presentation - Africa Research Workshop

Report
Africa Research Workshop UNU-Merit/MGSoG
Maastricht, 21 October 2011
Public Accountability in Development
Renée Speijcken
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance/UNU-Merit
Maastricht University
[email protected]
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
Why is public accountability important for
development ?
1.
6.
Democratic control of government & trust in democratic
system
Prevention of misuse of power and corruption
Improvement of functioning, effectiveness and
responsiveness of government (e.g. service delivery)
1+2+3 = contribute to legitimacy of government
Increasing learning capability of organizations or
individuals
Public catharsis (Truth commission - South Africa)
7.
For donors: Aid effectiveness
2.
3.
4.
5.
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
What is Public Accountability?
– Contextual process, between Actor (supply
side/state) and Forum (demand side/citizens-civil
society)
– Actor and forum interact through accountability
mechanisms (conventional and new ones)
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My PhD research
– Focus on role of donors in promoting public
accountability in developing countries
– Focus on political party aid of Dutch donor
Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy
with regard to set up of Centres for Multiparty
Democracy (CMD) (all political parties
participating) in Kenya and Malawi
Research question:
Does, and if so, to what extent and under what conditions,
NIMDs ‘CMD-approach’ assist political parties in their key
roles between citizens and state, to enhance public
accountability?
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My PhD research (2)
Key Methodology:
Theory Based Evaluation (TBE) approach:
1. Unpack the black box of NIMDs intervention theory
(change theory) by reconstructing /unraveling the
underlying causal assumptions about the mechanisms that
lead inputs to outputs to outcomes to impacts
2. Assess the tenability and validity of the core sets of these
assumptions on change mechanisms on the basis of
existing scientific theories, insights and practices in
behavioral and social science on micro, meso and macro
levels
3. Assess the assumptions in practice in two case studies in
Kenya and Malawi (centres for multipary democracy,
established by NIMD)
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My PhD research (3)
Key Preliminary Findings on basis of assessment of NIMD
intervention theory and Kenya case study (2003-2009):
Main contribution of NIMD seems to be
– enhancing mutual trust among parties via cooperation in
CMD and stronger collective identity
– Increased trust between electorate, civil society and parties
in specific areas (women and minorities participation in
politics), by joint projects and new interfaces for debate
and accountability
– contributes to national regulatory reforms
However:
– Few individual behavioural changes of politicians
– no deeper changes on level of ‘rules of the game’ (power
relations), parties organizational stability and added value
to society in public accountability
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My PhD research (4)
Main preliminary causes for limited results identified:
– Weak intervention/change theory with regard to :
• Impact of informal accountability mechanisms such as patronage on
promotion and establishment of formal accountability mechanisms
• How individual outcomes should translate to collective outcomes
(micro macro problem ‘Coleman’)
– Promotion of ‘ideal type roles’ of political parties to enhance
public accountability in Kenya that insufficiently take into
account local contexts, dynamics and practices
– Local CMD: Institutional governance problems and multiple
contrasting accountabilities, because of complicated
organizational structure; unclear delineation of
responsibilities; insufficient seniority of political party
representation; lack of M&E for accountability & internal
learning
– Ownership is challenged by donor dependency
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My Africa related contract research
Three areas:
1. role of donors in promoting public accountability (PA) for
improved governance, effective service delivery, stronger
democratization and increased aid effectiveness
2. Role, capacities, needs, context of demand side actors
(citizens/civil society/private sector) in policy and
accountability processes
3. Role, capacities, needs, context of supply side actors
(elected representatives, policy makers, civil servants,
private service providers) in policy and accountability
processes
Focus on: mechanisms (accountability, relational,
cognitive, environmental)
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My Africa related contract research (2)
Examples:
– Study of accountability assessment frameworks –
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Support
(IDEA), pilots Zambia, Mozambique
– Study of the role of (I)NGOs in enhancing citizens
engagement in public accountability mechanisms and policy
process for effective service delivery – special attention to
education and human rights/democracy sectors in Sub
Sahara African countries-ICCO
– Study of the Institutionalization process of Centres for
Multiparty Democracy in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and
Zambia – NIMD
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My Africa related training and policy
advice activities
Target groups:
– civil servants, elected representatives and civil
society organizations from variety of SSA
countries
– Policy makers and/or implementers from Western
European donor organizations and INGOs. Among
others: IDEA International Stockholm, Swiss
Development Organization Helvetas; Ministry of
Foreign Affairs Netherlands; ICCO Netherlands;
Oxfam Novib Netherlands; VNG International.
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
My Africa related training and policy
advice activities (2)
Examples of training courses:
– Citizens participation in public accountability mechanisms
for effective local service delivery (and preventing
corruption) (Helvetas, VNG International, ICCO)
– Evidence based Policy Analysis, Advocacy and Evaluation
(Helvetas, NIMD)
– Social accountability mechanisms in fiscal decentralization
processes (VNG International)
– The role of donors in accountability promotion (Dutch
Foreign Affairs & INGO community workshop )
– Accountability for learning and aid effectiveness (ICCO,
NIMD)
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)
Thank you!
Questions?
Maastricht Graduate School of Governance (MGSoG)

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