Fascist Movements - The Evergreen State College

Closer in time, Closer to home
Dr. Zoltán Grossman
Member of the Faculty
(Geography/Native American Studies)
The Evergreen State College
Olympia, Washington
Marquette Park
neighborhood, Chicago
What fascists are not
Not upholding economic status quo
Not simply authoritarian conservatives
Not simply fundamentalist Christians
Not simply angry “rednecks”
What fascists are
Right-wing revolutionaries against status quo
(liberal or conservative)
Extreme nationalism and/or racism
Law & Order = Absolute rule of core ethnic/racial group
See similar problems as Left, but not class analysis:
explain world through nation/race, conspiracy theories
party for
What fascists are
"The role of racism and the role of anti-Semitism and
of scapegoating in general is quite different for a
fascist movement from that of a right-wing
conservative movement or a traditional Klan-type
movement. That is, it is not to put people in their
place. It is not to make a sub-class out of them and
to exploit, or super-exploit, their labor. It is
genocidal. It is exterminationist.” --Ken Lawrence
Blood and Soil
Each race/ethnic nation has its place
- Need to stay in ancestral homeland (separatism)
- Racial mixing as violating nature (Turner Diaries)
Jews (and Gypsies) historically
depicted as “rootless.”
-Cosmopolitan or separated from land
-African Diaspora also depicted as rootless
Jews direct
“global conspiracy”
Blueprint for US
revolution by
National Alliance
leader Wm. Pierce
- Smart/crafty
- Manipulate others
Ataka (Bulgaria):
“I don’t want to live in
a Gypsy country,” 2011
Ethnic/Racial Consciousness
over Class Consciousness
Fascists as economic populists; depicted
as champions of majority ethnic group’s
working class (Mussolini ex-socialist, NSDAP)
Reality quite different: suppress strikes,
advocate labor and capital as partners
to build the nation (Fasces as symbol)
Fasces: Roman symbol of
strength through unity
Corporate backing for Fascists/Nazis
(Militarism as superprofitable:
Expansion benefits both German farmer
settlers (lebensraum) and rich industrialists.
Law & Order is good for business.
Hitler greets
Krupp von
Scapegoating as
Social Control of Majority
Fascism flourishes in economic crisis:
Scapegoating minority as source of
problem, not majority elite.
Rulers need to identify enemies
both below and above the majority.
Jobbik/Magyar Gárda march through
Hungarian Roma community
Win over “Middle” by diverting animosity
toward poor, also by emphasizing threat
from above, to detract attention from ruling
institutions. (Warren, The Radical Center)
Majority citizens portrayed as underdogs,
or victims of elite-underclass conspiracy
Hungary: Jews & EU above, Roma below;
U.S.: Coastal elites above, immigrants below
Minutemen on Arizona border
Manipulating paganism, youth counterculture
Early Nazis used Pre-Christian pagan warrior ethos
Later tried to secure loyalty of Christian churches
Celebrate rural homeland as symbol of organic purity;
City as degraded, cosmopolitan, distant from nature
Hiking societies, chorale groups, youth health groups
Hitler “was a vegetarian and loved dogs”
German Left held rallies and speeches, failed to articulate vision
(Wandering Birds)
proto-hippies later
joined Hitler Youth,
SA Brownshirts
Nationalist Rock
Exploiting anti-elite/
anti-government sentiment
Fascists can oppose:
Corporate globalization,
Outsourcing of jobs overseas,
Environmental pollution,
Demise of family farms,
Consumerist culture,
LaRouche cult against VP Cheney
Iraq and Afghan wars,
CIA drug running,
Foreign arms sales,
Free trade (EU, NAFTA, WTO),
but for opposite reasons than the left.
They exploit and manipulate legitimate
issues for their own nefarious ends. In
competition with the left for followers.
Public face of French National Front
Differences among fascists
Axis or “Fascist International” is difficult;
Competing national priorities (or territories)
Differences over primary enemy
(Japanese fascists sheltered Jews in Shanghai)
Differences over central role of
traditional institutions
Hungary annexes
southern Slovakia, 1938
(Church central in Clerical Fascism)
Fascism about ethnicity; Nazism about race.
Mussolini (Italy), Horthy (Hungary),
Franco (Spain) were Fascists but not Nazis.
“The Result: Racial Pride Disappears”
U.S. Fascist Sympathizers, 1920s-30s
Many Western conservatives saw communism as the main enemy (e.g., in Spain)
Charles Lindbergh
with Hermann Göring
Father Charles Coughlin
addresses rally, radio
William D. Pelley of
Silver Shirts
Henry Ford’s The International Jew:
The World’s Foremost Problem
Henry Luce,
Time publisher
Modern Fascist Leaders
Jean-Marie Le Pen (France), 2nd for French presidency, 2002
Jörg Haider (Austria), party in government, 2000-04
Gábor Vona (Hungary), Jobbik party won 17% of vote, 2010
David Duke, Lyndon LaRouche, etc. (U.S.)
Popularize racist policies (e.g., anti-immigrant) that are
then taken up by conservative politicians to win votes.
Klan/Nazi leader
David Duke won
majority of white vote
in Louisiana
governors’ race, 1991
Searchlight (UK) on European fascism
Center for New Community
Turn it Down: Campaign Against White Power Music
Novel warns of
fascism, 1935
Political Research Associates
Hate symbols
Jobbik gains
17% of vote,
46 seats in
Militia followers
bomb Oklahoma
City, 1995
recruiting in
Tea Party
(NAACP report,

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