I/O Interfacing

Report
8051 I/O Interfacing
 Need for more ports
 PPI 8255
 8255 – 8051 Interfacing
 Key board Interfacing
 LED Interfacing
 7 Segment LED Interfacing
•
•
•
I/O Devices connected through ports
8051 has 4 I/O ports P0 to P3.
In case 8051 needs external program and/or data memory
 P0 and P2 are used for address bus & P0 is used for data
bus.
 Only 2 ports (P1,P3) remain i.e. only 2 I/O devices can be
connected.
 In case system application needs interrupt, serial I/O,
i.e. alternate functions of P3
 Only 1 port (P1) remain i.e only 1 I/O device can be
interfaced.
•
•
In case of 8031(Rom less version )
Program memory is external i.e. (P0 and P2) are not available for
I/O interfacing.
•
If P3 in used for alternate functions then
Only one port (P1) in available.
• We need more ports.
• Intel has designed programmable peripheral Interface (PPI) Intel
8255 for this purpose.
• Intel 8255 PPI has 24 I/O lines distributed to four ports.
Port A – (8 Lines)
Port B – (8 Lines)
Port C – (Upper) – (4 Lines)
Port C- (Lower) – (4 Lines)
• Each port can be programmed to be input or output.
• Individual port lines can’t be read or written to
- different from 8051 ports.
• Ports have been put in two groups.
• Group A - Port A
and
Port C (Upper)
(PA7 – PA0)
(PC7 – PC4)
• Group B - Port B
and
Port C (Lower)
(PB7 – PB0)
(PC3 – PC0)
The 8255A block diagram.
• D7- D0 – Used for data transfer between µp and 8255
(Bidirectional)
• RD (Input) Read control Signal
• WR (Input) -
Write control Signal
• RESET (Input)-
Resets the ports. Ports are configured
an input ports on Reset.
Used to select the 8255 chip. Chip is
selected based on the address decoding.
Are used to select the specified ports in
8255.
A1. A0 are lower 2 bits of as address lines.
• CS
-
• A1, A0
-
Issued by µp
A1
A0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Note –
-
Port A
Port B
Port C
Control Register
There is no separate selection for Port C (Upper)
or Port C (Lower) Port C is selected as a whole i.e. both upper
and Lower ports are selected when A1, A0 = 10.
• Control Register is used to program the
- Ports as input or output
- Program the I/O mode.
• The I/O ports can be programmed to work in any of the 3
modes
Mode 0
Basic Input –Output
Mode 1
Strobed Input-Output
Mode 2
Strobed Bidirectional Bus
• Mode 0 – Basic Input-Output majority of application fall
under this mode.
- Any port A , B, C(U) or C(L) can be input or output
• Mode 1- Strobed input-output
- Provides means for transferring I/O data to or from
a specified port in conjunction with strobes or hand shaking
signals.
- Port C lines are used for hand shaking signals.
- Port A and Port B can be used as input or output.
- Port A uses port C (Upper) lines for hand shaking –
Group A
- Port B uses port C (Lower) lines for hand shaking –
Group B
• Mode 2- Strobed Bidirectional Bus
- Port A can be used for input as well or output for transmitting
as well as receiving the data in conjunction with hand shaking
signals on Port C.
- Hand shaking signals are provided to maintain proper bus
flow direction
- 5 bits (PC7-PC3) of port C are used for hand shaking. Mode 2
is available for only Group A.
- Parallely Group B i.e port B can be used in mode 0 or 1.
• Configuring 8255
- We have already mentioned that 8255 ports can be configured
using control register (A1 A0 = 11).
- The control word format for configuration of 8255 is shown
• ExampleWe need to configure 8255 with Port A as input,
Port B as output, Port C (L) as output, port C (upper) as input
using mode=00
 Note – Mode set flag i.e. D7=1 for all configuration. If this bit
is one then only mode setting with be done by 8255.
• Thus D7=1 , D5, D6=00-Mode 0, D4=1 (Port A=Input),
D3=1[Port C(Upper)=Input], D2=0, (Mode=0) D1=0 (port
B=output), D0=0 [ Port C(lower)=output]
• So the Configuration byte =
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
=98 H
• By transferring 98H to control Register of 8255 will configure
8255 in the above manner.
• How -? We shall see after interfacing of 8255 with 8051.
 Note – The concept of 8255 configuration using control
register has been used in 8051 in case of Timer, Serial I/O and
interrupts.
8255 – 8051 Interfacing
• Let us review I/O mapped I/O and memory mapped I/O [Ref.
Page 38-39 of Krishna Kant book.]
• In I/O mapped I/O- The µp has separate instructions for
memory and I/O read-write.
• In addition µp will have separate control signals for I/O readwrite and memory read-write.
• A variation of this may be that µp has same read-write control
signal for I/O and memory but may have another signal to
identify whether the read-write is for memory or for I/O.
I/O and memory are treated separately
Example – 8086 has IN and OUT as I/O read and write
instructions. It has same RD (for read),WR (for write), signal
for I/O and memory read- write. It has M/IO to identify
memory or I/O read-write.
In Memory mapped I/O
• I/O ports are treated as memory locations.
• µp having memory mapped I/O.
• Will not have separate instructions for I/O and memory readwrite.
• Will have only single read and write control signals for read and
write.
• Will not have any signal to identify memory or I/O read-write.
Example • 8051 has no separate instructions for memory and I/O read write
• 8051 has only single read and write control signal
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
PSEN – external program memory read
RD – External data memory read
WR - External data memory write
It has no signal to indentify whether read - write in for I/O or
memory.
Thus – I/O ports are treated as memory locations.
Thus if we have to interface 8255 to 8051 , 8255 must be
interfaced in external memory
External program memory can’t be written to .
Thus 8255 must be interfaced in the external data memory.
We need to select the address ‘XXXXH’ of 8255
The address on address lines to be decoded such that when
‘XXXXH’ is there, CS for 8255 is generated i.e 8255 needs to be
selected.
•
•
•
•
•
RD (8051) connect to RD (8255)
WR (8051) connect to WR (8255)
Movx instructions to be used for data transfer from / to 8255
8255 has four ports
When address lines
A1 – A0
=
00
Port A is selected
=
01
Port B is selected
=
10
Port C is selected
=
11
Control register is selected
• Thus last two bits starting address of 8255 address must be 00
• Assume that 8255 is interfaced at address FE10H
Port A address =
FE10H
Port B address =
FE11H
Port C address =
FE12H
Control register address =
FE13H
MOV DPTR, # FEI3H
MOV A, # 98H
MOVX, @DPTR, A
(will configure 8255)
MOV DPTR, # FE10H
MOVX A, @ DPTR
(will bring the content of Port A to ACC.)
• To generate CS for 8255 from given address.
Assume address = FE10
15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
F
E
1
0
• A1 , A0 are directly connected to 8255 and used for selection
of I/O ports A,B,C and Control Regester.
• For selection of 8255 through CS, the address bits A2 to A15
may be decoded using simple gates.
A15
A14
A13
A12
A11
A10
A9
A8
CS of 8255
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
Many Variations of circuits are possible
• If we select 8255 address as 0030H then decoding may beA5 A4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
CS
• But it will generate Cs for 8255 for all address where A7 to A2
= 00 11 00
• i.e. 0030H, 0130H …………….FF30H
• All these address will be valid for 8255 selection and are
called address aliases – (aliases is used in general for other
names identifying a person)
Problem - 1
• If selected address for 8255 = 8000H i.e.
• 1000
0000
0000
0000
• What will be decoding strategy ?
Problem -2
• If 8255 address = 1110H
• Then what will be decoding
• Decoder 74LS138 may also be used.
A12
A15
1 1 1 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
A1 A0
A15
A14
A13
A12
CS of
8255
A11
A10
OR
A9
A8
Decoding of 8255 Address E000H to generate chip select
Reading and writing to 8255 ports
• Let us assume that 8255 has been interfaced at address
E000H the port addresses will be
Port A
E000H
Port B
E001H
Port C
E002H
Control register
E003H
• Consider that the application demands the following ports
configuration
Port A
Output
Port B
Input
Port C
Output
Mode = 0
What will be control word of 8255 ?
• The 8255 control word will be-1000 0010 =82H
We may configure 8255 by writing 82H to control register in two
ways:(A)
MOV DPTR, # E003H
MOV A,
# 82H
MOVX @DPTR,A
Note - E003 is location in external data memory.
Other way of writing (A) will be
(B)
PRA
EQH
E000H
PRB
EQH
E001H
PRC
EQH
E002H
PRCR EQH
E003H
ORG 00H
SJMP 030H
ORG 030H
MOV DPTR, # PRCR
MOV A,
# 82H
MOVX @DPTR, A
• To read data from Port B
MOV DPTR, # PRB
MOVX A,@DPTR
• To write data to Port A
MOV DPTR,# PRA
MOV A,# Data
MOVX @DPTR, A
• Note :- 8255 ports ie . A,B,C have no addressable bits.
• That to find status of individual bits –
– Read port context
– Use logical operations ANL ORL etc
Or
- Use shift/rotate RRL , RRL etc
• In keil bit (24 MHz, 8051) 8255 has been interfaced at addres
E000H
• In program (B) way of writing is normally used.
• Now let us take some I/O interface
• We shall first take up
• Keyboard interfacing followed by
• LED interfacing and
• 7 segment LED interfacing
• Keyboard interfacing
Basic keyboard operation is shown in figure
IN
High
OUT (High when the key is pressed)
Basic keyboard operation-single key.
OUT 1
IN
OUT 2
Basic keyboard operation- two keys.
OUT 1
OUT 2
IN
OUT 3
OUT 4
Basic keyboard operation – four keys.
• Above Configuration can’t be adopted for more no. of keys
A 64 key keyboard will require 8 bit ports
We may represent the above as.
(1)
OUT1
IN1
(2)
C
(3)
IN2
(4)
2x2 keyboard operation
OUT2
• Contains two rows – IN1 and IN2 and two columns OUT1 and
OUT2
• Activate Row1 i.e IN1 check OUT1 (If 1 then key No. 1)
• Else cheek OUT2 (If 1 then key No. 2)
• Activate Row2 i.e IN2 check OUT2 (If 1 then key No. 3)
• Else check OUT2 (If 1 then key No. 4)
• 8 x 8 key board can be arranged in 8 rows and 8 columns.
• Only two ports are required to interface with µp.
8x8 keyboard interfacing with microprocessor
• The codes of keys of key board may be staored row wise is memory.
XX1
XX2
XX8
Codes for keys
in the first row
Codes for Keys
in the second row
Codes for keys
in the eighth row
Code table for 8 x 8 keyboard
• When a Key is pressed.
row no. and column no.
i.e. position of key is identified
key code is taken from table and used in the program.
Keyboard- microprocessor interface
software flowchart
Start
I
1
Enable the Ith row
Set the address of the code
for the first key on this row
Check for key depression
Key
Depressed
?
Yes
Determine the
column number and
the code of the key
No
I
No
I+1
I>8
?
Yes
Key Debouncing
• When a key is depressed and released contact is not broken
permanently.
• Key makes and breaks the contact several time for few milliseconds
before the contact is broken permanently.
• Thus a key depression detected by µp may be false i.e it may be due
to bouncing of key.
• Thus key debouncing i.e. as certaining that key depression in true is
important.
• Debouncing by HW and SW both in possible.
• Software debouncing after key depression detected.
• µp executes a delay routine for few milliseconds.
• µp then again checks for key depression.
• If key is depression is detected then real depression else false
depression.
• Let us interface 4x4 keyboard with 8051
• Both rows and columns can be connected to 8 lines of one
port.
• Rows can be activated by using SET B bit instruction.
• Key Depression can be checked by using JB or JNB
instructions.
• Hex key pad interface in Lab.
- 16 keys (0 to F) arranged in
- 4 x 4 key board
• Rows connected to
– PB0 to PB3
• Columns connected to – PA0 to PA3
• You have to determine the key depression
• Store the code of the key in memory.
Fig-33
LED Interface
• LED i.e Light Emitting Diode
emits light energy when conducts
Anode is held at higher voltage than cathod
+5 V
LED operation.
LED interface with microprocessor
• Common cathode
Anode connected to Port Lines
[ Port bit = 1
LED Conducts
i.e glows ]
All cathodes connected together
to grounds
Port
Bit 7
Bit 0
Microprocessor interface to LED (common cathode)
• Common Anode
[ Port bit = 0
LED Conducts
i.e glows ]
Anodes of all LED’s connected
together to 5V
Cathodes of LED’s connected to port lines
Bit 7
Bit 0
+5 V
Microprocessor interface to LED (common anode).
• In common cathode- by making individual port bits as “1” we
may glow the LED.
• SETB P2.7 i.e LED connected to P2.7 will glow
• MOV P2,#OFFH – All LED’s connected to port Port P2 will glow
• In common Anode making a particular port bit ‘0’ will glow
the LED connected to the port line.
• CLR P2.7- LED connected to P2.7 will glow
• MOV P2, # 00H- Will glow all the LED’s connected to port P2.
Seven segment LED’s – The LED’s can be arranged in the fashion
shown in
a
f
g
b
c
e
h
d
• The structure has eight segments a,b,c,d,e,f,g and h. Very use
full in displaying numeric and alphanumeric data.
Example :- For displaying A, all segments except d and h should
glow.
Character formation in seven segment LEDs
a
f
e
g
a
b
c
f
g
c
e
d
• For displaying 6, all segments except b and h should glow.
• h is used for displaying decimal point.
Note – Previously there were only seven segments. Eighth
segment h has been added later. But name seven segment has
remained stock.
• The On/Off in formation of segments can be arranged in one
byte.
• Called control byte for 7 segment LED
• The bits (port lines) can be connected to segments as
common catnode or common anode fashion.
Common Catnode - Anodes connected to bits catnodes
connected to ground.
Common Anode – Anodes connected to +5V catnodes
connected to bit.
Representing segment code in byte
- two ways
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
0-Glow the segment for common Anode configuration
1-Do not glow
Common Catnode - bit =1, segment glows
bit = 0 – doesn’t glow
Common Anode -
bit = 0 – segment glows
bit = 1 – segment doesn't glow
• Microprocessor can be interfaced to seven segment LED in
parallel or serial way.
Parallel interface
+5 V
Anode
a
b
h
…
Resisters
Out port
7
6
0
Microprocessor interface to seven-segment LED (parallel interface).
in common Anode fashion
• Cathode of segments – connected to port bits.
MOV Px, #00H – will glow all the segments
CLR Px .3 – will glow segment No. 3 i.e segment ‘e’.
• Simple Hard ware and software interface
• For one 7 segment LED i.e display of 1 character one port is
dedicated.
• Thus for displaying 20 characters, 20 ports will be required.
Generation of ports will require extra hardware.
• Parallel interface is very fast but we don’t require very fast
changing display due to limitation of our eyes.
Serial Interface- Over comes the limitation of parallel
interface in case of large no. of 7 segment displays.
+5V
Anode
a
f
b
g
c
e
a
b
d
h
h
…
MSB
Resisters
LSB
Shift register
Code bits
Clock
Microprocessor interface to seven-segment LED(serial interface)
• Contains – shift register connected to 7 segment LED.
• Two input lines- one for code bits and other for clock.
• The operation sequence is shown in
Start
Load LSB from
display code
Load clock
Load next bit
No
Seventh
bit loaded
?
Load clock
Yes
Stop
• After 8 clock period the character will appear in 7 segment.
Example:- Display code for A
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
h
g
f
e
d
c
b
a
a
f
g
b
for common anode configuration .
e
c
• As bits move in shift register different segments glow and at
the end of 8 clock periods ‘A’ appears.
• Connecting more segments doesn’t require any extra port or
line. Using just clock and code bit line we may connect many
segments in serial fashion. MSB of a segment is connected to
input code bit line of shift register of next segment.
• The characters will appear almost instantenously.
• Large No. of 7 segment displays can be connected
• 74164 shift register is normally used. Any two port lines-one
for clock and other for code bits may be used for displaying.
• Control byte may also be arranged as
a
b
c
• In this case we shall
- Input MSB
- Input Clock
d
e
f
g
h
• And continue doing it After 32 clocks, the 4 characters will
appear in 4 -7 segment LED’s
• Coder bits of characters to be displayed may be stored in
consecutive memory locations.
D0
D1
D2
D3
•
•
•
•
•
Code bits are sent in the order of D0 to D3.
A segment counter is initialized to 32.
After every clock – decremented
When counter =0, - stop i.e. operation is completed
7 segment display experiment is port of microcontroller lab.

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