Specialized FACT “Functional Advanced Carbon Technology” Molecular Carbon Structure • The “Bucky Ball” • 60 Carbon molecules arranged in the structure of a ball, similar to a Soccer ball. Also known as C60. • Nanotubes • The advantage of carbon arises from the empty space, where metals have very little dead space and are therefore much more dense. What Is Carbon Fiber? • • • • • • • • Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polymer Carbon + Resin Higher quality “Carbon Fiber” involves improving not only the stiffness of each individual fiber, but also the quality of resin. Without one of the two elements, either one becomes useless in it’s application, imagine rebar and concrete used in a bridge. Structure comes from Unidirectional fiber, whereas 1K, 3K, and 12K weaves provide additional protection without structural significance. Modulus = Individual fiber stiffness; increasing modulus involves baking each fiber at higher temperatures which rapidly increases production costs. Higher modulus fibers are essentially refined at a higher temperature which increases the bond strength between each carbon molecule. Higher modulus allows the use of less material to achieve equal stiffness and strength when compared to the use of less modulus fibers. Construction Methods • Triple Monocoque: Frame is produced in 3 stages – Head tube, down tube and bottom bracket shell, top tube, seat tube – Seat stays – Chain stays Az1 and FACT IS • Az 1, pronounced “As one” – Utilizes tube to tube construction – Mitered joints are glued, wrapped and baked. •FACT IS •Monocoque top tube, head tube and downtube •Monocoque seat tube, bottom bracket shell and downtube extension •Az1 joints at downtube, top tube/seat tube, seat tube/seat stays and bottom bracket/chain stays. •Combination of construction methods for the lightest, stiffest and most compliant frame possible. Road Technology • Primarily “E” or Elasticity index fibers • R11: Pitch or E630, only used in Tarmac SL2, we are the first company to utilize this grade of carbon in bicycle frames. • R10: E390 • R8: E285 • R6: E240 Carbon Crank • Carbon Crank provides the highest stiffness to weight ratio of any crank in the industry. Mountain Technology • “Y” or Yield Fibers, which provide higher impact resistance than “E” fibers • All mountain bicycles utilize Y579, with mixing of “E” fibers • Much higher crush and impact resistance than the composites used in our road line. Advantages • Very engineering friendly • Greatest potential for technological advancement • Highest strength/stiffness to weight ratio of any material currently used in the cycling industry.