Teaching Powerpoint

Report
Close Reading
Ms Ness
General Tips
• Note the number of marks that the
question is worth.
– This gives you an indication of how much to
write and the depth required.
• Note the question code.
• Identify the question type.
Question Codes
• Understanding
• Analysis
• Evaluation
Understanding
• Designed to test whether you understood the
basic meaning of the passage.
• You will be asked to gather pieces of
information which you must put in your own
words.
• It should always be put in plain language.
• It is essential that you do not lift whole
phrases or sentences from the original, these
will not be awarded any marks.
• CONTEXT IS ALL!
Analysis
• Analysis
– Word choice
– Imagery
– Structure
Tone
• Word Choice
– Connotation
• The connotations of a word is the suggestive meaning of
the word. ASSOCIATIONS - use the context to drive
these associations.
– Denotation
• The denotation of a word is its literal meaning, basic and
plain meaning.
Figures of Speech
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Alliteration: A series of words that begin with the same sound..
Antithesis: The juxtaposition of opposing or contrasting ideas. (conceptual
opposition. e.g the two characters were antithetical)
Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds
Consonance: The repetition of consonant sounds.
Ellipsis: Omission of words
Parenthesis: Insertion of a clause or sentence in a place where it interrupts the
natural flow of the sentence thus providing additional information.
Pun: When a word or phrase is used in two different senses.
Sibilance: Repetition of letter ‘s’.
Allegory: Allegory is a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons,
and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the
narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or
political significance, and characters are often personifications of
abstract idea such as charity, greed, or envy.Thus an allegory is a story
with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning. ‘Animal Farm’.
Allusion: An indirect reference to another work of literature or art.
Anthropomorphism / Personification: Applying human qualities to inanimate
objects , animals or natural phenomena.
Figures of Speech
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Archaism: Using an obsolete, archaic word.
Hyperbole: Use of exaggerated terms for emphasis.
Irony: Use of a word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its
usual meaning.
Malapropism: Using a word through confusion with a word that sounds
similar.
Metaphor: A figure of speech wherein a comparison made between two
unlike qualities in which on thing is said to be something it literally
cannot be.
Onomatopoeia: Words that sound like their meaning.
Oxymoron: Using two terms together, that normally contradict each
other. (different from antithesis as it relates to lexical items word
level)
Pathetic fallacy: A literary device wherein something non-human found
in nature performs as though from human feeling or motivation.
Figures of Speech
• Rhetorical question: Asking a question not for the sake of
getting a response but for asserting something.
• Simile: An explicit comparison between two things using the
words ‘like’ or ‘as’.
• Litotes: Opposite of hyperbole. Deliberate understatement.
• Circumlocution: To state something in a long, roundabout way
rather than addressing the subject simply and directly.
• Euphemism: A way of making an unwelcome truth seem less harsh
or unpleasant.
• Neologism: Coining of a new word.
• Cliché: An expression which at one time might have been original
but has now become overused.
Literal & Figurative Language
• Literal: the words being used mean exactly
what they say.
• Figurative: the words being used do not mean
exactly what they say.
The physical objects are not exactly the real
subject of discussion but are brought in by
way of comparison.
Imagery
• There are six methods with which a
writer can create imagery:
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Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Symbolism
Metonymy
Synecdoche
Metonymy
• Metonymy replace one object with another which is
related to or associated with it in some way.
– E.g.
He was fond of the bottle.
» The thing inside it has been replaced by the thing.
The boy tickled the ivory.
» The object itself has been replaced by what it is made of.
– It works by association.
• Synecdoche
– The substitution of the part for the whole, or the whole for
the part.
– E.g.
a thousand head of cattle.
use your head to figure it out. (brain)
Imagery
• Simile
– An explicit comparison between two things.
• Metaphor
– A word or phrase is applied to an object or action that it
does not literally apply in order to imply a resemblance.
• Personification
– To give human characteristics to a thing or abstraction.
• Symbolism
– The representation of something by the use of symbols.
• Symbol
– Something that represents or stands for something else, usually an
object used to represent something abstract.
Types of Sentence
• A sentence is a group of words which contains a verb and makes
complete sense.
• 5 types of sentence
– A statement.
Most sentences are statements.
Not interesting. Does not require comment.
– A question.
Rhetorical question : Clarify or reinforce
– An exclamation.
Used to convey a tone of amazement, shock or strong emotion.
Types of Sentence
•
A Command
•
A minor sentence.
Used in instructions and in writing aiming to persuade.
Where the verb is omitted for dramatic effect.
Usually the verb ‘to be’
E.g. He looked down the road. Nothing coming.
Reasons for using minor sentences.
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Create impact, suspense, or urgency
Suggest informality
Abbreviations.
Forms of the verb ‘to be’
Basic verb
Present
tense
Past tense
Past
participle
be
Am
Was
been
Is
were
are
Paragraphing
• Short paragraphs are used to have an instant
impact, or to be particularly easy to
understand.
– Can also have an introductory function.
• A single sentence paragraph may throw
emphasis onto a statement or idea.
It may be used to slow action and create
suspense. Or
Clarify. Or
Reinforce.
Punctuation
1.
Inverted commas “ “
Four main purposes.
a) Indicate the title of something.
E.g. play, book etc.
b) For spoken words.
c) For quotations.
d) To mark off an individual word or phrase from the rest of
the sentence.
E.g. If a word from a foreign language is used.
If a word is used in a context that deviates
from its normal definition.
Punctuation
•
Lists or series
•
•
•
Commas do not make a list.
A number of items make a list, and the separation between these
items is signalled by a comma or semi-colon.
You need to provide specific comment about what is being listed,
if this highlights anything and what the effect of the listing is.
Colon :
• Four main purposes.
1. Introduce a quotation.
2. Introduce a list.
3. Introduce an explanation.
4. Introduce an expansion of the
previous statement.
Semi-colon ;
• Two main purposes.
– It often comes between two statements
which are closely connected, or which
balance or contrast one another.
– Used to separate a list of phrases.
A Single Dash • Three main purposes.
– Used to add an extra piece of information
very much as a colon does.
– Used to indicate a breaking off in a
sentence.
– A series of dashes might be used informally
to convey an outpouring of ideas or
emotions.
Two Dashes or Two Commas or
Two Brackets
• Mark off an extra, non-essential piece of
information in the middle of a sentence. A
technique known as parenthesis.
• The information is only grammatically nonessential.
• It does provide additional information.
• You need to identify the nature of the
information that is in parenthesis.
• CONTEXT IS ALL!
Use of ‘and’ at the beginning of
the sentence
• ‘And’ at the beginning of a sentence is always
used deliberately to isolate and give
prominence to an additional point the writer
wants to make.
• It ought grammatically to be part of the
previous sentence.
• In your answer there has to be an
identification of what is made prominent and
for what purpose.
• CONTEXT IS ALL!
Sentence Patterns
•
1.
Many sentences depend for their effect on the order in which their
component parts are placed.
Inversion.
Normal order.
The subject comes first followed by the words which tell us
more about the subject (the predicate).
‘Flames leapt up and up’
Occasionally, this order is reversed and this alters the emphasis of the
sentence.
‘Up and up leapt the flames.’
Tends to be used in shorter sentences.
Sentence Patterns
• Repetition or Anaphora
A writer may decide to repeat certain word
patterns to achieve a particular purpose.
E.g. ‘We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight
on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields
and the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We
shall never surrender.
Winston Churchill 1940
Effect:
Sentence Patterns
• Climax and Anti-climax
Climax: placing a number of items in
ascending order, with the most
important kept till last.
Anti-climax: When the author builds
up to something which in fact does not
come.
Sentence Patterns
• Antithesis.
Arranging ideas within a sentence
balancing opposites together to
create a contrast.
E.g. Those that I fight I do not hate.
Those that I guard I do not love.
The opposition is conceptual not lexical.
Varieties of Language
Formal
Informal
Usually written
Usually spoken or at least a
written version of conversational
colloquial expression
No abbreviations
Uses shortened forms
Grammatically correct
May use looser sentence
structures.
Wide range of word choice.
Including complex or technical
vocabulary
More common everyday words,
some perhaps being non-standard
English.
Impersonal tone - objective
Personal approach - subjective
Tends to be factual
May include feelings
Tone
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Tone of the narrative voice.
Relates to the way in which anything is said. It refers to a particular
attitude or feeling conveyed by the writer.
Tone is created through word choice, imagery and language.
Examples:
– Flippant: showing an irreverent attitude to something normally taken
seriously.
– Humorous: funny / entertaining.
– Conversational: chatty / friendly.
– Effusive: over the top, exaggerated.
– Irony: Is the name given to the figure of speech where an author says the
opposite of what they really mean. Tongue in cheek is a form of irony, the
writer sounds serious, but there will be a sense of ridicule.
– Satirical: An extreme form of irony. Holding a subject up to ridicule in order
to attack it.
Mood
• Character & setting.
1.
An identification of an appropriate mood.
2. Evidence from the text to support your choice.
3. A comment on how the mood is created.
• Analyse using the following three steps
1.
An identification of an appropriate mood.
2. Evidence from the text to support your choice.
3. A comment on how the mood is created.
• Word choice
• Imagery
• Language
Atmosphere
• Just as in tone you are looking for the ‘voice’
in which something is said.
• In atmosphere you are looking for some sort
of involvement of the senses.
1. Sight
2.Sound
3.Smell
4.Taste
5. Feel
• Sensory information
Tone, Mood & Atmosphere
• Atmosphere
Setting
Macro
Voice
Micro
• Mood
• Tone
Question Types
• Understanding
– Context
– Own words
– Link
• Analysis
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General analysis / language
Contrast
Word choice
Imagery
Structure / punctuation
Tone
Sound techniques
Question Types
• Evaluation
– General evaluation
– Effectiveness of a conclusion
– Questions on both passages
• Style
• Content
Understanding
• Context
– Define or give the meaning of the word or
phrase.
– Identify and quote the context clues
• 2 marks = 1 piece of evidence
• 3 marks = 2 pieces of evidence
– Explain how it helped you arrive at the
definition / meaning.
• CONTEXT IS ALL!
Understanding
• Own words
– Find the answer (underline).
– Put in own words (simplify).
– Number of marks indicates the number of
answers required.
• CONTEXT IS ALL!
Understanding
• Link
– Identify part of the sentence that links
back.
– Identify the topic that it links back to.
– Identify the part of the sentence that
links forward.
– Identify the topic that it links forward to.
– Some link question may only be looking for a
link back or forward (1/2 link).
Analysis
• General Analysis / Language
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Word choice
Imagery
Structure / punctuation
Tone
Analysis
• Word Choice
– Identify word.
– Give connotations.
– The number of marks gives an indication of
the number of words requiring analysis.
• CONTEXT IS ALL!
Analysis
• Contrast
– Contrasting items have a suggestion of ‘opposite’.
– Identify something positive and something
negative.
– Explain difference (use the context to do this).
• Why are these items contrasted, which feature is being
highlighted?
– Do not simply say one is positive and the other
negative.
– CONTEXT IS ALL!
Analysis
•
Imagery
1. Identify image.
2. Explain literal meaning / root.
•
•
What is the root of the image?
3. ‘A
is literally
4. In what way are the two similar
5. Explain connection to writer’s point.
Complex example
–
‘In fact, modern Westerners are like thirsty
people drinking from a muddy puddle on the banks
of a great river of clear water, as if they simply
had not noticed the river’s existence, or did not
know that they could drink from it. The river in
question is philosophy.’ 4 mark deconstruction
Analysis
•
Structure / Punctuation
– Punctuation
;
:
‘‘
,
?
!
,
(
semi-colon
colon
inverted commas
comma
question mark
exclamation mark
Dash
,
parenthesis
)
-
Minor
Question (rhetorical)
Exclamation
Command
- Sentence Types
- Repetition
- Long Sentences
- Short sentences
Analysis
• Tone
– Identify the tone
– Analyse:
Word choice
Structure / Punctuation
Imagery
Remember tone is connected to the purpose
of the piece.
E.g
purpose = entertain
tone = irony
Analysis
• Sound techniques
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Onomatopoeia
Alliteration
Assonance
Sibilance
• Identify the technique
• Identify the sound
• Explain the reason for utilisation
– E.g /s/ = evil
– Biblical source: snake = evil
• Context is all.
Evaluation
• General Evaluation
– Requires analysis of some or all of the
following areas:
•
•
•
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Word choice
Imagery
Structure / Punctuation
Tone
– ‘This is effective because …’
– Avoid criticism except in the case of
clichés.
Evaluation
• Effectiveness of a conclusion (sentence
or paragraph)
– Identify the function;
• To summarise
• Clarify writer’s stance
– Demonstrate an understanding of the
sentence or paragraph (summarise the main
points in your own words).
– ‘This is effective because…’
Evaluation
• Questions on both passages.
– Style
• Use the answers that you have already written to help support
your line of argument - analysis questions.
• To evaluate style you can analyse
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Word choice
Imagery
Provide specific
Structure / punctuation
examples
Tone
Arguments are supported by facts and data
» Dates
» Statistics
» Specific locations / names
Quote & explain how
this enhances
reliability
• You should also consider the purpose of the piece of writing.
• The conclusion should reinforce your choice of passage
preference and summarise the justification.
Evaluation
• Questions on both passages.
– Content
• Areas to consider
– The passage offers solutions, not just identifies problems.
– Which passage enhances your understanding.
– Presents 1 or both sides of an argument.
» Provide evidence of this through a summary of the main points.
– Arguments are supported by facts and data
» Dates
Quote & explain how
» Statistics
this enhances
» Specific locations / names
reliability
– Entertaining / humorous / uses anecdotes
– Consider the purpose of the writing.
– The conclusion should reiterate the passage preference and
summarise the justification.
– You must demonstrate a clear and concise understanding of both
passages. Summarise the main points and identify the writer’s
stance.
Putting it into Practice
2001 Close Reading
Muhammed Ali
In Your Own Words
• Question 5
Summarise the main reasons for "mainstream
America's rejection" of Muhammed Ali. You should
refer to lines 81 -104 in your answer and use your own
words as far as possible.
5U
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
(2A)
Marking Instructions
Beware of mechanical marking (five reasons = five
marks). A candidate who clearly understands the
main ideas and expresses them well should be
rewarded appropriately even if five separate points
are not made.
Mere listing of actions without explanation = 0. Some
comment needed.
Main reasons are:
i. He was black in an age of widespread racial
intolerance
ii. He changed his name thus denying his American
heritage
iii. He converted to Islam which many Americans
regarded with suspicion
iv. He stepped outside mainstream America's beliefs
and way of life
v. He refuse to fight in the Vietnam War.
vi. He was a figure who actively unsettled mainstream
America and opposed the established order
Candidate’s Response
He was rejected even though he
returned a winner because of the
racial hatred and discrimination
which existed at that time in
America. His decision to change
his name from Clay to Ali also
contributed to him not being
accepted, as did changing his
religion to the Muslim faith. His
refusal to fight in Vietnam was
unpatriotic and brought criticism
and a ban from boxing. A final
reason was that he was viewed as
being a distressing and distressed
figure who challenged traditional
views and ideologies.
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
Marking Instructions
Beware of mechanical marking (five reasons = five
marks). A candidate who clearly understands the
main ideas and expresses them well should be rewarded
appropriately even if five separate points are not made.
Mere listing of actions without explanation = 0. Some
comment needed.
Main reasons are:
i. He was black in an age of widespread racial
intolerance
ii. He changed his name thus denying his American
heritage
iii. He converted to Islam which many Americans
regarded with suspicion
iv. He stepped outside mainstream America's beliefs
and way of life
v. He refuse to fight in the Vietnam War.
vi. He was a figure who actively unsettled mainstream
America and opposed the established order
(2B)
Candidate’s Response
Mainstream America rejected Ali
because of their racist culture
which did not like seeing blacks
succeed. He was also rejected
when he replace Cassius Clay (a
name that was acceptable to
mainstream Americans) withan
Islamic name, Muhammed Ali. His
practice of Islam also alienated
him from the mainstream.
Middleclass America also
regarded his refusal to fight in
Vietnam as unpatriotic and
regarded him as a maverickfigure
who was outspoken in his rejection
of American values.
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate A: 3 marks awarded
He was rejected even though he returned a winner because of the
racial hatred and discrimination which existed\at that time in
America (point (i), 1 mark) His decision to change his name from
Clay to Ali also contributed to\him not being accepted (point (ii)
but no explanation, 0 marks) as did changing his religion to the
Muslim faith (point (iii) but no explanation, 0 marks). His refusal to
fight in Vietnam was unpatriotic and brought criticism and a ban
from boxing (point (v), 1 mark) A final reason was that he was
viewed as being a
distressing and distressed figure who challenged traditional views
and ideologies. (point (vi), 1 mark)
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Candidate B: 5 marks awarded
Mainstream America rejected Ali because of their racist culture which did not
like seeing blacks succeed(point (i), 1 mark) He was also rejected when he
replace Cassius Clay (a name that was acceptable to
mainstream Americans) with an Islamic name, Muhammed Ali. (point (ii), 1 mark).
His practice of Islam also alienated him from the mainstream (point (iii), 1 mark).
Middle class America also regarded his
refusal to fight in Vietnam as unpatriotic (point (iv), 1 mark) and regarded him as
a maverick figure who was outspoken in his rejection of American values. (point
(vi), 1 mark) However, the overall grasp of
the material is so clear, and clearly expressed, that even if one of the items had
been missing, the candidate would still have gained 5 marks.
Word Choice
• Question 6
By referring to lines 25 – 44, show how
the writer uses word choice to convey
the intensity of his feelings about
Muhammed Ali.
4A
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
Marking Instructions
Marks will depend on the quality
of comment about the
connotations of individual words
and phrases,and may be awarded
2+2, 1+3 or (possibly) 1+1+1+1.
Mere definition/glossing of
words can gain no more than half
marks. Reference alone 0.
The possibilities are numerous.
The most likely are
inspiration/shivered/electric
shock/pulverised/glorious/trans
cendentally.../holy spirit/the
touch/glory...
(6A)
Candidate’s Response
The writer uses
"inspiration" and
"glorious" to describe
Muhammed Ali to show
that he is very fond of
him and that he looks up
to Muhammed. "holy
spirit" suggest Ali is like
a god to him. "great Ali"
shows how much he
thinks of him and that
Ali is an amazing boxer.
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
Marking Instructions
Marks will depend on the quality
of comment about the
connotations of individual words
and phrases,and may be awarded
2+2, 1+3 or (possibly) 1+1+1+1.
Mere definition/glossing of
words can gain no more than half
marks. Reference alone 0.
The possibilities are numerous.
The most likely are
inspiration/shivered/electric
shock/pulverised/glorious/trans
cendentally.../holy spirit/the
touch/glory...
(6B)
Candidate’s Response
The use of image and word choice of his body
shivering as if he had an "electric shock" shows
the intensity as electricity is powerful and an
electric shock flows right through your body just
like his feelings. The use of "holy" shows the
intensity as he thought that Ali was "holy"
Religion is an incredibly strong belief and is hard
to let go of and by describing Ali as "holy" he is
showing the intensity of his feelings about
Muhammed Ali. The use of "touch and glory"
shows the intensity as it shows how Ali affected
him by one touch and therefore the feelings
must have been incredibly intense to affect him.
The use of "glory" shows the immensity of
thefeelings as it is the best feeling one person
can give to another and Ali was able to.
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate A: 1 1/2 marks awarded
The writer uses "inspiration" and "glorious" to describe
Muhammed Ali to show that he is very fond of him and that he
looks up to Muhammed. (combination of "inspiration" and "looks
up to" is quite weak but worth half a mark) "holy spirit" suggest
Ali is like a god to him. (slightly stronger comment - 1 mark)
"great Ali" shows how much he thinks of him and that Ali is an
amazing boxer. (very weak comment - 0)
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate B: 4 marks awarded
The use of image and word choice of his body shivering as if he had an "electric shock"
shows the intensity as electricity is powerful and an electric shock flows right through your
body just like his feelings. (connotations of "electric shock" dealt with reasonably well - 2
marks) The use of "holy" shows the intensity as he thought that Ali was "holy" Religion is an
incredibly strong belief and is hard to let go of and by describing Ali as "holy" he is showing
the intensity of his feelings about Muhammed Ali. (repetitive but gives good comment on
connotations of "holy" - 2) The use of "touch and glory" shows the intensity as it shows how
Ali affected him by one touch and therefore the feelings must have been incredibly intense
to affect him. (little of value here – 0) The use of "glory" shows the immensity of the
feelings as it is the best feeling one person can give to another and Ali was able to. (possibly
trying to gloss "glory" - could gain half a mark, but already the maximum of 4 marks has been
achieved.)
Imagery
• Question 4b
Show how effective you find the
writer's use of imagery to convey his
feelings about what happened to Ali's
money. In your answer you should
analyse two examples.
4A/E
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
(5A)
Marking Instructions
Candidate’s Response
For full marks, there must be awareness
that Ali is perceived as a victim.
Reference alone / mere identification of
image: 0 marks
i) "haemorrhaged" (line 61) speed of
flow/seriousness of consequences
ii) "retinue" (line 62) suggestion of Ali as
king and followers living off him...
iii) "leeches" (line 65) slimy nature of
hangers on, slow effect of their actions,
seriousness of
consequences for Ali...
iv) "plundered" (line 66) rapacity of
followers conduct, suggestion of large
amounts
involved...
v) "amassing" (line 67) hoarding instinct
of followers, large amounts, length of
time...
The imagery of "the money
haemorrhaged" shows the suddenness of
the complete stop of money like a brain
haemorrhage when the blood can no
longer flow and is a sudden and major
thing (life-threatening). The use of
this image shows the complete and sudden
stop in Ali's income and is very effective
in this. Secondly the description of the
people he knew and were poor as
"leeches" is a good image as it shows how
they took all of his
money like leeches who do not let go until
they had enough blood. "leeches" is
effective as they sucked him dry leaving
him in a state of poverty. This image of
Ali's poor friends is effective as it shows
the immensity of what
they did.
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
Marking Instructions
For full marks, there must be awareness
that Ali is perceived as a victim.
Reference alone / mere identification of
image: 0 marks
i) "haemorrhaged" (line 61) speed of
flow/seriousness of consequences
ii) "retinue" (line 62) suggestion of Ali as
king and followers living off him...
iii) "leeches" (line 65) slimy nature of
hangers on, slow effect of their actions,
seriousness of
consequences for Ali...
iv) "plundered" (line 66) rapacity of
followers conduct, suggestion of large
amounts
involved...
v) "amassing" (line 67) hoarding instinct
of followers, large amounts, length of
time...
(5B)
Candidate’s Response
"Haemorrhaged" is used well here.
The imagery relates to the sport
that Ali plays and boxing can be a
“bloody" sport. The word
"haemorrhaged" also allows you to
understand how much money he lost
as when you haemorrhage you
normally lose a lot of blood.
"outright leeches" This imagery
allows you to see exactly w hat Ali's
"friends" were like they just used
him for money.
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate A: 3 marks awarded
The imagery of "the money haemorrhaged" shows the suddenness of the
complete stop of money like a brain haemorrhage when the blood can no longer
flow and is a sudden and major thing (life-threatening). The use of
this image shows the complete and sudden stop in Ali's income and is very
effective in this. (because the meaning of "haemorrhaged" is misunderstood
there is not a lot to credit except the idea of "life threatening"- half a mark)
Secondly the description of the people he knew and were poor as "leeches" is a
good image as it shows how they took all of his money like leeches who do not let
go until they had enough blood. "leeches" is effective as they sucked him dry
leaving him in a state of poverty. This image of Ali's poor friends is
effective as it shows the immensity of what they did. (a quite full deconstruction
of the image - 2 and a half marks.)
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate B: 2 marks awarded
"Haemorrhaged" is used well here. The imagery relates to the sport
that Ali plays and boxing can be a "bloody" sport. The word
"haemorrhaged" also allows you to understand how much money he lost
as when you haemorrhage you normally lose a lot of blood.
(understanding of meaning but a fumbling sort of
comment - 1 and a half marks) "outright leeches" This imagery allows
you to see exactly w hat Ali's "friends" were like they just used him for
money. (half for some idea of his being a victim - generous)
Sentence Structure
• Question 2b
Show how the writer uses sentence
structure in lines 21 - 35 to dramatise
his view about destiny and Muhammed
Ali.
4A
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
(4A)
Marking Instructions
Candidate’s Response
Possible features of sentence structure
include:
i) conjecture/ answer structure of lines 21 23
ii) the comparatively long conjecture "I have
often.." followed by the very short answer.
iii) the short "Probably not" alone
iv) the list of adjectives to describe
America in 1960 (lines 23 - 24)
v) the pivotal position and/or shortness of
"Destiny determined otherwise" (line 27)
vi) the shortness/and/or balance provided
by "A legend...making" (lines 27 - 28)
vii) the list of attributes describing Ali s
personality (lines 29 - 30)
viii) the contrasting list of events which
describe his life (lines 31 - 35)
ix) the parenthetical "eventually" (line 34)
x) the overall variety
xi) contrast between short and long
sentences.
The use of the short sentence in "probably
not" shows clearly that the author is
dramatising his view as it brings emphasis to
the fact that Muhammed Ali would not have
been famous if he had not got on the plane.
The long complex sentences starting "In 1960"
dramatises the author's view as it is listing
the issues that Ali had to come up against. By
the use of this long complex sentence it also
gives a rambling nature and emphasises the
magnitude of which Muhammed Ali had to
overcome. The short sentence in "A legend
was in the making" draws our attention to what
is being said and is a good introduction to the
next long complex sentence. The long sentence
beginning with "What overwhelms" dramatises
the view as again by the lists and the length it
shows the huge volume of things Ali had to
overcome.
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
(4B)
Marking Instructions
Candidate’s Response
Possible features of sentence structure include:
i) conjecture/ answer structure of lines 21 - 23
ii) the comparatively long conjecture "I have often.."
followed by the very short answer.
iii) the short "Probably not" alone
iv) the list of adjectives to describe America in 1960
(lines 23 - 24)
v) the pivotal position and/or shortness of "Destiny
determined otherwise" (line 27)
vi) the shortness/and/or balance provided by "A
legend...making" (lines 27 - 28)
vii) the list of attributes describing Ali s personality
(lines 29 - 30)
viii) the contrasting list of events which describe his
life (lines 31 - 35)
ix) the parenthetical "eventually" (line 34)
x) the overall variety
xi) contrast between short and long sentences.
Sentence structure dramatises the writer's
view about destiny and Muhammed Ali. By having
a long
sentence followed by a short one "probably not".
This short sentence shows his view on destiny
as he is saying if Ali didn't go on the plane to
Italy would he have become so famous. When he
is talking about Ali getting a breakthrough the
sentence is split up into commas this creates a
climax of what it was like for black men in
America.
When talking about Muhammed Ali again the
sentence is split up into commas this time it is
creating a list
about what Ali has been through in life creating
a climax as well. This paragraph starts with a
short
sentence "destiny determined otherwise" This
also creates a climax.
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate A: 4 marks awarded
The use of the short sentence in "probably not" shows clearly that the author is
dramatising his view as it brings emphasis to the fact that Muhammed Ali would
not have been famous if he had not got on the plane. (weak comment - 0) The
long complex sentences starting "In 1960" dramatises the author's view as it is
listing the issues that Ali had to come up against. By the use of this long complex
sentence it also gives a rambling nature and emphasises the magnitude of which
Muhammed Ali had to overcome. ( identification of listing, length and complexity
coupled with "the magnitude" shows understanding of the structure - 2) The
short sentence in "A legend was in the making" draws our attention to what is
being said and is a good introduction to
the next long complex sentence. (identification but no valid comment - 0) The
long sentence beginning with "What overwhelms" dramatises the view as again by
the lists and the length it shows the huge volume of things Ali had to overcome.
(same kind of comment as above - 2)
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate B: 1 1/2 marks awarded
Sentence structure dramatises the writer's view about destiny and
Muhammed Ali. By having a long sentence followed by a short one "probably
not“ (identification but no comment - 0) This short sentence shows his view
on destiny as he is saying if Ali didn't go on the plane to Italy would he have
become so famous. (mere paraphrase - 0) When he is talking about Ali
getting a breakthrough the sentence is split up into commas this creates a
climax of what it was like for black men in America. (a glimmering of
understanding shown in concept of climax - half a mark) When talking about
Muhammed Ali again the sentence is split up into commas this time it is
creating a listabout what Ali has been through in life creating a climax as
well. (climax, taken along with "what he has been through in life as well" is a
little stronger than the previous comment - 1) This paragraph starts with a
short sentence "destiny determined otherwise" This also creates a climax.
(third time unlucky - thereis no valid comment here - 0)
Tone
• Question 11 b
"This was marginally inconvenient...boxing gold." (lines 16 - 18)
What tone is adopted by the writer in this sentence? Go on to
explain briefly how effective you find this tone in the context.
2 A/E
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
Marking Instructions
Ironic, tongue-in-cheek, sarcastic, dry,
humorous...(1)
Acceptable explanation of
effectiveness/ineffectiveness (1)
Such explanations include:
i) effective as it points up the
humour/farcical nature of the situation
ii) effective as it points up how human the
young "hero" actually was
iii) effective as it points up how much
emotion America had invested in him
iv) ineffective/effective as it belittles a
potentially serious situation
The above list is not exhaustive.
Candidates will offer other explanations
whose acceptability will have
to be judged by the marker.
(3A)
Candidate’s Response
The tone is humorous
and it is effective as it
stresses the
"inconvenience" of
having this fear. The
humour is in"marginally"
as this is a huge
understatement and it
emphasises how
disruptive this fear
would be to his career.
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
(3B)
Marking Instructions
Candidate’s Response
Ironic, tongue-in-cheek, sarcastic, dry,
humorous...(1)
Acceptable explanation of
effectiveness/ineffectiveness (1)
Such explanations include:
i) effective as it points up the
ii) effective as it points up how human the
young "hero" actually was
iii) effective as it points up how much
emotion America had invested in him
iv) ineffective/effective as it belittles a
potentially serious situation
The above list is not exhaustive.
Candidates will offer other explanations
whose acceptability will have
to be judged by the marker.
This is a serious angry tone .
The content is effective at
creating this tone because
the author goes on to say
Cassius was so popular
worldwide he needed to go
back on a plane and it took a
long while to persuade him to
do so.
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate A: 2 marks awarded
The tone is humorous (1) and it is effective as it stresses the
"inconvenience" of having this fear. The humour is in"marginally" as
this is a huge understatement and it emphasises how disruptive this
fear would be to his career.
(very good answer)
Candidate B: 0 marks awarded
This is a serious angry tone (0). The content is effective at
creating this tone because the author goes on to sayCassius was so
popular worldwide he needed to go back on a plane and it took a long
while to persuade him to do so (0)
Question on Both Passages
• Question 11b
Which writer's style do you prefer?
Justify your view by referring to both
passages and to such features as structure,
anecdote, symbolism, imagery, word choice...
5 A/E
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
Marking Instructions
Mark on merit. For full
marks to be possible,
reference must be made
to both passages but not
necessarily in equal
measure. Reward fully
any answer which
presents a clear line of
argument and illustrates
this by closely analysing
examples of selected
features. Candidates
may make use of
material from previous
questions. Candidates
may refer to features
not listed in the
question. Generalised
answers will gain little
credit.
(7A)
Candidate’s Response
I prefer the writer's style in passage two as he relates his feelings
about Muhammed Ali to an important experience in his life. The "bat"
symbolises a part of the boy's childhood which ended when he found Ali.
When he had his bat it was the most important thing in his life, nothing
could stop it and it filled him with pride. However when it broke the bat
was replace with something more important and was carried into his
future.
This use of the anecdote and the symbolism show that the child is
beginning to grow up and subtly introduces Muhammed Ali's influence on
the boy. The imagery of Ali as a "grand knight" is good and effective as
it shows the strength of Ali's character through the eyes of a child and
the impact it has had on the child as a make believe character has been
brought to life by Ali. The style is also more personal and therefore
there is more feeling in the discussion about Ali which thus brings
through Muhammed Ali's, greatness. The word choice also helps in the
writer's style as certain words have more effect on the passage as a
whole including"holy" and "shivered" All in all the second passage is more
effective in the discussion of Muhammed Ali, the greatest boxer and
man of all time.
Marking Instructions & Candidate Response
(7B)
Marking Instructions Candidate’s Response
Mark on merit. For full
marks to be possible,
reference must be made to
both passages but not
necessarily in equal
measure. Reward fully any
answer which presents a
clear line of argument and
illustrates this by closely
analysing examples of
selected features.
Candidates may make use of
material from previous
questions. Candidates may
refer to features not listed
in the question. Generalised
answers will gain little
credit.
I prefer the second writer. I feel I can relate to this more
as he was just a little boy. Images of his home-life
"neighbourhood" give a very real and raw setting which I
feel I can relate to. Factual information such as
references to dates "1967" gives all the important
information. Imagery such as the way the boy felt when he
had the bat "golden prince" are images the reader can
relate to as a child. Ali is also shown as a symbol for a
better life. At the writer's time of life we see how he was
affected by the change due to Ali, it makes everything
seem more clear and real to the reader. Word choice used
by the writer such as "Black possibilities“ is words which
we would not use now but it shows the harsh reality it was
to be black. This writer's style shows all the real raw
emotions "cried"felt by the blacks at that period of time
and shows the reader the effects and the harsh nature it
had on them.
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate A: 4 marks awarded
I prefer the writer's style in passage two as he relates his feelings about
Muhammed Ali to an important experience in his life. The "bat" symbolises a part of
the boy's childhood which ended when he found Ali. When he had his bat it was the
most important thing in his life, nothing could stop it and it filled him with pride.
However when it broke the bat was replace with something more important and was
carried into his future. This use of the anecdote and the symbolism show that the
child is beginning to grow up and subtly introduces Muhammed Ali's influence on the
boy. The imagery of Ali as a "grand knight" is good and effective as it shows the
strength of Ali's character through the eyes of a child and the impact it has had on
the child as a make believe character has been brought to life by Ali. The style is
also more personal and therefore there is more feeling in the discussion about Ali
which thus brings through Muhammed Ali's, greatness. The word choice also helps
in the writer's style as certain words have more effect on the passage as a whole
including "holy" and "shivered" All in all the second passage is more effective in the
discussion of Muhammed Ali, the greatest boxer and man of all time. (Good
comments on symbolism and anecdote; sensible - eventually - on imagery; weaker on
word choice - no analysis. Enough easily to gain 5 marks but
only 4 can be awarded because only one passage has been dealt with.)
Senior Examiner’s Marks
Mark given by Marking Team and Comments
Candidate B: 2 marks awarded
I prefer the second writer. I feel I can relate to this more as he was just a little
boy. Images of his home life "neighbourhood" give a very real and raw setting which I
feel I can relate to. Factual information such as references to dates "1967" gives all
the important information. Imagery such as the way the boy felt when he had the bat
"golden prince" are images the reader can relate to as a child. Ali is also shown as a
symbol for a better life. At the writer's time of life we see how he was affected by
the change due to Ali, it makes everything seem more clear and real to the reader.
Word choice used by the writer such as "Black possibilities“ is words which we would
not use now but it shows the harsh reality it was to be black. This writer's style
shows all the real raw emotions "cried" felt by the blacks at that period of time and
shows the reader the effects and the harsh nature it had on them. (generalised
answer making a few points attached loosely to selected references - just scraping
to 2 marks)

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