DWS13-20Nov-Frederic..

Report
Spectrum Policy: Act II
IDATE’s point of view
Contact
Frédéric PUJOL
Head of the Radio Technologies &
Spectrum Practice
[email protected]
+33 4 67 14 44 50
November 2013
˃ Frédéric PUJOL, Head of the Radio Technologies & Spectrum Practice
Frédéric Pujol joined IDATE in November 1992. As head of radio technologies and spectrum Practice, he is
responsible for coordinating mobile industry forecasting and technical-economic analysis reports.
Previously, Frédéric acquired solid experience in mobile network architecture working for the France Telecom
Group (Sofrecom, Telesystems).
Mr. Pujol holds a post-graduate degree in engineering from ISEN (Institut Supérieur d'Electronique du Nord,
Lille, 1986), where he majored in Telecommunications, and from CITCOM (Centre d'Ingénierie des
Technologies de la Communication, Paris, 1987), where he majored in Network Architecture.
Ag enda

2:30-2:40pm IDATE’s point of view

4:00-4:30pm Coffee Break

2:40-3:00pm Keynote: Spectrum management: key
issues and roadmap to 2015
Gilles BREGANT, CEO, ANFR


4:30-4:40pm Introductive keynote
Joëlle TOLEDANO, PhD in mathematics and economics,
Supélec
3:00-4:00pm Round table #1 - Sharing the spectrum
among mobile telephony and other uses (television,
security services)

4:40-5:40pm Round table #2 - How can new
technologies facilitate spectrum management? How
should the spectrum be priced?


-
Chair: Scott MARCUS, Director and Department
Manager, WIK Consult GmbH
-
Alessandro CASAGNI, Head of EU Wireless
Regulatory Policy, Huawei
Jeppe JEPSEN, Director of Broadband Spectrum,
TETRA and Critical Communication Association
Karl-Heinz LAUDAN, Vice President Spectrum
Policy&Projects, Deutsche Telekom AG
Arnaud LUCAUSSY, Director of Regulatory and
Public Affairs, TDF
Lasse WIEWEG, Member, UMTS Forum
-
-
Chair: Frédéric PUJOL, Head of Radio technologies,
Spectrum Practice, IDATE
-
Viktor ARVIDSSON, Strategy & Business Development
Director France, Ericsson
Philippe AUBINEAU, Counselor for ITU-R Study Group 1
(Spectrum Management), ITU Radiocommunication
Bureau
Wassim CHOURBAJI, Senior Director Government Affairs
EMENA, Qualcomm
Eric FOURNIER, Director for Spectrum Planning and
International Affairs, ANFR and ECC chairman
-
Major trends in the regulatory framework
Main radio spectrum ‘trends’ for 2013-2015
White spaces: first
deployments in the USA
and in the UK
Mobile services
(IMT)
100MHz
S-Band: wasting
valuable resource?
PMR
223
Fixed services
Broadcasting
300
200
174
800 MHz (Digital Dividend):
LTE commercial services
700 MHz band:
WRC-2015 +
Availability?
400
500
700
600
470
430
380
800
790
VHF
UHF
410
Unlicensed
Satellite
900
862
880 915 925
1 GHz
960
IMT
450
GSM
1164
1479.5
1452 1492
1517
L-Band
1375 1400
1 GHz
1350
20102025
2 GHz
2110
2170
S-band
2200
IMT
1785 1805
S-band
1980
2010
2 GHz
1920
UMTS core
1427
2400
2300
1710
DECT
1880 1900
2483 2500
Unlicensed
2.4
2690
IMT
3 GHz
2 GHz TDD band:
STBs?
UMTS core
2.1 GHz FDD band:
must be available for
LTE by
mid-2014 in Europe
2.3 GHz band: progress
in Asia, strong interest in
Europe and in the USA
L-Band in Europe:
toward use as a
supplemental downlink
band?
2.6 GHz band: last
auctions in Western
Europe, LTE services in
Europe
LTE in the 1800 MHz
band: growing interest
in Asia-Pacific and in
Europe
Source: IDATE
LTE spectrum
LTE spectrum
˃ Fragmentation is here to stay
Table: Main LTE frequency bands
 At mid-2013, the main LTE frequency bands are
1800 MHz (#3), 2.6 GHz (#7) and 700 MHz
(North American bands #12, 13; 14 and 17).
 Regional harmonisation is probably the first step:
-
Americas: DD (700 MHz), AWS, 2.6 GHz
Europe: DD (800 MHz), 1800 MHz, 2.6 GHz
Asia-Pacific: 2.3 GHz, 2.6 GHz
 A major hurdle for chipset and devices vendors
 Roaming is not a priority today
 The Apple iPhone5 did not support the 800 MHz
and 2.6 GHz bands for Europe.
˃ Band plans are important, as seen in the
USA
 Two different band plans in the 700 MHz bands
respectively for AT&T and Verizon Wireless.
Source: IDATE, October 2013
The 700 MHz band
The 700 MHz band: a new harmonised
frequency band for LTE?
 The 700 MHz band corresponds to the first Digital
Dividend in the USA and in Asia-Pacific. It could
become the second Digital Dividend, in the EMEA
region.
 The Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT) has a
harmonised band plan for 698-806 MHz for
Region 3 which was approved by ITU. As is the
case with the APT band plan, 2 x 45 MHz of
spectrum will be available.
Table: Status of the 700 MHz band (May 2013)
Geographical
area
700 MHz
band
Band
plan
Europe
703-788 MHz
Middle East &
Africa
703-788 MHz
North America
699-798 MHz
South
America
698-806 MHz
Asia-Pacific
Allocation
APT
likely
APT
likely
698-806 MHz
Commercial
services
>= 2015
Probably in
2017-2020
>= 2013
>= 2015
US
2008
Yes: LTE in the
USA
Mainly
APT
>= 2014
>= 2015
APT
Japan,
Australia,
(New Zealand
in Q3 2013)
>= 2014
Source: IDATE, October 2013
 The entire band, according to the APT plan,
enables the use of 2 x 45 MHz for FDD operation.
A TDD plan has also been defined.
Figure: Possible implementation of 2 x 30 MHz FDD band in 700 MHz
(lower duplexer)
703 MHz
790 MHz
IMT - Second Digital Dividend?
Broadcasting
862 MHz
880 MHz
IMT (First Digital Dividend)
960 MHz
GSM & WCDMA
Region 1
(EMEA)
 The APT band plans include two duplexers
associated with two separate 30 MHz duplex
plans. The first is compatible with Europe (lower
duplexer plan: 703-733 and 758-788 MHz) and
the second (718–748 and 773–803 MHz) has
already been selected by some Asian countries
such as Japan.
698
MHz
703
MHz
733
MHz
Low duplexer
Uplink
718
MHz
High duplexer
Downlink
25 MHz
30 MHz
748
MHz
698
MHz
Duplex gap
Downlink
25 MHz
30 MHz
748
MHz
703
MHz
803
MHz
758
MHz
Uplink
Duplex gap
Downlink
45 MHz
10 MHz
45 MHz
Source: IDATE, October 2013
790
MHz
803
MHz
773
MHz
Uplink
30 MHz
3GPP band 28
788
MHz
758
MHz
Duplex gap
30 MHz
The 700 MHz band:
duplex gap and PPDR networks
˃ Spectrum for PPDR networks?
˃ 2 x 10 MHz for PPDR networks below
Figure: Extension of the APT band plan?
1 GHz for high speed transmission
 Out-of-band emissions could be different for
PPDR networks / commercial networks due to
specific needs (such as a limited number of
devices, or protection from broadcasters).
 The main hurdle with this option is that the mobile
industry is cautious in trying to obtain additional
spectrum below 700 MHz.
˃ What applications for the duplex gap?
Source: SFR
 The duplex gap defined in the 3GPP band plan (#28) represents 25 MHz of spectrum with use of the lower
duplexer (10 MHz for the 2 x 45 MHz band plan). There are already candidate options for its use:
 A supplemental downlink (SDL) option in order to use 20 MHz (738-758 MHz) out of the 25 MHz of the duplex
gap. This would provide additional downlink capacity for the 800 MHz band (3GPP #20).
 Use for public protection and disaster relief networks
-
PPDR technical work is being undertaken by the FM 49 group of ECC (CEPT) in Europe;
Most European countries are currently in favour of using parts of the 700 MHz band or extensions of the 700 MHz band for
PPDR applications. Some MENA countries, such as the UAE, have already adopted the 700 MHz band for PPDR.
 TDD use of the duplex gap with the band being used for FDD.
Spectrum sharing & new radio technologies
Supplemental downlink (SDL)
˃ Being a further development of FDD
networks
which normally use paired spectrum for uplink and
downlink, supplemental downlink uses additional
unpaired spectrum to enhance the downlink
capability of mobile broadband networks. It has not
yet been used in mobile networks; it is now possible
with carrier aggregation technology. Carrier
aggregation and supplemental downlink are included
in HSPA+ and LTE-Advanced standards.
˃ The usual downlink channel
is bonded with the supplemental downlink
channel(s) located in a different frequency band, to
combine a single wider downlink channel as shown
in the following figure.
˃ Mobile operators around the world are
currently looking into SDL as a solution to
meet traffic demands:


AT&T plans to use a supplemental downlink in its LTE
network, aggregating 700 MHz unpaired spectrum with
other paired spectrum on which it will deploy LTE. The US
carrier expects to be able to deploy supplemental
downlink as early as 2014. AT&T could also use the 700
MHz block it bought from Qualcomm with its AWS
spectrum.
Orange France conducted trials in early 2013 in the
French city of Toulouse. The mobile operator will use the
L-band (1452-1492 MHz) to provide mobile broadband
systems with supplemental downlink capacity. The trial
will use Ericsson base stations and devices employing
Qualcomm chipsets. Both the base stations and the
devices will use sup-plementary carrier frequencies in the
L-band for downlink operations, combined with a
traditional paired carrier at 2.1 GHz.
Figure: Principle of supplemental downlink
˃ This provides an answer to the
asymmetric nature of multimedia traffic
Growing very fast on mobile broadband networks – it
increases traffic in the downlink. An asymmetric
configuration with SDL serves to optimise traffic.
Source: Qualcomm
Spectrum sharing
˃ Spectrum sharing is seen as one solution to
spectrum congestion in Europe and in the
USA
˃ Licensed shared access (LSA) is a new
regulatory framework for sharing spectrum
Figure: The ‘licensed shared access ‘ concept

“An individual licensed regime of a limited number of
licensees in a frequency band, already allocated to one or
more incumbent users, for which the additional users are
allowed to use the spectrum (or part of the spectrum) in
accordance with sharing rules included in the rights of use
of spectrum granted to the licensees, thereby allowing all
the licensees to provide a certain level of QoS.” (RSPG)
 LSA could provide new harmonised spectrum for mobile
broadband with predictable QoS guarantees. It could
provide a solution to political, time and geographical
constraints which occur with attempts to clear a new
frequency band.
Table: Advantages and constraints of LSA
Source: Huawei
Advantages
Risks/constraints
Allows more efficient use of spectrum: no change for the incumbent user of
the spectrum and provides opportunities for new users/applications.
New spectrum can be made available almost on a pan-European basis.
Need for reliable sharing agreements between primary spectrum users and
LSA licencees.
A robust authorisation system must be built and has to be 100% reliable: it
could be based upon a data base model in order to provide permanent
updates on spectrum availability.
Need to manage the authorisation system.
Gives confidence to NRAs and spectrum managers as all LSA users are
licenced.
Compared with the licenced-exempt scheme, it provides more predictable
conditions of use and almost allows them to provide the same quality of
service as if primary users of the spectrum.
Subject to negotiation with the incumbent user.
Source: IDATE
Impact of new radio technologies
 New technologies such as ‘cognitive radio’ could well make new business models possible in the
future. This can, though, only be expected to have a long-term impact: it will take years before
cognitive radio technologies have established themselves significantly.
 Cognitive radios see the first real implementation of ‘white spaces’ in the USA and the preparation
of the regulatory framework in Europe. If they are successful, white space systems will only
represent niche markets, given the numerous limitations to their implementation.
 Spectrum aggregation will be a major improvement for mobile operators. It will enable higher data
rates and the use of more spectrum in the downlink to adapt the mobile traffic structure. It also
makes isolated frequency bands such as the L-Band more attractive to use.
 LTE-Advanced is gaining momentum and will probably be implemented before 2015.
Technology
Advantages
Drawbacks
Expected development
Heterogeneous
Networks
Enhanced coordination of macro and
micro/pico layers
Cognitive radios dynamic spectrum
allocation
Access to a dedicated spectrum band
is managed through a database
Administrative procedure have to
be defined in relation to database
management
Cognitive radios white spaces
Maximise the use of spectrum: enables
new users in underused bands
Interference risks
Likely limited deployment due to
difficulties in finding business models
Spectrum
aggregation
Enable the use of small portion of
spectrum and/or downlink only chunk
of spectrum
More complex to implement and
more frequency bands to manage
Being included within 3GPP standards
Already implemented in South Korea
on LTE-A networks
Source: IDATE
Being included within 3GPP standards
4G spectrum follow-up & licence valuation
Comparison of frequency
allocations of mobile operators
Table: FDD spectrum assets for selected operators (September 2013)
Source: IDATE
˃ Outcome
 The average quantity of spectrum per pop. is 2.06 (1.23 in 2009) MHz per million subscribers for the 5 operators
analysed.
 More potential spectrum in Western Europe: 700 MHz (second Digital Dividend), 3.5 GHz in the longer term.
4G spectrum price:
Digital Dividend, 700 MHz band
˃ Price of premium spectrum
 In the USA, the 700 MHz auctions held in 2008 reached an average value of 71 eurocents per MHz per
pop. In Germany, the Digital Dividend spectrum was sold for 70 eurocents, in Sweden for 31 eurocents
and in Spain for 54 eurocents.
 800 MHz band: in France, with 70.4 eurocents per MHz per pop., the average price paid by the three
‘incumbent’ mobile operators is very close to the price paid in Germany in May 2010 (72.7 eurocents)
but lower than in Italy in September 2011 (85.5 eurocents).
 Australia 700 MHz: the 2013 auctions reached high valuation for the 700 MHz even though no block
was sold.
Figure: Price (eurocents) per MHz per pop. (for 10 years)
Source: IDATE
4G spectrum price: 1800 MHz band
˃ Price of 1800 MHz spectrum
 The 1800 MHz band is one of the most heavily-used frequency bands for LTE networks
 In South Korea, the latest auctions for the 1800 MHz band reached a high valuation: KT paid 813.6
million USD in September 2013 and SK Telecom paid 949.2 million USD.
Figure: Price (eurocents) per MHz per pop. (for 10 years)
67.6
56.3
14.9
8.9
1.7
Germany
2010
Source: IDATE
12
4
Hong Kong
2009
Italy
2011
South Korea
2011
South Korea
2013
Sweden
2011
Switzerland
2012
4G spectrum price:
higher frequency bands
˃ Price of 2.6 GHz spectrum
 The early references for assessing the cost of FDD 2.6 GHz spectrum in Western Europe were the
auctions which took place in the four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden), the
Netherlands and Germany. Subsequent auctions in France, Italy and Spain confirmed the initial trends.
 Interest in, and valuation of, the 2.6 GHz band is expected to be higher in a few years from now, when
lower frequency bands become saturated. The 2.6 GHz band will provide capacity in large cities.
Figure: Price (eurocents) per MHz per pop. (for 10 years)
11.10
6.71
5.12
2.27
1.33
1.12
0.21
Denmark
2010
Source: IDATE
Finland
2010
0.23
0.07
France 2011 Germany Netherlands Spain 2011
2010
2010
Norway
2007
Sweden
2008
United
Kingdom
2013
Spectrum price
˃ Europe: valuation of the main FDD frequency bands
 Valuation is very high for sub-1 GHz frequency bands due to their propagation characteristics.
 The 2.1 GHz and the 1800 MHz bands are also valued at high levels due to their specific
characteristics:
-
The 1800 MHz band can be rapidly used for LTE
The 2.1 GHz band is the ‘historic’ 3G band and will become a LTE band in Asia-Pacific and later in Europe
Frequency band
Current use
Future use
Valuation
700 MHz
TV broadcast
LTE
+++
800 MHz
LTE
LTE
+++
900 MHz
GSM/UMTS
GSM/UMTS/LTE
+++
1.5 GHz (L-Band)
No use
LTE or HSPA supplemental downlink
- to +
1800 MHz
GSM
GSM/LTE
++
2.1 GHz
UMTS
UMTS/LTE
++
2.6 GHz
LTE
LTE
+
3.5 GHz
WiMAX
LTE
-
Source: IDATE
Backup slides
Lessons from the World
Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12)
˃ Main items on the Conference agenda
 Conditions associated with the use of the 790-862 MHz band in Europe and neighbouring countries
(principally in Africa, Russia and Ukraine).
 Introduction and development of mobile broadband (MBB) and other advanced technologies.
 Review and possible revision of the international regulatory framework for radiocommunications.
Cognitive radios, software-defined radios (SDR) or short-range devices are proving to be disruptive
technologies which can impose changes on the existing regulatory framework.
 Management of satellite orbits and associated spectrum resources.
 Scientific use of the spectrum.
˃ Main outcome
 A proposal from African and Middle Eastern countries
for a ‘Second Digital Dividend’ was presented at the
start of the conference.
 The proposed allocation of the 700 MHz band (694790
MHz)
to
International
Mobile
Telecommunications (IMT), possibly quite similar to the
first Digital Dividend in ITU Region 3 (Asia-Pacific
698-790 MHz), initially faced opposition from CEPT
countries.
 An agreement was finally reached: the conditions for
this new frequency band will be validated at WRC15, after technical studies.
Source: IDATE, October 2013
Status of white spaces (1/2)
 The
‘white
spaces’
concept
enables
of
telecommunication services in underused frequency
bands such as the VHF and UHF bands used for TV
transmission. It involves cognitive radio techniques
and enables opportunistic-sharing implementation
between a primary user (incumbent) and a
secondary one (new user). This approach cannot be
considered as an off-the-shelf solution as commercial
implementation is just starting on a limited basis in
the USA and in the United Kingdom.
 White spaces still at an early stage
-
Opportunity to use sparsely-occupied spectrum, attractive
spectrum
But protection necessary for TV broadcasting and wireless
microphones
 Draft ECC report outlines rules for white space
devices in Europe
 Business models
-
Figure: Principle of white spaces
Source: CEPT
Figure: Concept of white space database for geolocation
and spectrum-sensing
Middle-mile model
Last-mile model
According to Microsoft, white space spectrum could generate between
3.9 billion USD and 7.3 billion USD in value annually over 15 years.
˃ USA - How to prevent interference


The FCC technical conditions require that both fixed and
portable devices include geo-location and spectrumsensing applications which integrate with the FCC
database of venues such as stadiums and concert arenas
that use wireless microphones.
The database also holds TV signal propagation
information.
Source: Spectrum Bridge
Status of white spaces (2/2)
 Due to the decisions taken at RRC-06 and WRC-07 relating to the use of the UHF band for broadcasting,
the potential for white space spectrum availability is being gradually reduced. With digital broadcasting
replacing analogue broadcasting and the associated re-planning of the UHF band across Europe, less
white space spectrum is available now than previously under the analogue plan. The identification of the
790-862 MHz band to mobile broadband has further reduced the potential spectrum for white space use.
 We consider that white space technologies represent niche markets today and that they cannot be used
to provide mobile service on a commercial basis in the UHF band. The concept could be extended to other
frequency bands where sharing with incumbent users could be easier.
Source: Spectrum Bridge
Past and expected spectrum
prices
˃ Expected price for future auctions in developed markets
 Digital Dividend: 700 and 800 MHz spectrum has the highest valuation today
 1800 MHz: one of the most important bands for LTE
 3.5 GHz: will see its valuation climbing with the development of LTE small cells
Source: IDATE
Main LTE frequency bands:
FDD & TDD
 The FDD mode has been used since the
start of digital mobile networks and
is
largely
dominant
worldwide.
A more limited number of bands are defined
for TDD operations.
 Europe, Japan and the USA will share a
limited number of common bands (such
as around the IMT core bands) and regional
differences are likely to remain. This will
have a significant impact on LTE dongle and
handset manufacturers. They will have to
produce
products
covering
different
frequency bands for each market or produce
more expensive devices covering multiple
frequency bands.
 As LTE commercial services open up
around the world, more frequency bands are
in use. The growing fragmentation of the
LTE spectrum is complicating life for
chipset manufacturers and is a negative
factor in international roaming and for cost
levels and LTE devices.
 The main impact of this spectrum
fragmentation is on international roaming.
The selection of frequency bands in LTE
devices is likely to be shaped by national
constraints first. Regional harmonisation
could follow.
Source: IDATE, October 2013
LTE roaming
˃ Most popular LTE
international roaming
bands
for
 Many frequency bands will be necessary to
provide real international roaming.
˃ First LTE international
agreements
roaming
Source: IDATE, October 2013
 Most active players are South Korean and
Japanese operators.
 US operators should follow in 2014
 APAC: Bridge Alliance
Source: IDATE, October 2013
Source: Spectrum Alliance
The 700 MHz band:
compatibility issues
˃ The US plan is not compatible with the APT
band plan
Figure: 700 MHz band plan in the USA
 US auctions in 2008
 Part of the 700 MHz band is reserved for public
safety
 This plan is not compatible with the APT plan,
and does not allow any compatibility or roaming
for future LTE handsets.
˃ There is an overlap between the upper
part of the 700 MHz APT band and the
lower part of the European 800 MHz
plan
Source: PSRC
Figure: Overlap between 700 MHz APT band plan and 800 MHz band
 The 791-803 MHz portion would overlap between
the 700 MHz APT plan and the Digital Dividend in
Europe given a 3 MHz guard band in the upper
part of the APT plan.
Source: NTRA
The 700 MHz band: Asia-Pacific
 After postponing its auctions planned for
November 2012 to a later date, the Australian
Communications and Media Authority (ACMA)
organised them for the 700 MHz (digital dividend)
and 2.6 GHz bands auction in April/May 2013.
 Auctions took place in May 2013. Telstra bought 2
x 20 MHz and Optus 2 x 10 MHz of 700 MHz
spectrum. A 2 x 15 MHz block - one-third of the
total – was not sold, probably due to high reserve
prices. The third mobile operator in Australia,
Vodafone Hutchison, declared that it did not need
spectrum in the 700 MHz band to support its
mobile broadband traffic in the years ahead.
 Reserve price: 1.36 AUD/MHz/pop
Figure: 700 MHz band plan in Australia
Source: ACMA
New frequency bands (1/4)
˃ 450 MHz


The 450-470 MHz band is currently used in some Nordic and Eastern
European countries by CDMA 2000 networks. These networks are
likely to adopt LTE in the coming years. Brazil was the first country to
allocate LTE licences in the 450 MHz band in 2012.
No rapid development is expected elsewhere in Western Europe as
the spectrum is used by a number of private mobile radio networks.
˃ 700 MHz

Figure: 450 MHz spectrum in Brazil
Source: Anatel
Figure: L-Band: example of channel rasters
See the Digital Dividend section for more details.
˃ L-Band: 1452-1492 MHz




The broadcasting part of the so-called L-Band 1452-1492 MHz is
currently being studied by CEPT, given that digital radio in this band
has not taken off according to original plans.
At a multilateral CEPT meeting in Constanţa in 2007, a special
arrangement was made to facilitate the introduction of terrestrial
mobile multimedia services. It modifies the 2002 Maastricht
agreement on the use of the band 1452–1479.5 MHz for Terrestrial
Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB).
In early 2011, the ECC WG FM PT45 conducted a survey on the
generic inventory of candidate applications for the 1452-1492 MHz
band. CEPT Report 018 to the European Commission responded to
the Mandate on EU harmonisation of 1452–1479.5 MHz (lower
L-Band) to allow flexible use by mobile multimedia technologies.
Ericsson and Qualcomm (which bought the L-Band spectrum in the
UK) commissioned an assessment of the net benefits of using the
L-Band for a supplemental downlink (SDL) for the delivery of
enhanced mobile multimedia and broadband services.
Source: CEPT
New frequency bands (2/4)
˃ 2.3 GHz band
Figure: 2300 MHz band allocations globally
 The 2300 MHz band is already specified as a 3GPP
band for both TD-SCDMA and LTE-TDD since LTE
Release 8.
 In some countries – Sweden is a case in point – the
2300-2390 MHz band is considered as vacant,
whereas in France it is used by the defence sector. It
could be used for TD-LTE networks as there are
already TD-LTE networks planned or launched
around the world such as in Australia and India.
Source: Huawei
˃ USA
Figure: The 2.3 GHz band in the USA
 The Federal Communications Commission has
adopted an order which enables mobile in 25 MHz of
Wireless Communications Service (WCS) spectrum
without causing harmful interference to the Satellite
Digital Audio Radio Service (SDARS).
Source: FCC
New frequency bands (3/4)
˃ 3.4-3.8 GHz
 The 3400-3600 MHz band is currently allocated to
WiMAX operators in most European countries but
there is very limited deployment of these networks
and use across Europe. CEPT studied frequency
arrangements in TDD and FDD modes for the 34003600 MHz band and LTE is likely to be introduced in
most European countries in the long term.
 In February 2012, UK Broadband, a subsidiary of the
Hong Kong PCCW, switched on a TD-LTE network in
London, using spectrum in the 3.5 GHz and 3.6 GHz
bands where it owns 124 MHz of spectrum. This is
the first TD-LTE 3.5 GHz deployment in the world
and the first commercial 4G deployment in the UK. It
will operate a wholesale model, enabling partners to
offer commercial services to businesses, consumers
and the public sector from May 2012 onwards.
Figure: Harmonised frequency arrangements for the 3.4-3.8 GHz
bands
Source: ECC
 The 3.4-3.6 GHz range has been identified for IMT
in
ITU
Radio
Regulations
since
World
Radiocommunication Conference 2007. At its last
plenary meeting in December 2011, the ECC
adopted Decision ECC/ DEC/(11)06 on harmonised
frequency
arrangements
for
mobile/fixed
communications networks (MFCN) in the bands
3400 - 3600 MHz and 3600 - 3800 MHz.
 Based on CEPT Report 15, an EC Decision
2008/411/EC includes the specification of the least
restrictive technical conditions. This Decision is
binding for EU Member States and has to be
transposed in national regulatory frameworks.
 An earlier ECC Recommendation, ECC (04)05,
defined the ‘Block Edge Masks’ (BEM) which
restrict emissions in this band. The ECC decided to
develop harmonised frequency arrangements for
the high data rate mobile/fixed communications
networks (MFCN), including IMT, utilising large
channel bandwidths.
New frequency bands (4/4)
˃ Potential new frequency bands for the long term in Europe
 2 GHz TDD
-
The TDD bands in the 2 GHz band (1900-1920 and 2010-2025 MHz) are currently being studied by CEPT. These bands were
allocated in most European countries in the early 2000’s but are almost totally unused today.
Some mobile operators are pressing for paired spectrum in the 2 GHz band. One proposal is to pair the 1900–1920 MHz band
with 2010-2025 MHz or 2090–2110 MHz to extend mobile broadband services. The fact that licences have been granted in
almost all European countries with different dates and that the spectrum is used in a limited number of countries constitutes a
series of hurdles for regulators.
 2 GHz MSS
-
Almost no use by satellite stakeholders (1980-2010 and 2170-2200 MHz)
Possible re-allocation to terrestrial use
 2.7-2.9 GHz
-
This band is currently used by aeronautical radars. This frequency band could be identified during the WRC-15 conference for
IMT use (mobile broadband).
 3.8-4.2 GHz
-
Limited use is made of this frequency band in Europe by satellite systems. Parts of this band could be identified during the
WRC-15 conference for IMT use (mobile broadband).
 4.4-4.99 GHz
-
Little use is made of this frequency band in Europe by satellite systems. Parts of it could be identified during the WRC-15
conference for IMT use (mobile broadband).
Carrier aggregation
 The 3GPP standardisation group is working on
LTE-Advanced, as part of Release 10. LTEAdvanced will be both backwards- and forwardscompatible with LTE, meaning LTE devices will
operate in newer LTE-Advanced networks, and LTEAdvanced devices will operate in older LTE networks.
3GPP is studying the use of wider bandwidth support
for up to 100 MHz via aggregation of 20 MHz blocks.
This will enable very high data rates of more than
100 Mbps for mobility and 1 Gbps for nomadic use.
 It should be noted that carrier aggregation can only
be realised for the same duplexing method, thus
FDD with FDD and TDD with TDD.
Table: Frequency bands combinations for carrier aggregation
Figure: Example of carrier aggregation
Source: Huawei
Source: 3GPP

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