AHS-TechClub-020513 - Avon High School Tech Crew

Report
V2012.13
Agenda
• Old Business
– Delete Files
• New Business
– Week 10 Topics:
• Coming up:
– Yearbook Picture: Feb 7th @ 12:20PM in Main Gym
– JVS Open House: Feb 10th 1:30-3:30PM, 15181 OH RT58.
» Tours, teachers, and some students will be available
– Guest Speaker: Feb 12th
– Hyland Field Trip: Feb 21st
• Linux Intro (continued)
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Future Meeting Preview
GAMING
OPERATING
SYSTEM
NETWORK
CLOUD
PERIPHERALS
STORAGE
I/O
CPU
NETWORK
DATA &
DATABASES
GRAPHICS
MEMORY
GRAPHICS
LANGUAGES
VIRTUAL
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DEVELOPMENT
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New Business
• Intro to Linux
– Basic Commands
– Install Additional Software
– Practice Exercises
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Basic Commands
• Commands take the following form:
<Command> <Switches> <Parameters> <Target>
• Switches: single letters, preceded by a hyphen,
that adjust what the command does
• Parameters: things that the command needs to
know in order to work
• Target: the thing (such as a file) that the
command will be applied
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Basic Commands
• Let’s look at an example:
$ ls -l /home/seighman
Target
Switch
Command
This command tells the command line to list, in long format, the contents of the
directory “/home/seighman”. The command is “ls”; the switch “-l” tells Linux that
you want the list in long format; and the target of this command is the directory
“/home/seighman”. In this example, there are no parameters, so that part of the
command is just skipped
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Basic Commands - man
• So, how do I know what switch to use?
– manpages are your friend
$ man ls
LS(1)
User Commands
LS(1)
NAME
ls - list directory contents
SYNOPSIS
ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...
DESCRIPTION
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries
alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort is specified
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Basic Commands
•
•
•
•
•
pwd
ls
cd
mkdir
rmdir
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Basic Commands 2
•
•
•
•
•
•
file
touch
cp
rm
mv
rename
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Basic Commands 3
• ifconfig
• ping
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Basic Commands 3 - ifconfig
$ ifconfig eth0
• View the network settings on the first Ethernet adapter
installed in the computer.
$ ifconfig -a
• Display info on all network interfaces on server, active or
inactive.
$ ifconfig eth0 down
• If eth0 exists would take it down causing it cannot send
or receive any information
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Basic Commands 2 - ifconfig
$ ifconfig eth0 up
• If eth0 exists and in the down state would return it back
to the up state allowing to to send and receive
information
$ ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.102 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast
192.168.1.255
• Assign eth0 with the above values for IP, netmask and
broadcast address.
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Basic Commands 2 - ping
$ ping google.com
• Ping the host google.com to see if it is alive
$ ping google.com -c 1
• Ping the host google.com once
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Super User
• The “sudo” command introduces the “superuser” or “root
user”
• The term “root” is the name for the main administrator in
a “Unix-like” system, such as Linux
• There are many commands that only the root user can
run
• Depending on the version of Linux you are using, you
will either have to log on as the root user or prefix your
command with “sudo”. The default Debian distribution of
Linux, for instance, has no root password set. So you will
have to use the “sudo” command
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Super User
• By using “sudo”, you’re saying, “Do the following
command as the root user”
• When you do this, you will be asked for your password
and, if you have the system permissions of a root user
(commonly called “being in the admin group”), then the
command will be run
• If you don’t have root permissions, you will get an error
message
WARNING: be very careful executing commands as
root (sudo), you can easily render your system
unuseable!
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Installing Software
• Installing software on Linux is a broad subject because
each version of Linux has its own way of doing things
• Most are variations on apt-get (Advanced Packaging
Tool), used by Debian, Ubuntu, and related distributions)
• yum (Yellowdog Update Manager), used by Fedora and
related distributions
• The basic syntax is:
$ sudo apt-get install <packagename>
$ sudo yum install <packagename>
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Using apt-get to Manage Software
• To install a software package:
$ sudo apt-get install <packagename>
• To update the local package database:
$ sudo apt-get update
• To install all available newer versions of packages:
$ sudo apt-get upgrade
• To remove a package:
$ sudo apt-get remove <packagename>
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Ubuntu Setup
• Install Ubuntu Tweak
– Open a ‘terminal’
– Enter the following commands:
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak
– You may need to logout and login again
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