nov. 7, 2012 1. Define the word codon. 2. List one START codon and one STOP codon. Warm Up Thursday Nov. 8, 2012 What organelle does translation occur in? Chromosomal Mutations Objectives 1. Define chromosomal mutation. 2. List and discuss common chromosomal mutations found in the human body. Chromosomal Mutations = change in the # or structure of chromosomes 4 types: 1) Inversion 2) Translocation 3) Deletion 4) Duplication 1) Inversion = segment of chromosome breaks off & is reinserted in the same place but in reverse direction Causes increased risk of miscarriages 2) Translocation = one of 2 homologous chromosomes breaks & binds to the other Causes cancer & Infertility Very deadly 3) Deletion = Lose portion of chromosome Example: Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome Description: condition that is caused by a missing part (deletion) of the short arm of chromosome 4 Symptoms: Severe developmental delays Characteristic facial appearance Seizures Variety other birth defects 4) Duplication = portion chromosome copied, resulting in extra genetic material Example: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Description: Progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body Symptoms: muscle weakness decreased muscle bulk Tends to slowly worsen over time Avid Thinking Strategy: Letter to the Editor Directions (#13 pg 11) Concept: Chromosomal Mutations Letter Requirements: 1) 2-3 paragraphs (minimum 5 sentences each) 2) Write a letter about why mutations are harmful to humans 3) Use the new vocabulary words learned (in notes) 4) You must state an opinion and use 5 specific facts to support that opinion. 5) There must be an illustration depicting the concept of mutations. Warm Up Friday Nov. 9, 2012 What organelle does transcription occur in?