Aspergers & PDD

Report
Aspergers & PDD
Meeting The Challeges
In Faith Formation
Classes
Joanne Capuano Sgambati, Ph.D.,BCBA
Clinical/School Psychologist
The Genesis School for Autism
2012
[email protected]
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Autistic Spectrum Disorder
 Pervasive
Developmental Disorder
 Characterized by severe and pervasive
impairment in several areas of
development:
• Social interactions
• Communication skills
• Presence of stereotyped behavior,
interests, and activities.
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What is ASD?
1. Social Interaction
– Failure to develop peer relationships
– Impairment in use of non-verbal behaviors (e.g., gestures,
eye contact)
– Lack of seeking to share enjoyment
– Impaired make-believe play
2. Communication
– Delay or lack of spoken language
– If have language, deficient conversational skills
– Repetitive use of language
3. Restricted repetitive & stereotypic behavior
patterns
Routines / rituals
 Repetitive motor mannerisms

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Sensory Issues
• Touch, sight, hearing, smell, taste, body
awareness.
• May be tactile defensive
• May dislike loud noises, singing, sounds of
talking.
• May be awkward or clumsy when moving
about.
• May dislike crowds or lines.
• May want to touch, look, or smell odd things
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Auditory Processing Problems
• Distorted comprehension
• May need directions repeated or written
• Hypersensitive or painful hearing
• Child may shut down or exhibit flight or
fight response to certain sounds or certain
voices.
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Social-emotional Characteristics
• High anxiety around others
• Low frustration tolerance
• Excessive fears
• Limited social interactions
• Panic
• Anger or rage
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Behavioral Characteristics
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Short attention span
Impulsive
Distractible
Hyperactive
Obsessions and Compulsions
Inflexible
Meltdowns
Stereotypy and/or self stimulatory behavior
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Think about behaviors
• Is it an “I can’t” (skill deficit – child
needs to learn the skill)
• Is it an “I won’t” (child has the skill in
his/her repitor but motivation is needed)
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Skills
accepting
criticism
greetings
asking for
help
Offering help
compromising
Eye contact
staying on
topic
initiating
play
dealing with
anger
being flexible
modesty
proximity
dealing with
winning/losing
Sitting quietly
interrupting
sharing
starting a
conversation
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10 things every child with
Autism wishes you knew
• I am a child first
• My sensory
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perceptions are
distorted
Distinguish between
what I can’t do and
what I won’t do
I am a concrete
thinker
Be patient with my
limited vocabulary
• Language is difficult
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for me so I am
visually oriented
Focus and build on
what I can do
Help me with social
interactions
Identify what triggers
my meltdowns
Love me
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unconditionally
10 things every student with
Autism wishes you knew
• Behavior is
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communication
Never assume
anything
Look for sensory
issues first
Provide breaks before
I need one
Tell me what you
want me to do
• Have reasonable
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expectations
Help me transition
Don’t make a bad
situation worse
Criticize gently
Offer real choices
****Ellen Notbohm
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What parents want from their
Church
• A Church that accepts their child the way God
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created him/her.
A congregation that can tolerate their child’s
inappropriate behavior, if it occurs.
A congregation who welcomes and gives
support.
A place their child can learn about their religion
as best they can and be part of their religious
community.
Patience, patience, patience
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What our religion tells us
• All creation is “good” and in the likeness of
God.
• Love one another
• Welcome everyone
• Help the less fortunate
• Treat others as you wish to be treated
• Spread the Good News
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What “Inclusion” means - LRE
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Strategies for successful faith formation
in individuals with ASD
• Prepare students for
• Use handheld pictures
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transitions
Have a routine and
schedule
Use repetition
Use developementally
and ability appropriate
instruction
Use visual supports
(written or pictures)
Reduce
clutter/distractions
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and activity cards
Use learning centers
Use peer mentors
Start late and end early
to avoid crowded halls
Involve clergy,staff, and
parish leaders
Emphasize symbols and
rituals
Provide parent supports
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Strategies before very first class
• Welcome the children
• Meet with parents
• Learn all you can about your student
(strengths and weaknesses)
• Be well prepared (Know material, organize,
have supplies, etc). You want to minimize
down time and plan for smooth transitions.
• Provide structure - Have a routine, use
visuals, keep class short (less than 1 hour)
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Strategies During Class
• Create a positive environment
• Develop rapport
• Repetition in creative ways
• Multi-sensory lessons
• Use music/video/games
• Provide choices
• Connect material to interests
• Encourage peer interaction
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Think about your language
• Use concrete language
• Phrase comments in the positive
• Catch the “being good” and praise them
• Use behavior specific praise
• Give 5 affirmations for every 1 correction
• Offer a choice
• Don’t ask if its not a choice
• Name behavior you do want
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Attend to transitions
• Anticipate change (warnings and signals)
• Give advanced notice (2 more minutes)
• Transition signal (ring a bell)
• Follow a challenging transition with a
rewarding activity (snack or playground)
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Sensory ideas
• Be vigilant for possible sensory triggers
(crowds, lights, noise, temp, etc)
• Allow for “processing time”
• Wait before repeating yourself
• Allow child to have a “fidget”
• Create opportunities for movement
• allow breaks
• Think about enviornmental changes that
could help
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Schedules
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Arrival Times
Consistent Times
Sequencing and Length of Activities
Planned Clean-up/Transitioning Routine
Productive Learning Times Early
Explaining Changes
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For whom is a schedule useful?
• Children who have difficulties with
transitions
• Children who need predictability and
structure
• Children who need visual cues
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Sample schedule
• Opening prayer
• Circle time group
• God & Jesus stories
• Packet time - individual
• Group activity
• Video or music
• Closing prayer
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Environmental Considerations
• Where the child is seated in the classroom
• Instructional areas for individual and small
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group lessons
Classroom schedule
Individual student schedule (picture,
words etc..)
Material accessibility
Reduce distractions
Schedules of staff responsibility
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Organizational
• Schedule
• Transitions
• Staffing Patterns
• Classrooms Rules
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Transitions
• Routine
• Clearly Outlined
• Cues/Prompts
• Practice Wait Time
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Classroom Rules/Routines
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Few
Concise
Positive
Posted
Provide Consequences (+ & -)
Apply Consistently
Review Frequently
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Curriculum Adaptations
Ensuring an individually appropriate curriculum
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Does the child have the skills to successfully
complete the activity or task? Can the child
follow directions?
Provide material on a skill level that is
appropriate for the child
Reduce or change initial expectations, gradually
increasing expectations
Implement more frequent activity breaks
Provide positive and appropriate reinforcement
for appropriate behavior
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Curriculum Adaptations
• Provide distraction free areas for children who need
“quiet time”
• Vary teaching methods and activities
• Provide adult support when needed
• Develop materials so that the child can be
independent
• Get additional information or training if you are
unsure about how to address the challenging
behavior
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Roles & Responsibilities- for the
Teacher
• 1. Structured classroom with rules and
routines. Provide a distraction free room.
• 2. Motivational system in place for good
behavior (e.g., sticker charts, treasure
chest).
• 3. Good ongoing communication with staff
and parents (daily “report cards”).
• 4. Correction for inappropriate behavior
and behavior specific praise.
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Roles & Responsibilities- for the
Teacher
• 5. Willingness to work closely with others
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as a team. Possibly a 1:1.
6. Open to new ideas and feedback.
7. Has plan time so that meetings or
phone calls can occur.
8. Considers student a part of the
classroom and treat him/her as such.
Modify the curriculum as needed
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Teaching tips
• Parent interviews and questionnaire for info.
• IEP and BIP (ask for a copy)
• Meet and observe each child prior to class (classroom
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best place, then home, then office).
Behavior specific praise
Tell them what they should do not what they should not
do.
Talk to them - not about them or in front of them.
Learn and use familiar communication devices, token
boards, or PECS.
Modify work and tasks
Use visuals, dittos, social stories, songs, and crafts.
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Teaching tips continued…
• Structure, predictability, and routines.
• Clear and simple directions. Be concrete.
• Hands on activities, audio tapes, movies, computer, and
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videos of past ceremonies/Mass etc.
Use visual calendar and schedules.
Social Stories and digital photo books.
Video modeling
Communicate
Pre-teach, practice, key ring cards
Frequent breaks
“What are you working for?”
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Using Prompts
• Prompts are the “bridge” to learning.
• When done correctly they will assist the
child in responding correctly.
• Try to use minimal prompts and fade as
quickly as possible
• Verbal – Visual (picture, written, gesture,
or sign) – Physical (facilitated touch or
hand over hand guidance from behind)
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Social Stories
• Social stories are short stories that may incorporate
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pictures and rules of how to behave in different social
situations.
The wording is simple and positive and helps the child
know what to expect and what is expected of him or
her.
The child can help in creating the social story
The stories can be kept in a binder and taken home to
be read with parents.
The teacher and parent can rehearse the stories with the
child.
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I talk to God when I pray
When I pray, I can say…..
“I love you God.”
“Thank you God for ________.”
“You are great God!”
“God, I am sorry for _______.”
Or
“God please help_______.”
There are many ways to pray and talk to God! Try a new
way each day!
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We Celebrate Reconciliation
First we all gather in The Sienna Center.
We look and listen while the Priest tells us about God and how God loves us and forgives
our sins. We all sing a song together.
Each child goes up to the Priest to tell him that he or she is “Sorry” for any sins. A sin is
something that a person chooses to do, even if they know it is wrong.
When it is my turn, I will go up to the Priest too! I will sit with him and he will talk to me. We
can say “Hello” and make the sign of the cross together. I will listen to the Priest talk. Then
I will tell him my sins. I will say…..
“I am sorry that I _____________________ and I promise to try not to do it again.”
The priest will give me a penance (prayers to say). Then we will pray the Act of Contrition
together.
The Priest will say special words of absolution and that means that I am forgiven! I say
“Thank you” and go back to my seat with my class.
I did a good job and I am all forgiven!
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Reinforcement
• Anything that increases or maintains
the behavior.
• What is reinforcing to one child may not
be to another.
• Reinforcers need to be assessed,
regularly. Assess by watching the child,
asking the child, introducing a variety of
things to the child, or more formal
assessment tools.
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Categories of Reinforcement
• Verbal Statements/Praise
• Tangible Items
• Activities
• Social Contact
• Edible Items
• Advanced Motivational Systems
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Advanced Motivational Systems
• Token Boards
• Sophisticated token economies/menus
• Behavior contracts
• Self monitoring systems
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Token Board
Quiet Working
CARDS
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Sample Token Board
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Matt’s Self-Monitoring Form
5 min. 
5 min. 
down.
5 min. 
5 min. 
5 min. 
5 min. 
I will sit nicely.
I will keep my hands
I will not hit anyone.
If I follow my rules, I get:
_____________________
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Self Evaluation Form
1.I followed directions.
2. I answered questions.
3. I spoke nice to others.
Prayer
Story time
Ditto
Pack-up
Circle Yes or No
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
YES NO
Do I earn my trip to vending machine?
YES
NO
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Behavior Contract
I ___________, agree to my behavior contract.
“I must behave appropriately during religion class. This means I can
not throw things or make silly sounds. If I behave appropriately during
religion class, then I will get to play my Video games when I go
home.”
Child’s Signature____________________________
Adult’s Signature______________________
Date_____________
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Laura’s First Holy Communion
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Laura 18
Jacki 14
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