classical conditioning

Report
Conditioning
I.
Learning
A.
Any relatively permanent change in
behavior as a result of practice or
experience. Changes due to growth or
maturation are not learning.
B. How do we learn?
C. How do we stimulate learning?
1.
Rewards (operant
conditioning)
2. Punishments
3. Classical conditioning
II. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
People
(and animals) acquire certain
behaviors through classical
conditioning
Learning
process in which associations are
made between an unconditioned stimulus
and a neutral stimulus.
STIMULI
Something
that elicits a response.
NEUTRAL
STIMULUS:

Initially does not elicit a response.
UNCONDITIONED
STIMULUS (UCS):
UNCONDITIONED
RESPONSE (UCR):
elicits
a predictable response w/o training.
automatic or natural reaction to a stimulus w/o
training

STIMULI cont.
CONDITIONED STIMULUS (CS):
 elicits a response due to being paired
with an UCS.
CONDITIONED RESPONSE (CR):
 the learned reaction to a CS
Classical Conditioning

A. Pavlov’s Dogs Experiment
(US) Unconditioned Stimulus food
(UR) Unconditioned Response saliva
(NS) Neutral Stimulus bell
(CS) Conditioned Stimulus bell
(CR) Conditioned Response saliva to bell
- Ivan Pavlov
EXAMPLES OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Using electric wires to
keep cows in a field
UCS
- Electric shock
UCR
- Jump back
CS
- wire
CR
- Stay away
ELECTRIC CAN OPENER / CATS
UCS
- food
UCR
- Run into the kitchen
CS
- Can opener
CR
- Run into the kitchen
Classical Conditioning in the real (comics) world
Think, Write, Pair, & Share
Three big ideas (at least one
visual)
Two connections (to me or prior
learning)
One question (or thing I am
confused about)
John B. Watson & Baby Albert
1.
Little Albert
a.
(US) -
b.
(UR) -
c.
(NS/CS) -
d.
(CR) -
loud
noise
fear,
white
fear,
crying
rat
crying
Taking classical conditioning a step further
GENERALIZATION:
Responding to a second stimulus similar to the original
CS
 DISCRIMINATION:
the ability to respond differently to different stimuli
✏ EXTINCTION:
When the CR gradually dies out after the CS is
repeatedly presented w/o the UCS
SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY:
When the CR reappears after a rest period following
extinction.
✏
What did Watson do after leaving academia?
 He
got involved with
advertising, using the
principles of classical
conditioning and
applying them to
getting consumers to
buy certain products.
Classical Conditioning and Phobias
 B.
Applications
1. Generalizations
A. Phobias
2. Discrimination
 C. Behavior Modification
1. Immersion Therapy
2. Systematic Desensitization
a. anxiety hierarchy
b. biofeedback/relaxation
Acquisition Curve
Cognitive Processes
Early behaviorists believed that learned
behaviors of various organisms could be
reduced to mindless mechanisms. (cognition in
rats and dogs does not play a role)
Rescorla and Wagner (1972) disagreed
Experimented
with rats using tone, light
(sometimes), and electric shock
Rats feared the tone, but not the light, even
though the light was always followed by a shock.
Cognitive Processes, cont.
Treating
alcoholics with
classical conditioning
Lace alcohol with nausea
inducing drugs
Patient knows to blame
the nausea on the drug,
not the alcohol
Similar treatment has had
limited success
Biological Predispositions
Early researchers believed that the laws of learning
were basically the same in all species. (any natural
response could be conditioned to any neutral stimulus)
Each species has predispositions that prepare it to
learn the associations that enhance its survival.
 Rats develop taste aversions to poisoned bait
 Birds (that hunt by sight) develop aversions to
the sight of
tainted food
 Humans develop taste aversions to novel foods after
getting sick. (not the restaurant, plates, people, or music)
Think, Write, Pair, & Share
Three big ideas (at least one
visual)
Two connections (to me or
prior learning)
One question (or thing I am
confused about)

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