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ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 1 2009 Acoustic Waves Acoustic wave: A longitudinal wave that (a) consists of a sequence of pressure pulses or elastic displacements of the material, whether gas, liquid, or solid, in which the wave propagates. In solids, the wave consists of a sequence of elastic compression and expansion waves that travel though the solid. In acoustic wave devices acoustic waves are transmitted on a miniature solid substrate. In a crystalline solid a sound wave is transmitted as a result of the displacement of the lattice points about their mean position. The wave is transmitted as an elastic wave. (Elastic substance is able to return to its original shape or size after being pulled or pressed out). The term sound wave is sometimes confined to waves with the frequency falling within the audible range of the human ear, i. e. from about 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Waves of frequency greater than 20 kHz are ultrasonic waves. Waves of frequency 109–1013 Hz are called hypersonic waves. VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 2 2009 Acoustic Waves There are various kinds of acoustic waves. Bulk acoustic waves are acoustic waves propagated through the bulk substrate material. If the motions of the matter particles conveying the wave are perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave itself, we have a transverse wave. If the motion of particles is back and forth along the direction of propagation, we have a longitudinal wave. Surface acoustic waves propagate along the surface of a substrate. There are some types of the surface acoustic waves. In the case of the Rayleigh waves particles in the surface layer move both up and down and back and forth tracing out elliptical paths. Acoustic waves VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI VGTU EF ESK 3 2009 [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 4 2009 Acoustic Waves Let us consider that longitudinal vibrations are excited in a rod. d m S d x 2 a d s dt Hooke’s law: 2 s t 2 2 E s x 2 ds dx F F ES x 2 dF dF dm x dx 1 F S x 2 ES s x 2 s ( x , t ) A exp[ j ( t x / v l )] B exp[ j ( t x / v l )] vl E/ E Here s is displacement; σ is stress. VGTU EF ESK F [email protected] s x . ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 5 2009 Acoustic Waves Mechanical waves are described using terms such as wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude and speed of propagation. Mechanical vibrations propagate along the rod as an elastic wave. The longitudinal displacement is given by the sum of waves that propagate in opposite directions: s ( x , t ) A exp[ j ( t x / v l )] B exp[ j ( t x / v l )] The displacement causes the longitudinal mechanical stress given by s ( x, t ) E j E A exp[ j ( t x / v l )] B exp[ j ( t x / v l )] . x vl The speed of the longitudinal wave is given by vl E/ The velocity is about 105 times less than the velocity of the electromagnetic wave. So using mechanical waves we can obtain sufficient delay time at short distances. vl f v lT – the length of the acoustic wave at radio frequency is short. At v = 5000 m/s and f = 1 MHz, = 5 mm. VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 6 2009 Acoustic Waves Let us consider that the length of the rod is l and its left end is fixed. Then B A s (0, t ) 0 s ( x , t ) C sin x e j t vl ( x, t ) C E cos vl (l , t ) 0 cos l 0 ln 4 2n 1 vl 4 j t π Natural frequencies: 2 E 4l ln vl f 4 2n 1 l At natural frequency odd number of wavelength quarters fit in the length of the rod. Vibrations of a rod VGTU EF ESK ( 2 n 1) ( 2 n 1) l e vl vl vl f ln l ( 2 n 1) l x Vibrations of a rod 1 [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 7 2009 Acoustic Waves l ( 2 n 1) ln l n 4 VGTU EF ESK λ ln 2 [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 8 2009 Flexural Bending Mode Shapes and Boundary Conditions Dan Russell, Ph.D., Applied Physics, Kettering University All text and images on this page are ©2006 by Daniel A. Russell and may not used in other web pages or reports without permission VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 9 2009 Dan Russell, Ph.D., Applied Physics, Kettering University VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 10 2009 Acoustic Waves and Mechanical Resonators 1. Mechanical resonators are small and have high quality (to 107). 2. Because resonant frequency is dependent on the resonator dimensions and elasticity modulus, materials having small thermal expansion coefficient and stable elasticity modulus must be used for mechanical resonators. 3. The velocity of acoustic wave is dependent on the type of the wave. 4. The natural frequencies depend on the types of acoustic wave. 5. A mechanical resonator have many resonant frequencies dependent on the number n, type of the acoustic wave and other factors. This property is not desirable in electronic applications. 6. The desirable type of vibrations may be selected by the selection of the form of a resonator and the method used for excitation of vibrations. Rectangular VGTU EF ESK Circular [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 11 2009 Dan Russell, Ph.D., Applied Physics, Kettering University VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI 12 2009 Dan Russell, Ph.D., Applied Physics, Kettering University VGTU EF ESK [email protected] ELEKTRONIKOS ĮTAISAI VGTU EF ESK 13 2009 [email protected]