Fall Term PowerPoint Presentation

Report
1
Global UAV Market
 Global UAV Production
– $3.4 to $8.8 Billion 2011-2020
3
 Civil UAV Production
– $296 to $498 Million 2011-2020
3
3US International Trade Administration
2
Barriers to Entry
 FAA Limitations
– Strict National Air
Space regulations
– Limited to no available
certifications
 High Cost
– $3,234 per Hour
– Low Cost Option
• $3.2 Million
3
The Solution
 True Low Cost
–
–
–
–
Less than $2500
Open Source
Targeted Payload
Minimal Training
 Poised and Ready
before FAA
Certification
4
Stakeholders Influencing Design





Project 41 – Airframe and gimbal design
Project 45 – Communications
Project 42 – Software
Senior Design Advisor, Dr. Yousuff
SUAS Judges
5
Concept of Operations
System
Startup
In-Flight
ReTasking
SRIC
Autonomo
us Landing
Autonomo
us Takeoff
Area
Search
Waypoint
Navigation
Target
Recognitio
n
Target List
to Judges
Time Ends
6
Methodology
 No legacy to build on: use competitors’
journals
 Use of COTS parts and open source
software
 Prioritize competition objectives
 Innovation to gain advantage over
competitors
 Reproducibility
7
Technical Areas
 Airframe
ect 41: Airframe, Gimbal Team
 Gimbal
 RF
ect 45: Communications Team
Communications
Project 42: Software Team
 GCS Networking
 Onboard Hardware
 Ground Control
Station
8
9
Project Management




Collaboration via Dropbox, Google Docs
All information is accessible
Weekly meeting including all teams
Early Gantt chart development
10
Gantt Chart
10/31/12
12/20/12
2/8/13
3/30/13
5/19/13
Build Prototype 1
Purchase 900 Mhz
Prototype Gimbal
OpenCV Dev
Path Planning Dev
Flight Training
Purchase 5.8 Ghz
Spring
Break
Build Prototype 2
APM I&T
Program Gimbal
OMAP>GCS Comms Dev
Design Proto-flight 1
Test CV, Stitching
OMAP>GCS Comms I&T
SRIC Dev
Image Stitch Dev
Winter Break
72 Mhz dev
 Airframe and
Gimbal
 Communications
 Software
OpenCV live testing
Quad/heli full system assist
Build Proto-flight 1
Des/Build Proto-flight 2
Des/Build Flight 1
Auto tracking antenna
CF Gibal Design
Full Systems Testing
Full Systems Testing
Full Systems Testing
Task
11
 Airframe and
Gimbal
 Communications
 Software
Total Budget:
$2500
Airframe
Budget
Remaining
$30
0
Communications
$50
0
$50
0
$20
0
$50
0
Gimbal
$50
0
Spent
Camera
Onboard
Hardware
Remaining
12
13
Primary Needs That Influence
Design






Provide Surveillance images
Provide Airspeed data
Contain and carry hardware
Power for components
Maintain static and dynamic stable flight
Follow Competition Restrictions
14
Important Technical Specifications
 Minimum of ± 60 degrees of camera roll
 Generate more than 25 lbs of lift
 Has a CM,0 must be greater than 0
(statically balanced)
 Has a ∂CM,cg /∂α less than 0
(statically stable)
 Minimum 40 min of endurance
15
Design Items
 Gimbal Assembly
 Fuselage
 Wing
 Tail
 Propulsion
16
Design Flow Chart
Mission
Requirement
s
Stakeholder
Needs and
Specifications
Airframe
Weight
Equipment
Requirement
s
Hardware
Embodiment
∑
Lift
Requirement
s
Desired
Performanc
e
Payload
Weight
Wing
Lift/Drag
Ratio
Thrust
Requirement
s
17
Yaw-Pitch
UP
FOR
LBL18
Roll-Pitch
UP
FOR
LBL19
Gimbal Design Evaluation
Parameter
Interface ability
Simplicity
Cost
Weight
Form Factor
Pointing Capabilities
Weight
2
3
3
3
4
5
Total
YawPitch
2
Roll-Pitch
2
3
2
4
3
2
2.65
4
3
3
4
4
3.5
20
Fuselage
 Contain: ~4"x4.5" Pandaboard
~4"x2" Arduino
 Modular gimbal attachment method
 Tray system for easy removal and
connection of hardware components.
 Simple, lightweight construction
21
Wing
 Fixed Wing Aircraft
 High Wing Configuration
 Important to consider wing-loading
– Affect wingspan and what type of airfoil we
will choose
22
Wing (Cont.)
 “Summary of Low-Speed Airfoil data” by
Selig Guiglielmo, Broeren, Giguere
 Free Software available to design and
test airfoils
– Profili 2
– FoilSim
 What we used for our first trainer plane
– NACA 2412
23
NACA 2412 Properties
∂Cl/∂α 0.103
Cm,ac -0.02
Cd,o 0.007
αa -2.22°
24
Flying Wing
 Reduced horizontal yaw control
 Increased lift and reduced drag
25
T-Tail
 Independent yaw and pitch controls
 Gets the elevators out of the downwash
of the main wing
26
Conventional Tail
 Final tail design
27
Propulsion
 Motor: NTM Prop Drive 50-50 580KV /
2000W
 Propeller:
– Pitch: 15x8 -18x8
– Max thrust: ~10kg
– Power Consumption: ~40A
– Estimated battery life: ~50 min
28
Landing Gear
 Wheeled landing gear
 Long enough to keep the gimbal off the
ground when landing.
29
FINAL DELIVERABLE
30
Possibilities Moving Forward
 Laser Doppler Vibrometry
 UG lab wind tunnel
 Varying camber airfoils
– Alternate manufacturing methods
 Carbon fiber fuselage
31
Questions
 Next up: Communications Team
32
33
Autopilot Needs
 Communication System
– Primary
• Long range (1 mile minimum)
• Low error rate
• Legal for US operation
– Secondary
• No licensing required
• No configuration required
34
Autopilot Radio Selection
Parameter
Weight
Xbee Radio
3DR Radio
FDR900 Radio
Range
7
1
3
5
Licensing
Throughpu
t
9
4
4
4
4
2
4
4
Complexity
7
1
4
4
Cost
9
4
3
-1
94
128
106
Total
35
3DR Telemetry Kit




900 MHz
Low-Cost
All hardware included
1 mile range
(extendable)
 Open source
 No license required
 “Plug and Play”
36
Range Testing
 Completed
– Serial Communication
Established
– Basic Test Program
Constructed
 In Progress
– Link “Stress” test over
range.
– BERT – Bit Error Rate
Test
37
Autopilot Demonstration
38
Imagery Link Needs
 Receiving pictures from Pandaboard
 Constant connection
 High data rate
– 3-10 Mb/s
 Available frequency
– 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz
 Low Cost
39
Antenna on Airplane
 All antennas will need
Omnidirectional
– 2-6 dBi
– > 1 mi range
 Omnidirectional
Blade
– Horizontal plane: 360o
– Vertical plane: 5-10o
 Blade
– 260o behind antenna
Custom Dipole
 Dipole in vertical stabilizer
– Horizontal plane: 360o
– Vertical plane: 5-10o
40
At Ground Control Station
 All antennas will need
– 10-14 dBi
– > 1 mi range
Omnidirectional
 Omnidirectional
– Horizontal plane: 360o
– Vertical plane: 5-10o
Yagi
 Yagi antenna
– Horizontal plane: 20-35o
– Vertical plane: 30-45o
Patch
 Patch antenna
– Horizontal plane: 100-180o
– Vertical plane: 100-180o
– In front of antenna
41
Imagery Antenna Evaluation
Parameter
Gain
Beam Width
Size
Complexity
Cost
Weight
6
7
4
6
8
Total
Omni
3
4
2
4
3
102
Blade
4
2
4
4
0
78
Dipole
3
3
3
0
4
83
Parameter
Gain
Beam Width
Size
Complexity
Cost
Weight
9
7
3
6
7
Total
Omni
0
4
3
3
3
76
Yagi
4
2
0
3
2
82
Patch
3
4
4
5
2
111
42
Tracking Antenna Needs
Position Feedback
 Precise
 Accurate
 Fast
 Durable
Control Loop
 Stable
 Modular
 Automatic Control
 Manual Control
43
Potential Solutions
 Measured Position
 Devices
–
–
–
–
Encoder
Resolver
Potentiometer
Magnetic
44
Prototype Weighting
Weight
Incremental
Encoder
Absolute
Encoder
Potentiometer
Precision
8
4
4
5
Accuracy
9
-1
4
3
Speed
6
3
4
3
Durability
4
4
4
4
Complexity
3
4
4
-2
Cost
7
0
-2
5
Total
69
106
130
Parameter
45
Potentiometer Feedback




Cheap
Easy to Implement
Multi-Turn
Absolute over Entire
Range
46
Scaling Solution
 Inverting Op-Amp
– Works with supply
– Tunable to any range
– Stable Amplification
47
Future Work
 Equipment purchasing, testing and
implementation.
 GCS networking
 Pandaboard and APM communication
 Safety link
 Auto tracking antenna
 SRIC – Simulated Remote Intelligence
Center
48
Questions?
 Next up: Software Team
49
50
Critical Stakeholder Needs
 Camera interface and control
 Flight Command
 Autonomous navigation
 Characterize glyphs
 Autonomous glyph recognition
 Image stitching
51
Imagery Workflow (Simplified)
Autopilot
Flight Command
In-flight
retasking
Onboard
Computer
Imagery
Computer Vision
Results for
Judges
Manual
Tagging/Inp
ut 52
Onboard Computer Target
Specs




Data transfer rate: 3-10 Mbps
Max package dimensions: 5x12x4 in
Potential for onboard image processing
Open Platform
53
Onboard Computer Concept
Evaluation
Weight
Pandaboard
Beagle Board
Raspberry Pi
Size & Weight
2
2
3
4
Cost
3
3
4
4
Versatility
4
4
3
3
Support
5
5
4
3
Performance
6
5
3
2
4.2
3.4
2.95
Total
54
PandaBoard ES
 OMAP Dual Core Processor
4.0”
– 1.2 GHz
 Memory
– 1 GB RAM
– SD Cards
4.5”
 Onboard Wireless
 Weight:
– 81.5 grams
55
Onboard Camera Specs
 Resolution: >6 MP
 Adjustable settings
– Exposure, shutter speeds, zoom
 Ability to interface with software
 Meets payload capabilities
56
Camera Concept Evaluation
Weight
DSLR
GoPro Hero3
Point and Shoot
Size & Weight
1
1
5
3
Cost
3
3
3
5
Quality
3
5
4
4
5
5
2
3
8
5
3
4
4.5
3
3.85
Parameter
Control
Interfacability
Total
57
Digital Single-Lens Reflex Camera
Characteristic Description
Interface USB 2.0
Lens Mount Interchangeable
Resolution (h x v) 18 MP (5184x3456)
Shutter Progressive
Dimensions H:5in W:4in L:3in
Mass 400-700g
58
DSLR – PandaBoard
Interface
59
Autopilot, Flight Command Target
Specs
 Autopilot
– IMU, GPS, Magnetometer, Barometer
– Inputs/Outputs
•
•
•
•
PWM Outputs: 7-10 channels
PWM Inputs: 6-8 channels
Analog Inputs: 3-5 channels
Serial Tx/Rx: 2-3 channels
 Flight Control Software
– Display critical data
– In flight re-tasking capabilities
60
Autopilot Concept Evaluation
Weight APM 2.0 APM 2.5
MP2128
Heli
Umarim Lite
v2
Price
4
0
-1
-4
-1
Telemetry
3
0
0
1
-1
GPS
3
0
2
2
-1
Weight
1
0
0
-1
3
Ease of Use
3
0
1
0
-1
0
5
-8
-9
Total
61
2.5
 Onboard sensors
–
–
–
–
Analog Inputs
PWM Out/Inputs
3-axis Accelerometer
3-axis Gyroscope
3-axis Magnetometer
Barometer
 GPS
 Open-Source
PWM Outputs
Sensors
GPS
Connector
62
Flight Command Software
Evaluation
Mission
QGroundCont
Planner
 Load APM Firmware
directly
– Configure Airframe
settings
 Easy to use interface
rol




Waypoint Navigation
In flight PID gain tuning
Highly adjustable
Offline Map Caching
63
Computer Vision Target Specs
 Glyph Characterization
– Alphanumerics: 36 letters/numbers
– Shapes: ~10 basic shapes
– Colors: 6 primary/secondary colors
– Orientation: Compass directions (45°)
– Determine position: 2-10 pixels
64
Computer Vision System: ADCCI
 Automatic Detection/Cueing,
Classification, and Identification
System (ADCCI)
 Semi-autonomous
 False positive rate < detection rate
MANUAL
CUE
CLASSIFY
IDENTIFY
• No autonomy
• Location
• Location
• Two traits
• Location
• All traits
65
OpenCV Algorithm
Orthorectification
Segmentation
Color Detection:
Histogram
Masking
Shape
Recognition
Letter
Recognition
66
Image Stitching
67
Future Work




Develop OpenCV Algorithms
Test and integrate APM 2.5
DSLR/Pandaboard Interfacing
Integrate all subsystems
68
Questions
 Project 42: Software Team
 Project 41: Airframe, Gimbal Team
 Project 45: Communications Team
69
References
1. Simons, Martin. Model Aircraft Aerodynamics, Fourth Edition. Special Interest Model
Books LTD., Dorset. 1999.
2. R/C Aircraft Design. Paul K. Johnson. Jan 2009. Airfield Models. 11 Nov 2012
<http://airfieldmodels.com/information_source/math_and_science_of_model_aircraft/rc_
aircraft_design/>
3. Cheesebro, Jonathan. "Unmanned Aircraft Systems." International Trade Administration.
<http:[email protected]_oaai/documents/
webcontent/tg_oaai_003781.pdf>.
4. 3DR Radio Kit image. http://wiki.ardupilotmega.googlecode.com/git/images/3DRadio/3DR-radio-kit-dip-small.jpg
5. Yagi Antenna image. https://encryptedtbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRjABMffh_APnJAM3FJ_VbWIxF_AVVOv2NjbyL
-E0UVEsBDp3mX
6. 2.4 GHz omni antenna image. https://encryptedtbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRMjOORizYSHzVOchInWJKPl1M4nozMb3gKyG2oEx4cLfZNAkDxA
7. 2.4 GHz blade antenna image. https://encryptedtbn1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ0JoMFCxjU94MSbuMJWKXM1mPsAunvVJPO-7sN8ZOX3WRXkb3
8. 2.4 GHz outdoor antenna image. https://encryptedtbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTdnJTe562cz_SgJ7XPVNdhiY09LgnD_kZUlJ7hQSbLWOGgmXzbw
9. Vertical Stabilizer image.
http://www.americanflyers.net/aviationlibrary/pilots_handbook/images/chapter_1_img_32
.jpg
70
10. Dipole antenna image. http://www.n4lcd.com/wireantennas/12-Dipole-Antenna-Balun.jpg
71

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