Final Presentation

Report
P13222: FSAE Turbocharger
Integration
Kevin Ferraro, Phillip Vars, Aaron League
Ian McCune, Brian Guenther, Tyler Peterson
Introduction
• Turbocharger integration to improve scoring potential
of 2013 car
• GT-Power simulation
– Used to select turbocharger
– Assisted with intake and exhaust design
– Used to simulate torque and fuel consumption map for Lap
Time Simulator
• Lap Time Simulator
– Used to compare vehicle parameters to determine scoring
tradeoffs
– Shows that performance gain of turbocharging is worth
the fuel efficiency and weight penalties
Project Goals
• Select appropriate turbocharger for engine package
• Design engine peripherals to maximize efficiency and
power of powertrain
• Utilize electronic boost control to enable tuning of
fuel efficiency and power for each event via different
engine maps
• Comply with FSAE and FSG rules
• Design and test for reliability and relatively easy
maintenance
Customer Needs Review
Importance
Description
Was It Addressed?
5
Overall Power and Torque Gains:
Yes, verified with simulation, needs to be verified on dyno
5
Optimized ECU Map for Best Performance
Optimized with simulation, will be finalized on dyno
5
Consistent Engine Performance
Will be addressed with repeated dyno testing
5
Necessary Engine Internals are Included with System
Yes-Carillo Rods and Swain Tech coated parts
4
Adequate System Cooling
Yes-intercooler and radiator sized properly
4
Sufficient Dyno Testing and Validation
Will be completed once fully assembled on dyno
4
Optimized Turbo Size for Application
Yes-Chosen using simulation results to avoid surge
4
Meet FSAE Noise Regulations
Will be determined once dyno testing begins
3
Quick Throttle Response
Simulated, will be validated by dyno testing
3
3
Easy to Access in Car
Compact Design in Car
Yes-CAD shows this
Yes-CAD shows this
3
Fit Within Constraints of Current Chassis
Yes-CAD shows this
2
Easy to Drive
2
Drivetrain Components Designed for Power Increase
Will be tested once on car
Yes, designers have used simulated values as design
parameters
2
Design for Intercooler Location (if required)
Yes-CFD analysis confirms location is apt
1
Readily Available Replacement Parts
Some will have to be manufactured in house
1
Simple Interface with Current Engine
Yes – No modifications are required to interface
1
Maximized Use of Composite Material
Yes-Plenum, intercooler parts
Important Specifications
Function
Specification
Unit of
Measure
Ideal Value
Engine
Peak Power Output
HP and ft-lbf
>= 60HP, 45 ftlbf
Intake
Mass Air Flow
g/s
>=40
58 g/s Peak (GT-Power Model)
System
Overall Weight Increase
lbs
<=15
Expected powertrain weight increase of <7 lb
Funding
Cost To Formula Team
$$$
<1000
Funding/sponsorship required
System
Compliance With FSAE
Rules
N/A
Comments/Status
62 HP Peak with 45 ft-lbf (GT-Power Model)
No Infractions Rules Compliant
System Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
Induction
Turbocharger
Boost control
Engine
Exhaust system
Mounting
Final Design
Final Simulation Model
•GT-Power is a 1-D engine simulation software
•Allows engine flow components to be modeled as 1-D approximations
•Very good at simulating flow transients and resonances
•Good at modeling Turbocharger system
•Must be validated thru testing
Turbo Selection
Comparison of GT0632 VS GT1238. GT12 is close to surge line until 6500 RPM. GT06 is
near maximum efficiency until higher engine speeds.
Turbocharger Efficiency
•GT06 turbine operates close to peak efficiency over most of operating range
•Compressor is near peak efficiency until higher engine speeds
•This is acceptable since boost will be reduced at higher engine speeds anyway
Results From Simulation
Comparisons with
Turbocharged (Red)
and naturally
aspirated powertrain
(Blue)
•Top Left: Power
•Top Right: Torque
•Bottom Left:
Manifold air pressure
•Bottom Right: BSFC
Transient Data
•GT Power allows the simulation of transient flow characteristics
•Can be used for simulation validation by making similar measurements on the Dyno
•Can also be used to identify performance limitations
•Cam profile is not ideal, however stock cams are better than Hotcam alternatives
•PV Diagram
Mass Flow Thru Valves
Static Pressure in Restrictor
Lap Time Simulation
•Lap Time Simulator used to find scoring potential of possible configurations
•Shows that performance gain of turbocharger outweighs fuel efficiency and weight
penalties
Turbocharger
Modifications
Flange modifications:
•Weight savings of 883g
•Allowed mounting to single port for single cylinder
engine (designed for two cylinder diesel)
Turbocharger-Mounting
• Needs:
– positioned and constrained robustly
– allow for thermal expansion
– isolate from vibration to maximum
degree possible
– follow turbocharger specs for proper
lubrication to ensure longevity
• Structural analysis
• Modal analysis
• Verification through testing
Intercooler
• Size-based off intake flow rate
and packaging constraints
• GT Power model simulated
effect on overall system
– Needs to be verified with test
data
• CFD analysis-ensure proper
airflow based on full car
location
• CFD analysis-shroud design
for maximum efficiency
Intercooler-Modification
• Material removal from
intercooler core resulted in
192.2g weight reduction
• Additional weight savings
with carbon fiber end
tanks
Intake/Fuel Delivery
• Intake shape-packaging constraints, desired
volume, runner length
– Utilized DOE within GT Power for iterative
analysis
– Plenum diameter varied 3-8 inches-5.5”
chosen-packaging/performance
compromise
– Runner varied 5-12 inches-9” chosenpackaged better than slightly better 12”
length
• CFD analysis-verify no unusual flow patterns
• Cone geometry of injector spray based on data
from Delphi
• 2 stage injection system
– Primary (near intake port) improved
starting, low speed operation
– Secondary (plenum) maximize atomization
at high speeds, minimize wall wetting
Intake/Fuel Delivery Cont’d
Electronic Boost Control
• Needed to allow tuning flexibility-boost varied for
different events
• Three-way solenoid in-line between manifold
pressure and wastegate diaphragm, vented to
atmosphere
• Solenoid controlled via PWM from ECU according
to a PID control algorithm to achieve desired
boost level
Exhaust
• DOE utilized within GT Power
• Header length varied .5-3.5”
– 3.5” best, 2.5” chosenpackaging
• Exhaust length varied .5-8”
– Minimal effect on
performance
• Header bomb simulated
– Minimal effect on
performance-not adopted
• Thin walled (.020”)
Commercially Pure Grade 2
Titanium chosen for exhaust
– High working temp
– Low density
Exhaust Cont’d
Engine
Budget
Purchased Items
Item
Cost
GT-0632SZ Honeywell Turbocharger
$680.00
Intercooler core material
$260.00
Sheet aluminum, intercooler end material
$50.00
Exhaust plumbing material
$250.00
Intake plenum mold material
$40.00
Boost Control Selonoid
$100.00
External Engine oil piping, hose, fittings
$50.00
Crank Bearings
$50.00
Carillo Connecting Rods
$484.00
Total:
$1,964.00
Testing
• Testing to begin on DC Motor Dynamometer as soon as remaining components
are manufactured
• Dyno setup modified to accommodate intake and exhaust systems
• Testing/tuning with actual components-delayed start, but save manufacturing
time/cost, more accurate validation, calibration
• Measurements will include:
–
–
–
–
Torque
Engine Speed
Crank Angle
Cylinder Pressure
• Temp and Press will be measured at:
–
–
–
–
–
Intake Before Intercooler
Intake After Intercooler
Intake Plenum
Exhaust Near Exhaust Port
Exhaust After Turbine
• Data logging will be once per degree of crank angle to verify transients
Lessons Learned
• Engine simulation allowed for single iteration of
manufacturing-saves time/resources-depends on
simulation accuracy
• Simulation results sensitive to input parametersmany initially unverified
• Power generated is knock-limited (no feasible
way to simulate)
• Scoring potential trade-off between fuel
efficiency and lap time depends on performance
of fastest car at competition
Future Work
• Finish manufacturing
• Complete testing
• Verify simulation, change parameters if
necessary to ensure accurate future
simulations
• Make multiple ECU maps for different events
• Install in car
• Tune based off driver feedback
• Ensure noise level meets regulations
• Win at competition

similar documents