References: Books
Kruskal, Joseph B. and Myron Wish (1978), Multidimensional Scaling, Beverly Hills: Sage.
– Great primer to get you started.
Green, Paul E., Frank J. Carmone Jr., and Scott M. Smith (1989), Multidimensional
Scaling: Concepts and Applications, Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
– More info, well-written.
Davison, Mark L. (1983), Multidimensional Scaling, New York: Wiley.
– Also well-written, lots of info on preference models.
Coxon, A.P.M. (1982), The User's Guide to Multidimensional Scaling, Exeter: Heinemann
Educational Books.
– A bit more advanced than those above.
MDS References: Books
Borg, Ingwer and Patrick Groenen (1997), Modern Multidimensional Scaling: Theory
and Applications, NY: Springer.
Coxon, A. P. M. (1982), The User’s Guide to Multidimensional Scaling, Exeter, New
Hampshire: Heinemann.
Schiffman, Susan S., M. Lance Reynolds, and Forrest W. Young (1981), Introduction to
Multidimensional Scaling: Theory, Methods, and Applications, NY: Academic Press.
Young, Forrest W., and Robert M. Hamer (ed.) (1987), Multidimensional Scaling:
History, Theory, and Applications, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
References: Books (More of Historical Interest)
Green, Paul E. and Vithala R. Rao (1972), Applied Multidimensional Scaling; A Comparison
of Approaches and Algorithms, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
– Hard to find—your library (or inter-library loan) may have a copy. Or your oldest
professor in this area. If you can’t find it, that’s ok—the content is pretty much
captured in the current Green et al. book (above).
Shepard, Roger N., A. Kimball Romney and Sara Beth Nerlove (eds.) (1972),
Multidimensional Scaling: Theory and Applications in the Behavioral Sciences, Volume I:
Theory, NY: Seminar Press.
Romney, A. Kimball, Roger N. Shepard, and Sara Beth Nerlove (eds.) (1972),
Multidimensional Scaling: Theory and Applications in the Behavioral Sciences, Volume II:
Applications, NY: Seminar Press.
– These 2 volumes presented a lot of good stuff, great for their time; also hard to find
at this point.
Torgerson, Warren S. (1958),Theory and Methods of Scaling, New York: Wiley.
– Geek o-rama but great info, historical and technical.
Young, Forrest W., & Hamer, R.M. (1987), Multidimensional Scaling: History, Theory and
Application, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
– Also good intro and overview; also hard to find.
References: Books (Other)
Golledge, Reginald G. and John N. Rayner (eds.) (1982), Proximity and Preference:
Problems in the Multidimensional Analysis of Large Data Sets, Minneapolis: U of
Minnesota Press.
– More about the psychology of similarity and preference judgments than algorithms
per se.
•Need to add the MDS books at the office!!
MDS also appears as a chapter in most multivariate stats books, such as:
• Seber, G.A.F. (1984), Multivariate Observations, NY: Wiley, pp.xxxxxx.
Nonmetric MDS References
The 4 classic papers that founded Nonmetric MDS:
• Kruskal, Joseph B. (1964), “Multidimensional Scaling by Optimizing Goodness of Fit to a
Nonmetric Hypothesis,” Psychometrika, 29, 1-27.
• Kruskal, Joseph B. (1964), “Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling: A Numerical Method,”
Psychometrika, 29, 115-129.
• Shepard, Roger N. (1962), “The Analysis of Proximities: Multidimensional Scaling with an
Unknown Distance Function. I,” Psychometrika, 27, 125-140.
• Shepard, Roger N. (1962), “The Analysis of Proximities: Multidimensional Scaling with an
Unknown Distance Function. II,” Psychometrika, 27, 219-246.
Individual Differences MDS References
The paper that founded INDSCAL:
• Carroll, J.Douglas, and J. J. Chang (1970), “Analysis of Individual Differences in
Multidimensional Scaling via an N-way Generalization of "Eckhart-Young"
Decomposition,” Psychometrika, 35, 238-319.
Also see:
• Arabie, Phipps, J. Douglas Carroll, and Wayne S. DeSarbo (1987), Three-Way Scaling and
Clustering, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
References: Articles
The papers
• Buja, Andreas, Deborah F. Swayne, Michael L. Littman, Heike Hofmann, and Lisha Chen
(2008), “Data Visualization with Multidimensional Scaling," Journal of Computational and
Graphical Statistics., 17 (2), 444-472.
• Buja, Andreas and Deborah F. Swayne (2002), “Visualization Methodology for
Multidimensional Scaling,“ Journal of Classification, 19, 7-43.
Cooper, Lee G. (1983), “A Review of Multidimensional Scaling in Marketing Research,”
Applied Psychological Measurement, 7 (4), 427-450.
Carroll, J. Douglas and Phipps Arabie (1980), “Multidimensional Scaling,” Annual Review
of Psychology, 31, 607-649.
Unidimensional Scaling
McIver, John P. and Edward G. Carmines (1981), Unidimensional Scaling, Newbury Park,
CA: Sage.
MDS Related
Dayton, C. Mitchell (1998), Latent Class Scaling Analysis, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ward, Michael D. and Kristian Skreded Gleditsch (2008), Spatial Regression Models,
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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