Stiles

Report
Secondary Data:
Basic Issues
Secondary Data and Youth Violence Prevention Research
Aug 5, 2010
UC DATA
A quick overview
 Secondary data: what is it and where does it come from?

Survey and Administrative data
 Secondary data: why and how would you want to use it?

Multiple uses
 Secondary data: where can you find it?



Sites (archives, research organizations, government
agencies)
Strategies (keyword, literature, snowball)
Tools (SDA)
Secondary data: basic characteristics
Primary data




“New” data
Collected to answer specific questions or serve
specific needs
Known universe/sample
Tailored data items
Secondary data




“Recycled” data
Collected by others and re-used
Often (but not always) collected for a different use
Value reliant on meta-data (information about the
data)
Secondary data: basic characteristics
 Secondary data tend to emerge from two kinds of collection processes:


Survey data: collection for research purposes, coherent research
design, well-defined sampling process, intent to generalize
Administrative data: collection for program administration or routine
record-keeping
 Secondary data may be available either as:


Microdata: individual level records for a unit of analysis
Aggregate data: summary counts or statistics across multiple units
 Secondary data may be available either as:


Cross-sectional: data collected at a single point in time
Longitudinal data: data collected for the same unit of observation at
multiple points in time
ADMINSTRATIVE DATA ARE UBIQUITOUS
What happens:
•
When you get a parking ticket?
•
When you go to the emergency room?
•
When you enroll your child to school?
•
When you register and vote?
•
When you are born, marry, or die?
•
When you pay taxes?
An administrative record is created
Administrative records most closely tied to youth violence include:
•
Health/Injury records
•
Criminal Justice records
•
Educational System records
•
Child Welfare records
Administrative Data VS Survey Data
•
Administrative data characteristics
–
–
–
–
•
Restricted universe, but can have large amounts of data (millions
of observations)
Data collected only for program administration
Other data spotty, even if described in program
Rarely includes participant opinion
Survey Data Characteristics
–
–
Well defined sampling process
Usually fewer observations
•
•
•
–
American community survey (~200K)
GSS (~1500-6000) –
Public Opinion (~1200)
Individual opinions and characteristics often gatherered
A quick overview
 Secondary data: what is it and where does it come from?

Survey and Administrative data
 Secondary data: why and how would you want to use it?

Multiple uses
 Secondary data: where can you find it?



Sites (archives, research organizations, government
agencies)
Strategies (keyword, literature, snowball)
Tools (SDA)
Uses of Secondary Data
 Exploratory/Preliminary:

What is the ballpark you’re looking at? How
much variation is there in your dependent
measure? What comparison groups/causal
mechanisms can be identified?
 Research Design:


What is the sampling frame and how can it be
identified/stratified/clustered?
How did previous researchers phrase
questions/ collect data items?
Uses of Secondary Data
 Context:

How “important” is your research question?
How many people/areas will it impact? What
are the characteristics of your study population
and how does it differ from other populations?
 Analysis


Data allows, in whole or in part, answering a
research question.
Data may be extended or linked to other
secondary or primary data collection elements
Advantages of Secondary Data
 Cost: original data collector bear burden
 Comparability: results may be contrasted with
others using same/similar sources
 Time: research process can be shortened
dramatically
 Coverage: data may address points in time or
geographies not directly available to
researcher
 Knowledge/Skill: data collection may use
specially trained/knowledgeable staff
Disadvantages/ Concerns about
Secondary Data
 Sample design may be unknown/ undocumented
 Quality of data elements may vary dramatically
 Data collection strategies/problems may be difficult to
ascertain
 Data may be gathered for different purposes/ coded
in inappropriate ways
 Data may be outdated
 Cost/ Availability: proprietary or confidential data
A quick overview
 Secondary data: what is it and where does it come from?

Survey and Administrative data
 Secondary data: why and how would you want to use it?

Multiple uses
 Secondary data: where can you find it?



Sites (archives, research organizations, government
agencies)
Strategies (keyword, literature, snowball)
Tools (SDA)
ICPSR (Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research)
is a membership-based organization which collects data from
individual researchers, polling agencies, and governmental and
international agencies. Data set cover areas such as political
attitudes and behavior patterns, crime and criminal justice, state
and national voting records, election studies, census
enumerations, economic behavior, family studies, and social
atttitudes. Holdings at ICPSR are available to UCB subject to
IP verification. (www.icpsr.umich.edu)
Basic Data Search: by keyword
Bibliographic Data Search
Specialty Archives:
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/index.html
NACJD: Selected data
National Crime Victimization Survey
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/NCVS/
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) series, previously
called the National Crime Survey (NCS), has been collecting data on
personal and household victimization since 1973. Data from 1992-2008
available as microdata; a 1979-2004 extract for MSA cores is also
available.
National Juvenile Corrections Data
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/NCVS/
Includes three series of national juvenile corrections data collections:
Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), Juvenile
Residential Facility Census (JRFC), and the predecessor to the CJRP
series, Children in Custody (CIC). CIC is aggregate data, JRFC is
facility-level data, CJRP is individual level data. Current access only to
CIC.
NACJD: Selected data
National Incident-Based Reporting System
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/NACJD/NIBRS/
Incident-based reporting system for crimes known to the police; part of
the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program; 1996-2005
Incident: one or more offenses committed by the same offender(s) at the
same time and place.
Complex data structure:
Group "A" and Group "B" offenses.
"A" includes assault, homicide, sex offenses, "B" tends to be less serious crimes.
A: administrative record (ID, state, agency, related segments, date/time)
Offense (up to 10:
Property
Victim (up to 999: age, race, ethnicity, relationship to offender)
Offender (up to 99: age, sex, race)
Arrestee (age, sex, race, ethnicity, date of arrest, resident status, disposition)
Example: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/cgibin/SDA/NACJD/hsda?nacjd+04292-0007
UCR, age;
Specialty Archives
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/SAMHDA/
SAMHDA: Selected data
Monitoring the Future:
A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth
Approximately 125 to 140 public and private high schools and approximately 14,000 to 18,000 students are
selected in order to provide a representative sample of high school seniors throughout the U.S. In addition,
recent samples included 17,000 to 19,000 8th graders from about 180 schools and 14,000 to 18,000 10th
graders from about 130 to 140 schools.
Monitoring the Future has been conducted every year since 1975 by researchers at the Institute for Social
Research (ISR), University of Michigan. In 1991, the survey was expanded to include 8th and 10th graders.
High school senior respondents are given one of six different questionnaires, which vary by the extent of
questions about drug use and by the behaviors other than drug use that are probed. Core data asked on
each, questions about violent/deviant behavior and victimization asked only on form data.
Cross-time question indices at
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/files/SAMHDA/PDF/25382-ug.pdf (Grade 12)
and
http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/files/SAMHDA/PDF/25422-ug.pdf (Grade 8-10)
Health Behavior in School-Aged Children [U.S]
Since 1982, the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has sponsored a cross-national,
school-based study of health-related attitudes and behaviors of young people. These studies, generally known
as Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), are based on independent national surveys of schoolaged children in as many as 30 participating countries. The HBSC studies were conducted every four years
since the 1985-1986 school year. U.S. sample is roughly 15,000 students from 350 schools. ICPSR has 3
waves, from 1995/96 to 2001/02. Questions include bullying/violent actions as recipient and perpetrator,
weapons at school. Data from non-US countries are available for secondary research from Norwegian Data
Archive (http://www.hbsc.org/survey_data.html).
SAMHDA: Selected data
National Youth Survey (NYS) Series – 7 Waves, 1976-1987
Parents and youth were interviewed about events and behavior of the preceding year to gain a better
understanding of both conventional and deviant types of behavior by youths. Data were collected on
demographic and socioeconomic status of respondents, disruptive events in the home, neighborhood
problems, parental aspirations for youth, labeling, integration of family and peer contexts, attitudes toward
deviance in adults and juveniles, parental discipline, community involvement, drug and alcohol use,
victimization, pregnancy, depression, use of outpatient services, spouse violence by respondent and partner,
and sexual activity. Demographic variables include sex, ethnicity, birth date, age, marital status, and
employment of the youths, and information on the marital status and employment of the parents.
http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/youthviolence/index.html
http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/youthviolence/index.html
WISQARS
WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) is an interactive database
that provides data about fatal and non-fatal injuries at the aggregate level. Detail by geography,
age, sex, race/ethnicity, intent and cause of injury. Tabulations accessed in this system include:
National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP)
NEISS-AIP provides nationally representative data about all types and causes of nonfatal injuries
treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments.
National Violent Death Reporting System
Link state-level data on violent deaths for 16 states. NVDRS provides CDC and states with a more
accurate understanding of violent deaths.
Fatal Injuries from Death Certificate Records
Death certificate data from the National Vital Statistics System — deaths, death rates, and years of
potential life lost (a measure of premature death) by specific causes of injury mortality and common
causes of death.
http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/youthviolence/index.html
School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS)
SHPPS is a national survey conducted periodically to assess school health policies and programs
at state, district, school, and classroom levels.
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)
CDC's YRBSS monitors health risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and
disability among young people in the United States, including violence. Measures include carrying
weapons, carrying guns, in a physical fight, injured in a physical fight, hit or physically hurt by
boyfriend/girlfriend.
Youth Risk Behavior Survey - online
http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/youthonline/App/Default.aspx
Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement
Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth
Uniform Crime Reports, Summary Reporting of Offenses and Arrests
National Incident Based Reporting System
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997
The National Youth Risk Behavior Survey
National Crime Victimization Survey
National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Child File
Aggregate data available from OJJDP http://ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/ojstatbb/dat.html
http://www.ndacan.cornell.edu/index.html
Family Research Lab
http://www.unh.edu/frl/frlbroch.htm
Roper Center:
The Roper Center archives data from thousands
of surveys with national adult, state, foreign, and special
subpopulation samples conducted by Gallup, NORC, CBS, ABC,
Harris, the LA Times, the NY Times, and many other polling
organizations. Polls are available from as far back as the mid1930’s. Holdings at the Roper Center are also available via IP
screening. Over ½ million questions are searchable at the Roper
Center site. (www.ropercenter.uconn.edu )
http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/
http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/
http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/
Sociometrics
http://www.socio.com/ssedl.php

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