African Space Policy (cont.)

Report
SPACE FOR PEACE: USING SPACE-RELATED
SCIENCE TO RESOLVE AFRICA'S CONFLICTS
AND ACHIEVE POST-CONFLICT
RECONSTRUCTION
5th African Leadership Conference on Space Science and Technology for
Sustainable Development (ALC), Accra, Ghana, 3-5 December 2013.
Dr Jo-Ansie van Wyk
Member: South African Council for Space Affairs (SACSA)
Lecturer: Department of Political Sciences, University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria
[email protected]
JKvW/SANWC/MMXIII
Objectives & approach
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Applications
Applicators
Use of imagery of selected cases: Libya,
Sudan, Central African Republic (CAR)
Implications
African Union, continental space policy,
strategy and agency
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Security & peace
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Achieved, inter alia, by use of space
technology for border protection etc.
Libya & Italian cooperation on satellite
surveillance system for border protection
(Nov 2013)
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Utility of space technology
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Diplomatic and political (e.g. border disputes)
Humanitarian intervention (e.g. abuses & refugees)
Achieving human security & state reconstruction
Early warning: environmental crises (e.g. floods,
fires)
Forensic analysis (e.g. mass graves)
State/national security (e.g. anti-government
militias etc.)
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Users
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Governments
Intergovernmental organisations (UN)
Non-state actors (non-governmental
organisations, NGOs)
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Intergovernmental organisations
UN Institute for Training and Research /
Operational Satellite Applications
Programme (UNITAR / UNOSAT)
• specialises in satellite imagery analysis to
improve responses in respect of
humanitarian crises, human insecurity, and
strategic territorial & development planning
• UN High Commissioner for Human Rights
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Libya
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (Feb 2012
report)
Removal of Gaddafi (since 1967)
Actions by Gaddafi, opposition & NATO
Destruction
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Infrastructure (bridges, water treatment areas)
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Military compounds
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Buildings (factories, hospitals, houses & mosques)
Military activities
Casualties (body bags)
Capture of Gaddafi
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NATO airstrikes
Gaddafi compound
Military based next to
compound
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NATO
Destruction of government
communication centre in Tripoli
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Tawergha (Libya)
Town supported Gaddafi
Revenge crimes (despite amnesty) continue
• Forced displacement of 40 000 people
• 1690 damaged and destroyed infrastructure
after cessation of hostilities
• > 90% caused by fire (arson) to prevent
residents from returning
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Role of non-state actors
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Civil society: Non-governmental
organisations (NGOs), humanitarian
organisations, universities
Aimed against governments that act against
their own population, or against the
population of another country
Also tracking environmental degradation
that affect livelihoods
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Sudan & South Sudan
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Three decades of civil war
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005)
South Sudan independence (2011)
Darfur etc.
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Satellite Sentinel Project (SSP)
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George Clooney & Harvard University
Since 2010 DigitalGlobe Satellites monitor
Sudan
Images analysed and notifying policy
makers, news agencies and international
organisations
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SSP (cont.)
Detected warning signs such as:
• Troop build-ups & movements
• Construction of landing strips
• Destruction of infrastructure such as bridges
• Bombardments
• Refugee movements
• Violations of demilitarised zone
• Scorched earth policies
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Troop movements
Sudan Defence Force troop movements in
offense against Sudanese Revolutionary
Front (September and October 2013)
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Attacks against civilians
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15 May 2013
South Kordofan (oil-rich and borders on
South Sudan) continues to bear brunt of
recent escalation in hostilities between the
rebel Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) and
Darfurian Justice and Equality Movement
(JEM), and the government Sudan Armed
Forces (SAF)
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Resources, plunder &
displacement
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December 2012
Pro-government militias gained control over
lucrative gold mines in North Darfur; a continuation
of state-sponsored atrocity and plunder
Influx of thousands of artisanal miners into Jebel
'Amer, North Darfur (Feb 2012 - Jan 2013); major
displacement since
Dec 2012: Sudan's minerals ministry declared 4000
new gold mines (yielded US$2.2 billion) operate in
Jebel Amir area.
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Military build-up
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March 2013
Arrival of 10 newly-arrived main battle
tanks, 10 heavy transporters (HETS), and
two Mi-24 helicopter gunships, in the oilproducing Sudanese border town of Heglig
(South Kordofan)
Thus: total tanks in the greater Heglig area
to 22; equivalent of two tank companies
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Scorched earth attacks on
civilians & villages
• Nov 2012
• 13 villages and approximately 82 square km
of fields and forests southwest of the town of
al Abassiya (Nuba Mountains of South
Kordofan) burned
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Mass graves in Sudan (2011)
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Central African Republic (CAR)
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Amnesty International & Human Rights
Watch
Pres François Bozizé overthrown in March
2013
Country run by Pres Michel Djotodia of a
Seleka coalition
Recent human rights abuses amid spiralling
violence by armed groups supporting
Bozizé; and government security forces
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Evidence of 485 homes torched
(yellow dots) in Bouca in CAR
(Nov 2013)
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Politics of imagery and politics
of the use of imagery
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Access to imagery: how, who and cost?
Use and analyses of imagery: by whom, for
what purpose?
Responses to analyses: by whom and
how?
Impact on affected areas and populations:
how, when and where?
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Implications
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Space no longer domain of states only
Private monitoring of government and
country
Google Earth
Rise of private authority
Accessing remote and/or restricted areas
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Implications (cont.)
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Ethical element to surveillance
Normative: brother’s keeper
Human rights organisations capitalised on
satellite technology to document violations
Amnesty International: Eyes on Darfur
(since 2006): ‘new ground in protecting
human rights by allowing people around the
world to literally "watch over" and protect
twelve intact, but highly vulnerable, villages
using satellite technology’
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Implications (cont.)
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International investigations increasingly
using evidence collected through satellites
Then-ICC Prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo
used satellite imagery of destroyed villages
in his July 2008 application for an arrest
warrant for Sudanese Pres Omar Al-Bashir
on charges of war crimes, crimes against
humanity and genocide
Bashir called on AU to act against spy
satellites (2012)
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African Union (AU)
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Constitutive Act (2002)
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Peace and Security Council (PSC)
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AU (cont.)
AU Policy Framework on Post-Conflict
Reconstruction and Development (PCRD)
adopted in 2006
• Consolidate peace and prevent relapse into
violence
• Address root causes of conflict
• Improve planning & implementation of
reconstruction activities
• Enhance coordination between and among
actors engaged in PCRD
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AU (cont.)
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Idea of African Space Agency surfaced ca.
2010
Feasibility study concluded
2012: additional support for establishment
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AU (cont.)
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Establishment of AU-PCRD Centre
recommended in Jan. 2012
Egypt & Uganda offered to host the Centre
July 2012: AU Commission recommended
that proposed AU-PCRD could have
satellite institutions, located in different
regions of the continent
These could specialise on specific issues
falling under the mandate of the AU-PCRD
Centre
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African Space Policy:
Objectives
1. Addressing user needs
• Harness the potential of space science
2. Accessing space services
• Strengthen the space technology base
3. Developing the regional market
• Develop a sustainable and vibrant space industry
4. Adopting good governance and management
• Adopt good corporate governance
5. Promoting international cooperation
• Promote and African led space agenda
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African Space Policy
Draft Policy endorsed by AMCOST Oct 2013
meeting
Strong focus on commercialisation and
regulation of space arena in Africa
Little focus on conflict resolution; mere
reference ‘to derive optimal socio-economic
benefits that both improve quality of life and
create wealth for Africans’
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African Space Policy (cont.)
Recognition of use of space: ‘Space presents a
unique opportunity for cooperation and
sharing of enabling infrastructure (including
data) in proactively managing, among other
things... peacekeeping missions and
conflicts.’
To be adopted in 2014
Development of African Space Strategy next
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Recommendations
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African Space Policy: stronger focus on
conflict resolution and post conflict
reconstruction required
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African Space Strategy: focus on using
space to achieve peace
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Recommendations (cont.)
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African Union: Resolve conflicts, remove
impunity of leaders, address non-state
armed groups
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African Space Agency: establish a
dedicated Directorate to liaise with the PSC
on conflict resolution and post conflict
reconstruction
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Thank you.
JKvW/ALC 2013/GHANA

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