GBV in Humanitarian Settings

Report
Maha Muna
Gender Advisor, UNFPA
March 2012
Gender-based Violence
 Gender-based Violence is an umbrella term for any harmful act that is perpetrated
against a person’s will, and that is based on socially ascribed (gender) differences
between males and females. Acts of GBV violate a number of universal human rights
protected by international instruments and conventions. Many — but not all — forms of
GBV are illegal and criminal acts in national laws and policies. Around the world, GBV
has a greater impact on women and girls than on men and boys. The term “gender-based
violence” is often used interchangeably with the term “violence against women.” The
term “gender-based violence” highlights the gender dimension of these types of acts; in
other words, the relationship between females’ subordinate status in society and their
increased vulnerability to violence. It is important to note, however, that men and boys
may also be victims of gender-based violence, especially sexual violence. The nature and
extent of specific types of GBV vary across cultures, countries, and regions. Examples
include:
 Sexual violence, including sexual exploitation/abuse and forced prostitution • Domestic
violence
 Trafficking
 Forced/early marriage
 Harmful traditional practices such as female genital mutilation,
honour killings, widow inheritance, and others
Physical and sexual violence is extremely
common in women’s lives
3
Addressing Gender-Based
Violence in Humanitarian Settings
DESIGNING APPROPRIATE PREVENTION
& RESPONSE PROGRAMS
Understanding the causal relationship between:
Types of genderbased violence
believed to be
occurring –
Rights (and
Culture) Analysis
Vulnerability of women and
girls (and men and boys)
The nature and phase of the
crisis (acute, protracted,
transitional/recovery, etc.)
Addressing Gender-Based
Violence in Humanitarian Settings
 Adhere to the 4 Guiding Principles
Confidentiality
2. Safety
3. Respect
4. Non-discrimination
1.
 Supporting a survivor-centered approach
 Promote recovery by ensuring survivor agency in
decision making
 Prevent re-traumatization
 Enable survivors to make truly informed choices that
consider community reintegration and consequences
Addressing Gender-Based
Violence in Humanitarian Settings
We risk further harming
those same individuals
that we are trying to assist
The Unintended Consequences
of Well-Intentioned Action
Addressing Gender-Based
Violence in Humanitarian Settings
We risk further harming
those same individuals
that we are trying to assist
The Unintended Consequences
of Well-Intentioned Action
HOW?
IASC Clusters
and Sectors (PHT)
Emergency
Shelter
GBV
Education
SRH
WASH
Protection
Early
Recovery
Food Security
Logistics
Health
and
Nutrition
Addressing Gender-Based Violence in
Humanitarian Settings
PROTECTION CLUSTER
The 5 Global “Areas of Responsibility” – Pacific PHT
Child Protection (UNICEF)
2. Gender-Based Violence (UNFPA)
3. Housing, Land and Property Issues (UN-Habitat)
4. Mine Action (UNMAS)
5. Rule of Law and Justice (UNDP/OHCHR)
1.
WHAT THE POLICY SAYS:
1. Where there is a Protection Cluster:
As the global GBV AoR co-leads, UNFPA and UNICEF must first determine if one or both
agencies have adequate capacity to assume a leadership position in this regard, including
funding, staff (e.g., allocating a full-time, preferably mid- to senior-level staff person to
the role of GBV Coordinator) and technical expertise/understanding of GBV.
a) UNFPA and UNICEF have the capacity to assume leadership:
One or both agencies – depending on which agency has the capacity to lead
– are responsible for supporting and/or establishing an inter-agency GBV
coordination body, preferably in partnership with a local
entity/organization.
WHAT MAKES SENSE IN FIJI:
• The UN Gender Group has revised the ToR and is managing a Gender Surge
Capacity.
• UNICEF is already responsible for cluster management and Child Protection
AoR.
• UNFPA and UN Women have strong links with NGOs and frontline providers
working on GBV prevention and response.
The Multi-Sectoral Model
GBV ACROSS CLUSTERS:
Addressing Gender-Based Violence in
Humanitarian Settings – Survivor-Centered Approach
PROTECTION
PSYCHOSOCIAL*
HEALTH
SURVIVOR/
COMMUNITY
LEGAL/
JUSTICE
SAFETY/
SECURITY
*Includes social reintegration
and livelihood initiatives
Addressing Gender-Based
Violence in Humanitarian Settings
RESOURCES AVAILABLE:
GBV Standard Operating Procedures
GBV Coordinator’s Handbook

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