Electric mobility in future energy systems

Report
The role of electric mobility
in future Energy Systems
Dr. ir. Zofia Lukszo
With collaboration with dr. Remco Verzijlbergh
Section Energy and Industry
Technology, Policy and Management
@: [email protected]
April 9, 2015
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Content
• Why electric mobility?
• Responsive demand
• Are the goals of many actors involved the same?
• What about the environment?
• Why EVs can be compared to cold storage warehouses?
• What can we learn from looking at different price
scenario’s?
• Future work
April 9, 2015
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Future energy systems
Old
schedule generation
to meet demand
New
schedule demand
to meet generation
e.g.
electric
mobility
Electric mobility
How can electric mobility contribute to a more
sustainable transportation & electrical power system
and on the same time align the interests
of its relevant actors?
See: Remco Verzijlbergh, The Power of Electric Vehicles,
PhD Thesis TU Delft, 2013, http://repository.tudelft.nl/
Why electric mobility - CO2 emission
air quality, noise polluttion
Energy usage households +/- 10 kWh
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Energy demand (kWh/day)
Power sector
complex socio-technical system
Standard Household Profile
Estimation of the expected energy
usage of EVs
Data from Mobility Research Netherlands
Average: ~34 km
~ 90% < 100km
Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, “Mobiliteitsonderzoek Nederland (in Dutch)”
Available: www.mobiliteitsonderzoeknederland.nl
Charging scenario's and network load
Based on real life data
Network load:100 houses and 50 EVs
Price control
Load Control
Imbalance Control
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Separate EV demand profiles
Electric mobility in a city
– city of Utrecht
Load flow analysis shows:
• 10% electric mobility 
24% overloaded
• Reference case (merely
organic growth)
 19% overloaded
See E.J. Kleiwegt, Electric Mobility: on the Road to Energy Transition:
A technical and actor assessment of social costs of electric mobility, Master Thesis, TU Delft, 2011
http://repository.tudelft.nl/
Example – city of Utrecht
Use
calculations
for critical
component
map
Green/Yellow/
Red
locations for
installing
charging
stations
Merit order vs emission – two cases
D
April 9, 2015
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CO2 emissions of EV charging as a
function of CO2 price
A
D
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Dispatch profiles for different
vehicles scenarios
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Charging strategy based on predicted
price
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Negative price?
Conventional,
wind and
solar
power and
spot prices
for the German
system on
June 16th
2013.
Responsive demand – cold storage
Old
schedule generation
to meet demand
New
schedule demand
to meet generation
e.g. with
a cold
storage
warehouse
Matching renewable energy and
demand response through price
System model:
• Cold store has PV generation on site
• PV production known in advance
• Pays price Cin(t) for energy, receives Cout(t)
• Temperature upper bound Tmax
Goal: Investigate relations between demand response strategy
of a cold store and electricity prices & Evaluate different pricing
regimes on optimal energy use
Physical model of cold store
Heat balance
Incoming heat
Outgoing heat
Resulting equation for T dynamics
Discretized in time
System model
• Cold store has PV generation on site
• PV production known in advance
• Pays price Cin(t) for energy, receives Cout(t)
• Temperature upper bound Tmax
Optimization formulation
Objective function
constraints
Compare cold store with EV
optimization problem
Optimization problem
State dynamics
Price scenarios
A: flat tariff
B: flat double tariff
C: day-night tariff
D: APX based real time tariff
E: APX based real time tariff,
high solar penetration
Comparison
• Optimal cooling
trajectory depends
strongly on tariff
structure.
• Local use of PV energy
depends on tariffs
• Most 'value' of control in
case with high solar
penetration.
• The effective use of
demand response
requires the right tariff
structure
New plans
NWO URSES - CaPP Project
• Design, Management and Control Systems for multimodal, detachable decentral sustainable energy systems
• Car as Power Plant as a multi-modal system (power,
transport, gas/hydrogen, heat)
• ICT and business models for CaPP
• Detachable decentral = fuel cell cars
NWO URSES – CaPP Project
• design, assess and analyse the fuel cell car as power
plant (CaPP) in integrated transport and energy
systems
• investigate and design robust control systems of CaPPbased smart energy systems
• explore effective incentive and organizational
structures for the emergence of CaPP integrated
energy and transport systems
April 9, 2015
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PhD wanted!
CaPP
Most urgent question
• How to reduce uncertainty for actors in the energy
chain by developing the science and tools that are
needed for smart energy systems?
April 9, 2015
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April 9, 2015
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