Tobacco GAP Certification Training 2014 Dr. Bob Pearce Extension Tobacco Specialist US Tobacco GAP Manual Guidelines remain the same from 2013 US Tobacco Gap Manual 2014 GAP Record Book Update Brief History of Tobacco GAP 2009-2011 – Each tobacco company administered their own version of GAP – Multiple sets of expectations – Multiple assessments Jan 2012: General agreement that an industry-wide GAP was needed NCDA took the lead role all developmental meetings held in Raleigh, NC April 2012: Draft GAP document prepared October 2012: GAP Document agreed to by tobacco companies January 2013: “US Tobacco GAP” implemented October 2013: Gap Connections formed – December 2013 Grower ID system launched US Tobacco GAP GAP Connections – Non-profit entity formed and supported by tobacco buying companies – Formed to administer the GAP program Provide a framework to decide on GAP changes – What GAPs should be followed – Recordkeeping requirements – Training requirements Run by a Board of Directors – Each company has a seat (12-14) – Growers representatives (2) http://www.gapconnections.com US Tobacco GAP GAP Connections – Developed a grower ID system Secure database Tracks training history Only companies with which you have a contract will know your training history – Developing an audit process Contractor agreed on Pilot program for 2014 Random Selection of Growers GAP Continuing Education Annual requirement for training? – Currently, Yes. Training in each of the three main areas – Crop Management – Environmental Management – Labor Management Record Book Changes from 2013 By type – Air-cured – Fire-cured – Flue-cured By field instead of topic – – – – – Transplanting Fertilization Pesticide Topping Harvesting Increase emphasis on traceability Records Checklist If you currently use an alternative record keeping system that can supply the same information you do not have to use the provided templates. Checklist is a tool for assuring that required records are kept, whether using GAP templates or another system Required Records are Detailed Transplants – Source of transplants – Seed lot number should be recorded – Variety name – Date seeded – Pesticides applied – Date transplanted Required Records are Detailed Fields – Each field individually identified – Soil test results – When and how much fertilizer – Which pesticide, when, and who applied – Rainfall amounts per event – Irrigation – Planting, topping, harvest dates Required Records are Detailed Curing Structures – Each barn individually identified – When housed – Spacing of sticks – How tobacco ordered/cased – When taken down Efficient Record Keeping Do as much as possible before start of season – Much of the General Records Packet can be completed preseason Develop system of documenting practices daily – Carry notebook and fill out as completed – Pocket notebook, calendar, tablet computer, etc. – Call into central place as operations completed Update records frequently – Ideally daily Don’t try to remember anything !!! Document !!!! GAP Principles for Variety Selection Selection should be based on – Disease resistance – Curing characteristics and cured leaf quality – Yield – Holding ability Review variety performance on your farm Identify and test new varieties Use LC seed Black Shank % Survival Variety 2009 2010 2012 Mean HB 04PLC 22 3 18 14 HP 3307PLC 97 49 44 63 Hybrid 404LC 40 3 14 19 KT 204LC 100 66 79 82 KT 206LC 97 68 70 78 KT 209LC 98 85 91 91 KT 210LC 93 66 83 81 KTH 212LC 97 56 31 61 KY 14 X L8LC 3 0 2 2 N 7371LC 93 30 39 54 NC 2002LC 12 0 - - NC 7LC 83 16 38 46 TN 90LC 90 57 46 64 Seasonal Avg. 71 38 46 55 Cured Leaf Yield (lbs./A) 3 Year Yield Average (No-Stress) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Suggested “New” Varieties Disease-free H 404 HBO4P N 126 Moderate black shank KT 212 HB4488P KT 204 Strong black shank Fusarium KT 209 KT 210 KT 210 NC 7 May want to use Ridomil or similar fungicide where moderate to heavy black shank is expected Gap Principles for Pest Control Crop Management – Accurate Identification of the pest Extension Agents/Specialists can help – Selection of effective and economical control methods Tobacco Production Guide ID-160 http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id160/id160.pdf – Assessing results of control method – Residue Reduction – NTRM reduction Reduce weeds and suckers in cured leaf GAP Principles for Pest Control Environmental Management – Proper storage of pesticides Secure (locked) Away from tobacco storage – Reduce reliance on pesticides when possible – Selection of safest alternatives – Proper application methods Correct rate Calibration of spraying equipment Field Disease Management Use resistant varieties when available Practice good sanitation to prevent spread – Wash off equipment – Sanitize equipment with 10% bleach – Don’t spread stalks in “clean” fields Use appropriate pesticides when needed – Would Ridomil cure this ? Field Disease Management Use appropriate pesticides when needed – Black Shank Ridomil – Transplant water application Ultra-Flourish Meta-Star – Leaf Spot Disease (target spot and frogeye) Quadris – 1 time use on transplants at second clipping – 1 well timed application in the field when tobacco is knee to waist high Satori – 1 well timed application in the field when tobacco is knee to waist high Must have supplemental label at time of application Must have supplemental label at time of application Generic Quadris Insect Management Scout and Treat Approach – Walk field at least 2 times per week – Thresholds 3 or more Flea beetles per plant 10% of plants with aphid colony 10% of plants with a worm Insect Management Preventative Approach – Use a neoncitinoid product in transplant water for aphid and flea beetle. Low cost Effective Relatively safe – Use Coragen for worm control in transplant water Effective Relatively safe – Still need to scout in case of control failure Weed Management Competition – – – – Space Light Nutrient Water Harbor Disease Physical Damage – Morningglories – Honeyvine Milkweed NTRM Herbicide Options for Tobacco in Kentucky Brand name Chemical name Grasses Nutsedge (Cyperus) Pigweed Ragweed (Amaranthus) (Ambrosia) Command Clomazone ++++ + + ++++ Devrinol Napropamide ++++ + ++ ++ Prowl* Pendimethalin ++++ N ++++ + Spartan Sulfentrazone ++ ++++ ++++ + Poast Sethoxydim ++++ N N N * Other Brand names: Acumen, Pendant 3.3 EC, and Stealth Herbicide Trial Washington County 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 CHK Mech Prowl Command Spartan + Command New Formulations/Rates Spartan 4F 8 oz/A 10 oz/A 12 oz/A Spartan Charge 10.2 oz/A 12.8 oz/A 15.2 oz/A • Use higher rate on fine textured soils or when pressure from morningglory or yellow nutsedge is high. • Mix with Prowl or Command to improve grass control • Prowl H2O: 2 pts/A when mixed with Spartan • Command: 1.5 pts/A when mixed with Spartan GAP Principles for Sucker Control Apply appropriate sucker control materials to achieve good sucker control – Increase leaf yield and quality – Reduce NTRM Minimize undesirable residues – MH residue a concern Less than 80 ppm Less than 50 ppm for some Tips For Good Sucker Control Use a combination of MH and DNA (Butralin, Prime+, Flupro) – 1.0 to 1.5 gallons MH – 0.5 gallons of DNA Properly maintain spray equipment – Use nozzles that deliver a coarse spray – Pressure 20 to 30 psi – 3 nozzles per row maximizes coverage Use adequate water (at least 50 G/A) Do not spray in the heat of the day when plants are under stress Spray fewer rows at a time GAP Principles for Nutrient Management Fertilization Should be based on: – Soil type – Crop Rotation – Soil test (no more than 2 years old) Confirm fertilizers are appropriate for use on tobacco Follow recommendations for manure use Implement required nutrient management plans – If applying either fertilizer or manure a plan is required in KY! Problem for 2014 Fertilizer dealers report a shortage of 0-0-50 – Less 0-0-50 imported this year – More 0-0-50 being used on other high value crops – Maybe localized (some areas have may have adequate supply) Why can’t we just switch to 0-0-60 High chloride in tobacco Poor cured leaf color – dingy, muddy, variegated Imparts unpleasant flavor and aroma to smoke Reduces burn rate Cause cured leaf to hold moisture – moldy stems / fat stems – high case can lead to rot during storage Impact of Chloride on Cured Leaf Moisture % Cl in cured % Moisture at % Moisture at 70% RH 80% RH leaf 0.9 17.0 21.7 1.4 18.0 23.1 1.7 18.2 23.6 1.9 18.5 23.9 2.1 19.0 24.6 2.3 18.9 24.9 Effect of K source on leaf yield and Cl content 4 year avg. 240 lbs. K20/A Muriate Cl Lbs. SO4 Yield 0 0 282 2774 Cl content % 0.36 100 50 211 2854 0.87 200 100 141 2903 1.28 300 150 71 2951 1.60 400 200 0 2935 1.94 Problem for 2014 How do we respond? Use soil test to determine potash need and apply no more than recommended Apply up to 100 pounds of 0-0-60 per acre to provide the first 60 pounds of potash needed – If you did not apply 0-0-60 in fall – If you did not apply animal manures in the spring Use 0-0-50 for remaining potash need if available Use alternate sources of low Cl potash Alternate Sources of Low Cl Potash Check with dealer for local availability 0-0-22 – K-Mag – Sul-Po-Mag – Trio Use “tobacco” blends but check labeling for max chloride – 5-10-15 – 6-12-18 GAP Principles for Labor Management GAPs for Labor Management Determine your labor requirements and source of labor – PLAN AHEAD!! – Be realistic about your labor needs (every operation is different) – For burley tobacco production 159 to 197 person-hours per acre total 48 to 60 person-hours per acre cut and house 51 to 73 person-hours per acre strip and market prep – Determine your peak demand Peak Labor Demand (Example) Assumptions: – 50 Ac of burley to harvest (mid August – September) – 50 person-hours per acre cut and house – 1 day off per week – 1/3 of remaining days not suitable for harvest (rain) – 10 hours working per day Approximately 24 harvest days or about 2.1 Ac per day 105 person hours per day 10 to 11 workers everyday for 6 weeks GAPs for Labor Management Determine your labor requirements and source of labor – Family Reliability ?? – Seasonal/Migrant Workers Reliability ? Authorized to work in US? – Farm Labor Contractor (FLC) Reliability ? Registered? – H2A Worker Program Reliable Higher out of pocket cost? GAPs for Labor Management Determine and comply with all applicable state and federal laws and regulations. – Seasonal Workers – Migrant Workers Have on file an I-9 form for all “paid” employees Fair Labor Standards Act Post FLSA Poster specific to “Agricultural Employees” Overtime pay provisions do not apply for “agricultural” work Minimum age requirements – Generally do not apply to minors working for parent owned farm – Must be over 16 to work in “hazardous” jobs on farm Record keeping requirements – Payroll records should be kept for 3 years – Time record should be kept for 2 years GAPs for Labor Management Fair Labor Standards Act – Minimum wage provisions may apply If you used more than 500 man-days of farm labor in any calendar quarter of the preceding calendar year. Man-day = any day in which an employee does farm work for at least one hour Does not apply to immediate family members If you pay by piece-rate, specify expected minimum rate of output to insure hourly minimum wage rate is met. Current minimum wage is $7.25 per hour GAPs for Labor Management Determine and comply with all applicable state and federal laws and regulations. – Seasonal Workers – Migrant Workers Migrant and Seasonal Worker Protection Act applies – Post MSPA poster Disclosure Wages Housing Transportation GAPs for Labor Management Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act – Disclosure Each migrant worker must be provided with a written disclosure at the time of recruitment (also posted at worksite) – In the worker’s native language Each seasonal worker must be provided with a verbal disclosure at time of recruitment and written disclosure upon request – Items to be disclosed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Place of employment Wages rates to be paid The crops and kinds of activities involved The period of employment Any benefits (transportation/housing) provides and charges The existence of any strike or other work stoppage at jobsite Any relationship between employer and suppliers to workers Whether worker compensation insurance is provided GAPs for Labor Management Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act – Wages Pay all wages when due – – – – At the rate disclosed Not less than minimum wage At least semi-monthly Deposit and report any taxes withheld Provide worker with itemized statement of wage calculations – Employer name address and EIN or SS number Include any deductions for housing etc. that were disclosed initially – Housing (if provided to migrant workers) Must be inspected prior to occupancy Certificate of occupancy posted on-site Contact information for housing provider posted on-site GAPs for Labor Management Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act – Transportation (if provided) Any vehicles used must be properly insured. Operated by properly licensed driver. Vehicle must meet all federal and state safety standards – Additional Requirements for Farm labor Contractor Certifications to provide transportation required Certification to drive required GAPs for Labor Management Determine and comply with all applicable state and federal laws and regulations. – Farm Labor Contractor (FLC) You negotiate a price and pay the agreed upon price to a crew leader. Crew leader schedules the work, recruits and pays the individual workers. Fair Labor Standards Act applies Migrant and Seasonal Worker Protection Act applies – While workers are putting in your crop they are likely considered to be in “joint employment” Both you and the FLC are responsible for compliance Check that FLC is registered with the Dept. of Labor http://www.dol.gov/whd/regs/statutes/FLCList.htm GAPs for Labor Management Determine and comply with all applicable state and federal laws and regulations. – H2A Guest Worker Program Fair Labor Standards Act applies Migrant and Seasonal Worker Protection Act applies Additional Requirements of the H2A Program – – – – – – Post H2A Worker Rights Poster Pay worker’s visa fees Provide transportation to and from worker’s home Provide transportation to and from work site Provide housing while in employment Guarantee at least ¾ of work hours specified in work contract GAPs for Labor Management H2A Guest Worker Program – Start Early with Process – Choose a Reputable Agent Assist with contract terms and guarantees File applications with appropriate agencies Assist with advertising requirements Assist with worker recruitment Assist with visa processing GAPs for Labor Management Implement a worker training program – Crop Integrity Grade separation Moisture and bale weight requirements NTRM reduction – Safety General farm safety Tobacco barn safety Green tobacco sickness Questions?