BSA Astronomy Merit Badge

Report
Photo courtesy of pleiade.org
Photo courtesy of apod.nasa.gov
First Night
• Intro to Astronomy Video
• PPT Section 1
– Proper Clothing, Safe Observing, First Aid
– Light & Air Pollution
– Tools of the Trade
• Types of Telescopes
• Instruments Used With Telescopes
• Proper Care and Storage of Telescopes
– Stars & Constellations
• Observation Session
Second Night
• PPT Section 2
– Sun
– Moon
– Planets
• Observation Session
Third Night
• Careers
Star Party!!!
Proper Clothing
• Frequently below freezing
•
•
•
•
•
Thermal Underwear
Warm Pants and Shirt
Heavy Socks
Hat
Gloves (Not to limit
Dexterity)
• Winter Coat
Safe Observing
NEVER LOOK AT OR NEAR THE SUN, WITH OR WITHOUT A TELESCOPE
OR BINOCULARS, WITHOUT PROPER SOLAR FILTERS IN PLACE!!
• Methods for Safe Solar
and Solar Eclipse
Viewing
– Glass or film style filters
block 99.999% of light
– Pinhole Projection
– Solar Eclipse Glasses
•NEVER POINT LASERS AT EYES OR FACE!
•
•
•
•
•
Hypothermia Due to Being Poorly Clothed
Frostbite
Dehydration
Snake Bites for Desert Areas
Damage to Eyes
•
Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses
heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body
temperature. Normal body temperature is around 98.6 F (37 C). Hypothermia
(hi-po-THUR-me-uh) occurs as your body temperature passes below 95 F
(35 C).
• When your body temperature drops, your heart, nervous system and other
organs cannot work correctly. Left untreated, hypothermia eventually leads
to complete failure of your heart and respiratory system and to death.
• Hypothermia is most often caused by exposure to cold weather or immersion
in a cold body of water. Primary treatments are methods to warm the body
back to a normal temperature.
• Be aware of conditions likely to lead to hypothermia.
• Know the symptoms of hypothermia.
• Get the victim into a warm room or shelter.
Symptoms
Treatment and Prevention
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Shivering
Clumsiness or lack of
coordination
Slurred speech or mumbling
Stumbling
Confusion or difficulty
thinking
Poor decision making, such
as trying to remove warm
clothes
Drowsiness or very low
energy
Apathy, or lack of concern
about one's condition
Progressive loss of
consciousness
Weak pulse
Shallow breathing
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Be gentle. When you are helping a person with hypothermia, handle him or her gently.
Limit movements to only those that are necessary. Don't massage or rub the person.
Excessive, vigorous or jarring movements may trigger cardiac arrest.
Move the person out of the cold. Move the person to a warm, dry location if possible. If
you're unable to move the person out of the cold, shield him or her from the cold and wind
as much as possible.
Remove wet clothing. If the person is wearing wet clothing, remove it. Cut away clothing if
necessary to avoid excessive movement.
Cover the person with blankets. Use layers of dry blankets or coats to warm the person.
Cover the person's head, leaving only the face exposed.
Insulate the person's body from the cold ground. If you're outside, lay the person on his or
her back on a blanket or other warm surface.
Monitor breathing. A person with severe hypothermia may appear unconscious, with no
apparent signs of a pulse or breathing. If the person's breathing has stopped or appears
dangerously low or shallow, begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately if
you're trained.
Share body heat. To warm the person's body, remove your clothing and lie next to the
person, making skin-to-skin contact. Then cover both of your bodies with blankets.
Provide warm beverages. If the affected person is alert and able to swallow, provide a
warm, nonalcoholic, non-caffeinated beverage to help warm the body.
Use warm, dry compresses. Use a first-aid warm compress (a plastic fluid-filled bag that
warms up when squeezed), or a makeshift compress of warm water in a plastic bottle or a
dryer-warmed towel. Apply a compress only to the neck, chest wall or groin. Don't apply a
warm compress to the arms or legs. Heat applied to the arms and legs forces cold blood
back toward the heart, lungs and brain, causing the core body temperature to drop. This
can be fatal.
Don't apply direct heat. Don't use hot water, a heating pad or a heating lamp to warm the
person. The extreme heat can damage the skin or induce cardiac arrest.
Astronomical observing seldom ever requires great physical exertion. Thus dehydration for
astronomers likely will be caused by neglecting the need for drinking hydrating liquids. Still, You
Should Know The Following:
Symptoms:
•Dry, sticky mouth
•Sleepiness or tiredness — children are
•likely to be less active than usual
•Thirst
•Decreased urine output — no wet
diapers for three hours for infants and
eight hours or more without urination
for older children and teens
•Few or no tears when crying
•Dry skin
•Headache
•Constipation
•Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment and Prevention:
•If any symptoms are discovered
rehydrate immediately.
•Remember to drink plenty of fluids
during extended observing sessions.
Symptoms
• Immediate
– Often none. No pain, vision loss
• Within Days
–
–
–
–
Difficulty reading
Bending of straight lines
A dark patch in the vision
Changes to the way colors are
seen
• Long Term
– Dark patches persist
– 10% have significant loss
– Total loss does not occur
Treatment and Prevention
• Always use safe observing
methods when viewing
eclipses or the sun
• No treatment
can improve or
speed-up
recovery.
http://web.archive.org/web/20011109090415/http://moorfields.org.uk/ef-solret.html
Symptoms
Treatment and Prevention
• A slightly painful, prickly or
itching sensation
• Red, white, pale or grayishyellow skin
• Hard or waxy-looking skin
• A cold or burning feeling
• Numbness
• Clumsiness due to joint and
muscle stiffness
• Blistering, in severe cases
• Protect your skin from further
exposure.
• Gradually warm frostbitten
areas.
• Don't walk on frostbitten feet or
toes if possible.
• Depending on severity see a
doctor
• Dress in several layers of loose,
warm clothing rather than a
single layer.
• Wear a hat that fully covers your
ears.
• Wear mittens rather than gloves
Light Pollution
• What is it?
– The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA)
defines light pollution as:
“Any adverse effect of artificial light
including sky glow, glare, light trespass, light
clutter, decreased visibility at night, and
energy waste”.
Light Pollution
– Air Pollution is any object or air current, large or
small, which degrades seeing conditions.
– Air pollution will directly effect “seeing”
– Atmospheric movement (air currents), particulates
stirred up by wind, exhaust from factories, even
heat emitted by a close passer-by will all decrease
image contrast.
– Visual and photographic detail suffers.
Telescopes and Light Paths
Aquarius
– Abbreviation: Aqr
– Genitive: Aquarii
– Translation: The Water Bearer
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 23 hours
– Declination: -15 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 65 and 90 degrees
– Best seen in October (at 9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SADALMELIK (Alpha Aqr)
Sadalsuud (Beta Aqr)
Sadalachbia (Gamma Aqr)
Skat (Delta Aqr)
Albali (Epsilon Aqr)
Ancha (Theta Aqr)
Situla (Kappa Aqr)
• Messier Objects
– M2 (globular cluster)
– M72 (globular cluster)
– M73 (system or astrerism of 4
stars)
Aries
– Abbreviation: Ari
– Genitive: Arietis
– Translation: The Ram
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 3 hours
– Declination: 20 degrees
– Visible between latitudes
90 and -60 degrees
– Best seen in December (at
9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
HAMAL (Alpha Ari)
Sharatan (Beta Ari)
Mesarthim (Gamma 2 Ari)
Botein (Delta Ari)
Cancer
– Abbreviation: Cnc
– Genitive: Cancri
– Translation: The Crab
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 9 hours
– Declination: 20 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90
and -60 degrees
– Best seen in March (at 9:00
PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
Acubens (Alpha Cnc)
Altarf (Beta Cnc)
Asellus Borealis (Gamma Cnc)
Asellus Australis (Delta Cnc)
Tegmen (Zeta 1 Cnc)
• Messier Objects
– M44 Praesepe, The Beehive
Cluster (open cluster)
– M67 (open cluster)
Capricornus
– Abbreviation: Cap
– Genitive: Capricorni
– Translation: The Sea Goat
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 21 hours
– Declination: -20 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 60
and -90 degrees
– Best seen in September (at
9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
Prima Giedi (Alpha 1 Cap)
Secunda Giedi (Alpha 2 Cap)
Dabih (Beta Cap)
Nashira (Gamma Cap)
Deneb Algedi (Delta Cap)
Alshat (Nu Cap)
• Messier Objects
– M30 (globular cluster)
Gemini
– Abbreviation: Gem
– Genitive: Geminorum
– Translation: The Twins
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 7 hours
– Declination: 20 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90 and 60 degrees
– Best seen in February (at 9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
CASTOR (Alpha Gem)
POLLUX (Beta Gem)
ALHENA (Gamma Gem)
Wasat (Delta Gem)
Mebsuta (Epsilon Gem)
Mekbuda (Zeta Gem)
Propus (Eta Gem)
Propus (Iota Gem)
Tejat Posterior (Mu Gem)
Alzirr (Xi Gem)
Propus (1 Gem)
• Messier Objects
– M35 (open cluster)
Leo
Abbreviation: Leo
–
–
•
Position in the Sky
–
–
–
–
•
Right Ascension: 11 hours
Declination: 15 degrees
Visible between latitudes 90 and -65
degrees
Best seen in April (at 9:00 PM)
Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Genitive: Leonis
Translation: The Lion
REGULUS (Alpha Leo)
DENEBOLA (Beta Leo)
ALGIEBA (Gamma 1 Leo)
Zosma (Delta Leo)
Ras Elased Australis (Epsilon Leo)
Adhafera (Zeta Leo)
Chort (Theta Leo)
Al Minliar al Asad (Kappa Leo)
Alterf (Lambda Leo)
Ras Elased Borealis (Mu Leo)
Subra (Omicron Leo)
Messier Objects
–
–
–
–
–
M65 (spiral galaxy)
M66 (spiral galaxy)
M95 (spiral galaxy)
M96 (spiral galaxy)
M105 (elliptical galaxy)
Libra
– Abbreviation: Lib
– Genitive: Librae
– Translation: The Beam
Balance
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 15 hours
– Declination: -15 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 65
and -90 degrees
– Best seen in June (at 9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
Zuben Elgenubi (Alpha 2 Lib)
Zuben Elschemali (Beta Lib)
Zuben Elakrab (Gamma Lib)
Zuben Elakribi (Delta Lib)
Brachium (Sigma Lib)
Ophiuchus
– Abbreviation: Oph
– Genitive: Ophiuchii
– Translation: The Serpent Holder
•
Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 17 hours
– Declination: 0 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 80 and -80
degrees
– Best seen in July (at 9:00 PM)
•
Named Stars
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–
–
–
–
–
•
RASALHAGUE (Alpha Oph)
Cebalrai (Beta Oph)
Yed Prior (Delta Oph)
Yed Posterior (Epsilon Oph)
Sabik (Eta Oph)
Marfic (Lambda Oph)
Messier Objects
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–
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–
–
–
–
M9 (globular cluster)
M10 (globular cluster)
M12 (globular cluster)
M14 (globular cluster)
M19 (globular cluster)
M62 (globular cluster)
M107 (globular cluster)
Pisces
– Abbreviation: Psc
– Genitive: Piscium
– Translation: The Fishes
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 1 hour
– Declination: 15 degrees
– Visible between latitudes
90 and -65 degrees
– Best seen in November (at
9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
– Alrisha (Alpha Psc)
– Fum al Samakah (Beta Psc)
– Torcularis
Septentrionalis (Omicron
Psc)
• Messier Objects
– M74 (spiral galaxy)
Sagittarius
Abbreviation: Sgr
•
•
– Genitive: Sagittarii
– Translation: The Archer
Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 19 hours
– Declination: -25 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 55 and -90
degrees
– Best seen in August (at 9:00 PM)
Messier Objects
– M8 The Lagoon Nebula (diffuse nebula)
– M17 The Omega, Swan, or Horseshoe
Nebula (diffuse nebula)
– M18 (open cluster)
– M20 The Triffid Nebula (diffuse nebula)
– M21 (open cluster)
– M22 (globular cluster)
– M23 (open cluster)
– M24 Milky Way Patch (star cloud with
open cluster)
– M25 (open cluster)
– M28 (globular cluster)
– M54 (globular cluster)
– M55 (globular cluster)
– M69 (globular cluster)
– M70 (globular cluster)
– M75 (globular cluster)
• Scorpius
Abbreviation: Sco
– Genitive: Scorpii
– Translation: The Scorpion
•
Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 17 hours
– Declination: -40 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 40 and -90
degrees
– Best seen in July (at 9:00 PM)
•
Named Stars
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•
ANTARES (Alpha Sco)
Graffias (Beta 1 Sco)
Dschubba (Delta Sco)
Sargas (Theta Sco)
SHAULA (Lambda Sco)
Jabbah (Nu Sco)
Grafias (Xi Sco)
Alniyat (Sigma Sco)
Alniyat (Tau Sco)
Lesath (Upsilon Sco)
Messier Objects
–
–
–
–
M4 (globular cluster)
M6 The Butterfly Cluster (open cluster)
M7 Ptolemy's Cluster (open cluster)
M80 (globular cluster)
Taurus
–
–
–
•
Position in the Sky
–
–
–
–
•
Right Ascension: 4 hours
Declination: 15 degrees
Visible between latitudes 90 and -65
degrees
Best seen in January (at 9:00 PM)
Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Abbreviation: Tau
Genitive: Tauri
Translation: The Bull
ALDEBARAN (Alpha Tau)
ALNATH (Beta Tau)
Hyadum I (Gamma Tau)
Hyadum II (Delta 1 Tau)
Ain (Epsilon Tau)
ALCYONE (Eta Tau)
Celaeno (16 Tau)
Electra (17 Tau)
Taygeta (19 Tau)
Maia (20 Tau)
Asterope (21 Tau)
Sterope II (22 Tau)
Merope (23 Tau)
Atlas (27 Tau)
Pleione (28 Tau)
Messier Objects
–
–
M1 The Crab Nebula (supernova remnant)
M45 The Pleiades (The Seven Sisters), or
Subaru (open cluster)
Virgo
Abbreviation: Vir
–
–
•
Position in the Sky
–
–
–
–
•
Right Ascension: 13 hours
Declination: 0 degrees
Visible between latitudes 80 and -80 degrees
Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM)
Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Genitive: Virginis
Translation: The Maiden
SPICA (Alpha Vir)
Zavijah (Beta Vir)
Porrima (Gamma Vir)
Auva (Delta Vir)
VINDEMIATRIX (Epsilon Vir)
Heze (Zeta Vir)
Zaniah (Eta Vir)
Syrma (Iota Vir)
Rijl al Awwa (Mu Vir)
Messier Objects
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
M49 (elliptical galaxy)
M58 (spiral galaxy)
M59 (elliptical galaxy)
M60 (elliptical galaxy)
M61 (spiral galaxy)
M84 (elliptical galaxy)
M86 (elliptical galaxy)
M87 Virgo A (elliptical galaxy)
M89 (elliptical galaxy)
M90 (spiral galaxy)
M104 The Sombrero Galaxy (spiral galaxy)
Andromeda
– Abbreviation: And
– Genitive: Andromedae
– Translation: Princess of Ethiopia
or the Chained Lady
•
Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 1 hour
– Declination: 40 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90 and 40 degrees
– Best seen in November (at 9:00
PM)
•
Named Stars
–
–
–
–
•
ALPHERATZ (Alpha And)
MIRACH (Beta And)
ALMAAK (Gamma 1 And)
Adhil (Xi And)
Messier Objects
– M31 The Andromeda Galaxy
(spiral galaxy)
– M32 Satellite galaxy of
Andromeda (elliptical galaxy)
– M110 Satellite galaxy of
Andromeda (elliptical galaxy)
Canes Venatici
– Abbreviation: CVn
– Genitive: Canum Venaticorum
– Translation: The Hunting Dogs
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 13 hours
– Declination: 40 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90
and -40 degrees
– Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
– COR CAROLI (Alpha 2 CVn)
– Chara (Beta CVn)
• Messier Objects
– M3 (globular cluster)
– M51 The Whirlpool Galaxy
(spiral galaxy)
– M63 The Sunflower Galaxy
(spiral galaxy)
– M94 (spiral galaxy)
– M106 (spiral galaxy)
Cassiopeia
– Abbreviation: Cas
– Genitive: Cassiopeiae
– Translation: Queen of Ethiopia or
Andromeda's Mother
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 1 hour
– Declination: 60 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90 and 20 degrees
– Best seen in November (at 9:00
PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
SHEDIR (Alpha Cas)
Caph (Beta Cas)
Ruchbah (Delta Cas)
Segin (Epsilon Cas)
Achird (Eta Cas)
Marfak (Theta Cas)
Marfak (Mu Cas)
• Messier Objects
– M52 (open cluster)
– M103 (open cluster)
Coma Berenices
– Abbreviation: Com
– Genitive: Comae Berenices
– Translation: Berenice's Hair
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 13 hours
– Declination: 20 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90 and 60 degrees
– Best seen in May (at 9:00 PM)
• Named Stars
– Diadem (Alpha Com)
• Messier Objects
– M53 (globular cluster)
– M64 The Blackeye Galaxy (spiral
galaxy)
– M85 (elliptical galaxy)
– M88 (spiral galaxy)
– M91 (spiral galaxy)
– M98 (spiral galaxy)
– M99 (spiral galaxy)
– M100 (spiral galaxy)
Cygnus
– Abbreviation: Cyg
– Genitive: Cygni
– Translation: The Swan or the
Northern Cross
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 21 hours
– Declination: 40 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90 and 40 degrees
– Best seen in September (at 9:00
PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
DENEB (Alpha Cyg)
ALBIREO (Beta 1 Cyg)
Sadr (Gamma Cyg)
Gienah Cygni (Epsilon Cyg)
Azelfafage (Pi 1 Cyg)
Ruchba (Omega 2 Cyg)
• Messier Objects
– M29 (open cluster)
– M39 (open cluster)
Orion
–
–
•
Position in the Sky
–
–
–
–
•
Right Ascension: 5 hours
Declination: 5 degrees
Visible between latitudes 85 and -75 degrees
Best seen in January (at 9:00 PM)
Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Abbreviation: Ori
Genitive: Orionis
Translation: The Great Hunter
BETELGEUSE (Alpha Ori)
RIGEL (Beta Ori)
BELLATRIX (Gamma Ori)
MINTAKA (Delta Ori)
ALNILAM (Epsilon Ori)
ALNITAK (Zeta Ori)
Nair al Saif (Iota Ori)
SAIPH (Kappa Ori)
Meissa (Lambda Ori)
Tabit (Pi 3 Ori)
Tabit (Pi 2 Ori)
Tabit (Pi 4 Ori)
Tabit (Pi 1 Ori)
Thabit (Upsilon Ori)
Messier Objects
–
–
–
M42 The Great Orion Nebula (diffuse nebula)
M43 part of the Orion Nebula, de Mairan's
Nebula (diffuse nebula)
M78 (diffuse nebula)
• Perseus
Abbreviation: Per
– Genitive: Persei
– Translation: The Hero
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 3 hours
– Declination: 45 degrees
– Visible between latitudes 90 and 35 degrees
– Best seen in December (at 9:00
PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
MIRPHAK (Alpha Per)
ALGOL (Beta Per)
Miram (Eta Per)
Menkib (Xi Per)
Atik (Omicron Per)
Gorgonea Secunda (Pi Per)
Gorgonea Tertia (Rho Per)
Gorgonea Quarta (Omega Per)
• Messier Objects
– M34 (open cluster)
– M76 The Little Dumbell, Cork, or
Butterfly (planetary nebula)
Ursa Major
–
–
•
Position in the Sky
–
–
–
–
•
Right Ascension: 11 hours
Declination: 50 degrees
Visible between latitudes 90 and -30 degrees
Best seen in April (at 9:00 PM)
Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
•
Abbreviation: UMa
Genitive: Ursae Majoris
Translation: The Greater Bear
DUBHE (Alpha UMa)
MERAK (Beta UMa)
PHAD (Gamma UMa)
MEGREZ (Delta UMa)
ALIOTH (Epsilon UMa)
MIZAR (Zeta UMa)
ALKAID (Eta UMa)
Messier Objects
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
M40 Winecke 4 (double star)
M81 Bode's Galaxy or Bode's Nebula (spiral
galaxy)
M82 The Cigar Galaxy (irregular galaxy)
M97 The Owl Nebula (planetary nebula)
M101 The Pinwheel Galaxy (spiral galaxy)
M108 (spiral galaxy)
M109 (spiral galaxy)
Ursa Minor
Abbreviation: UMi
– Genitive: Ursae Minoris
– Translation: The Lesser
Bear
• Position in the Sky
– Right Ascension: 15 hours
– Declination: 70 degrees
– Visible between latitudes
90 and -10 degrees
– Best seen in June (at 9:00
PM)
• Named Stars
–
–
–
–
–
POLARIS (Alpha UMi)
KOCAB (Beta UMi)
Pherkad (Gamma UMi)
Yildun (Delta UMi)
Pherkad Minor (11 UMi)
The Sun
Just The Facts
Equatorial Radius
English: 432,168.6 miles
By Comparison: 109.2 x that of Earth
Equatorial Circumference
English: 2,715,395.6 miles
By Comparison: 1092 x that of Earth
Volume
English: 338,102,469,632,763,000
mi3
By Comparison: 1,301,018.805
Earths
Mass
English: 4,385,214,857,119,400,000,
000,000,000,000 lbs
By Comparison: 333,060.402 x
Earth's
Density
Metric: 1.409 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.256 that of Earth
Effective Temperature
English: 9939 °F
Spectral Type: G2
V Luminosity: 3.83 x 10 33 ergs/sec.
Age: 4.6 Billion Years
Composition: 92.1% Hydrogen,
7.8%Helium
Rotation Period at Equator: 26.8
days
Rotation Period at Poles: 36 days
Mean Distance to Earth: 149.60
million km (92.96 million mi) (1
astronomical unit)
Photo in H-alpha By: Alan Friedman
Class Temp K
Color
Example
O
30,00060,000
Blue
Anitak, Mintaka
B
10,00030,000
BlueWhite
Rigel, Spica
A
7,50010,000
White
Vega, Sirius
F
6,0007,500
White Procyon, Canopus
G
5,0006,000
YellowCapella, The Sun
White
K
3,5005,000
Orange Epsilon, Eridanus
M
2,0003,000
Red
Spectrum
G2
A0
K0
B8
Barnard's Star,
Gliese 581
Star
The Sun
Sirius A
Pollux
Rigel
Temp K
5,800
9,500
5,100
12,500
Luminosity
1
63
0.36
130
Mass
1
2.6
0.83
3.5
Radius
1
2.3
0.83
2.7
The Sun...Still Continued...
Solar Cycle:
11 year cycle in which sunspots are either increasing
to a maximum or decreasing to a minimum. The number of sunspots
relates to the increase or decrease of solar storms.
• Effects on Electrical and
Comm. Systems
–
–
–
–
Electrical Surges
Blown Transformers
GPS Disruption
Other Satellite
Malfunctions
• Effects on Weather
– Increased intensity of
Storms
– Aurora Borealis
– Cloudiness
The Moon
•Average Distance from Earth
•English: 238,855 miles
•By Comparison: 0.00257 x
Earth's Distance from the
Sun
•Equatorial Radius
•English: 1079.6 miles
•By Comparison: 0.2727 x
Earth
•Minimum/Maximum Surface
Temperature
•English: -387/253 °F
•Orbit:
•Factors which keep Moon in
Orbit:
•Orbital Velocity
•Earth’s Gravity
•Transfer of energy occurring
during tides
•Average Distance from the Sun
•English: 35,983,125 miles
•Equatorial Radius
•English: 1,516.0 miles
•Equatorial Circumference
•English: 9,525.1 miles
•Mass
•Metric: 330,1040,000,000,00
0,000,000,000 kg
•By Comparison: 0.055 x
Earth's
•Equatorial Surface Gravity
•English: 12.1 ft/s2
•By Comparison: If you weigh
100 pounds on Earth, you
would weigh 38 pounds on
Mercury.
•Minimum/Maximum Surface
Temperature
•English: -279/801 °F
•Atmospheric Constituents
•By Comparison: Earth's
atmosphere consists mostly
of N2, O2
•Average Distance from the Sun
•English: 67,238,251 miles
•Equatorial Radius
•English: 3,760.4 miles
•Equatorial Circumference
•English: 23,627.4 miles
•Mass
•Metric: 4,867,320,000,000,000,000,000,000
kg
•By Comparison: 0.815 x Earth
•Equatorial Surface Gravity
•English: 29.1 ft/s2
•By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on
Earth, you would weigh 91 pounds on Venus.
•Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
•English: 864 °F
•Atmospheric Constituents
•Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen
•Scientific Notation: CO2, N2
•By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere consists
mostly of N2 and O2.
CO2 is largely responsible for the Greenhouse
Effect and is used for carbonation in
beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial
element in DNA.
•Average Distance from the Sun
•English: 141,637,725 miles
•Equatorial Radius
•English: 2,106.1 miles
•Equatorial Circumference
•English: 13,263 miles
•Mass
•Metric: 641,693,000,000,000,000,000,00
0 kg
•Equatorial Surface Gravity
•English: 12.2 ft/s2
•By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds
on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on
Mars.
•Minimum/Maximum Surface
Temperature
•English: -125 to 23 °F
•Atmospheric Constituents
•Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon
•Scientific Notation: CO2, N2, Ar
•By Comparison: CO2 is responsible for
the Greenhouse Effect and is used for
carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial
element in DNA. Ar is used to make blue
neon light blubs.
•Average Distance from the Sun
•English: 483,638,564 miles
•Equatorial Radius
•English: 43,440.7 miles
•Equatorial Circumference
•English: 272,945.9 miles
•Mass
•Metric: 1,898,130,000,000,000,0
00,000,000,000 kg
•Equatorial Surface Gravity
•English: 81.3 ft/s2
•By Comparison: If you weigh 100
pounds on Earth, you would
weigh 253 pounds on Jupiter.
•Effective Temperature
•English: -234 °F
•Atmospheric Constituents
•Hydrogen, Helium
•Scientific Notation: H2, He
•Average Distance from the Sun
•English: 886,489,415 miles
•Equatorial Radius
•English: 36,183.7 miles
•Equatorial Circumference
•English: 227,348.8 miles
•Mass
•Metric: 568,319,000,000,000,000,000
,000,000 kg
•Equatorial Surface Gravity
•English: 34.3 ft/s2
•By Comparison: If you weigh 100
pounds on Earth, you would weigh
about 107 pounds on Saturn (at the
equator).
•Effective Temperature
•English: -288 °F
•Atmospheric Constituents
•Hydrogen, Helium
•Scientific Notation: H2, He
•By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere
consists mostly of N2 and O2.

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