Library Design & Technology. - The University of North Carolina at

Report
Anthony Chow, Ph.D.
[email protected]
Assistant Professor
Department of Library and Information Studies
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
-Jacquelyn White
Librarian, Forsyth County Public Library
[email protected]
-Camilla Bahr
Overview

 Study Introduction
 Personal examples
 User Trends
 Literature Review
 Research Method
 Findings
 Discussion and Recommendations
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Introduction

 How are patrons using technology and interacting
with library space?
 What are the library trends for design and
technology usage?
 Case studies of Greensboro and Charlotte public
libraries
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Personal examples

 At work
 My kids
 Global communication
 Content creation
 At our public library
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Users Drive Technology Solutions

 What the data tells us (Sources: ALA 2010; Chow& Bucknall, 2011)
 People are using libraries more than ever in all areas of librarianship
 86% of families with school-aged children reported visiting the library
(ALA, 2010)
 18-24 (80%), 35-44 (73%), and 25-34 (70%)
 Top reasons for visiting a public library (more than one choice):
1. Books or associated media (77%)
2. Training and Education (41% listed as top choice)
3. Entertainment (35%)
4. Resumes, job searching, careers (22%)
5. Access to technology (17%)
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User Technology Trends

 New article: What Students Don’t Know (Kolowich, 2011)
 Digital natives, including top students, are not very
information literate
 Technology competence does not translate to information
literacy (growing up Google does not mean you know how
to use it)
 Virtual Reference study (Chow & Croxton, 2011)
 Faculty and staff prefer email and telephone
 Students prefer online chat (age was significant factor and
covariate)
 Familiarity and convenience were the primary factors 6 of 28
User Technology Trends

 Nationwide public library study (Chow, Bridges, & Commander, 2011;
n=1,219)
 50% websites managed as part of his/her job
 72% indicated no usability testing at all
 49% offered virtual reference services (email – 83%, chat – 39%)
 Virtual users – 1 billion accounts worldwide largely
 97% of all virtual accounts belong to 25 or under
 10-15 year olds, 46%
 15-25, 29%
 5-10, 22%
 Virtual worlds and public libraries (Chow, Baity, Zamarripa, et al., 2011)?
 Collaborate with other library professionals worldwide; educational promise
 My kids?

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40 accounts between them across six different worlds
Social interaction and engagement
Customize characters and do things they normally can’t
Play games and help their characters “grow”
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Literature

 “Investing money in technology and updated design
to tempt more patrons to use their services,
technology and spaces” (Mattern, 2007)
 PAT or Public Access Technology (Bertot, 2009):
includes public-access computers, wireless (WiFi)
access, ILSs, online databases, digital reference,
downloadable audio and video,
 “…users want a customized experience while using
technology designed for the general public, not the
individual user…” (Bertot, 2009)
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Literature (2)

 Six tenets in Library Design (Harrington, 2001) :
1.
2.
3.
4.
Self-service and operational efficiency
Extreme flexibility and integration of technology
Green/sustainable buildings
Collaboration between public and school/college
libraries
5. A renewed interest in aesthetics
6. Customize the library to the local community
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Literature (3)

 “So despite predictions of the death of the library due to
the information revolution and the availability of digital
resources, new library buildings are attracting renewed
attention, and in some cases, increased usage.” (Turner &
Davenport, 2005).
 “Libraries always have had a role in bringing
communities together. Now, more than ever, they are
serving multiple roles — as after-school youth centers,
senior centers, job centers, and extensions of the town
square. In many cases, libraries share locations with
schools or community centers. As the pace of change in
modem life accelerates, library design is changing too.”
(Schatz & Williams, 2010).
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Literature (4)

 “ ‘Just because we all have mobiles doesn't mean
there still isn't a desire among people to interact with
one another,’ cautioned architect Dennis Humphries
of Humphries Poli, suggesting four-place computer
stations where a family can use a computer
together.” (Kuzyk & Fialkoff, 2011)
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Method

 Administrator Interviews (2)
 Natural observations of two downtown libraries
 Observations were conducted on four different days
with variation of time frames
 Observational Checklist created in Google Docs Form
 Sample
 120 people
 70% of those observed were male, with 84 males
compared to 36 females
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Findings

 Downtown library
 Users sat at computers but did not use the reading
tables for reading or computing
 Rather they sat at smaller tables on the outside edges
of the reading tables either reading or using their own
digital devices
 The book store model – personal privacy
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Findings

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Findings (2)

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Findings (3)

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Findings (4)

Gender
# observed
Females
36
Males
84
Total
120
Interaction with Staff
5
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Space Usage
Findings (5)

Tables and chairs across from stairs
14
Main computer stations (circular
computers and those in front of
Reference desk)
34
Tables and chairs along the back
walls left of stairs
3
Tables and chairs beside genealogy
stacks
11
Personal computers near genealogy
Library
Technology Used
Public
Access
Computers
66
Printers
2
Copiers
1
8
Wireless
19
Personal computers & tables in the
Business connection center
12
Microfilms
2
Personal computers & tables next to
periodicals
5
Other
11
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Findings (6)

Personal Technology
Personal
Technology
Used
Space Specifications
19
Type Used
Laptop
15
PDA
1
Mobile device
1
Other
2
Number of
computers
29
Number of
printers
4
Number of
copiers
3
Number of tables
for 1 person
26
Number of tables
for more than 1
person
26
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Conclusions &
Recommendations

 1998 the space has not gone through any renovations
since then
 relatively new yet the space felt dated. The colors are
muted and dark, yet only appear in the furniture and
carpet
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User and Technology
Match

Remember top reasons patrons are coming to the public library:
1. Books or associated media (77%)
2. Training and Education (41% listed as top choice)
3. Entertainment (35%)
4. Resumes, job searching, careers (22%)
5. Access to technology (17%)
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User and Technology
Match

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Recommendations

 User Centered Design – needs analysis and
“functional” spaces based on patron usage patterns
and needs
 Flexible, comfortable spaces recognizing “privacy”
aspect of technology
 Some patrons need to use computers while others
just need to access the wireless network and a place
to work
 Ubiquitous computing expected – computing needs
to be where the sources are.
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Recommendations (2)

 “Going green can be the solution to budgets that
can't budge…The solution: a hybrid building that
will produce as much power as it uses.” (Brown,
2007)
 "Nobody really knows where technology is headed
next," said architect Peter Bolek, Holzheimer, Bolek +
Meehan, "[so] flexibility is key. You need to have the
infrastructure in place to accommodate …the
change" as libraries shift from hardware to being the
"connection point or portal." (Kuzyk & Fialkoff, 2011)
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Technology and Users

 Usability of technology and library space
 Utility (is it useful) and ease-of-use (efficient and
effective)
 Well designed website based on user priorities and
testing
 Library space designed to maximize efficiency and
effectiveness of information seeking through
technology
 Flexible, scalable, and designed for specific functional
purposes – Books and media, training, entertainment,
careers/jobs
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Q&A

 New book: Library Technology and User Services
(Chow & Bucknall, 2011)
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Thank You!!

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References
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ALA (American Library Association) (2010), The State of America’s Libraries – 2010. Chicago, IL: ALA.
Alexander, P. (n.d.). Should You Lease or Buy Your Tech Equipment? Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved on August 24, 2011
from http://www.entrepreneur.com/technology/managingtechnology/article80230.html
Chow, A., Baity, C., Zamarripa, M., Chappell, P., Rachlin, D. and Vinson, C. (2011), ‘Virtual Library Information Use and
Users: A systems perspective’. Unpublished, Greensboro, NC, USA.
Chow & Bucknall (2011). Library Technology and User Services. Oxford, England: Chandos
Chow, A., Bridges, M. and Commander, P. (2011), ‘What does a typical library website look like? Results from a
nationwide study.’ A paper to be presented at the North Carolina Library Association, October 4-7, 2011, Hickory, NC,
USA
Chow, A. and Croxton, R. (2011), Academic libraries, information seeking behavior, and virtual reference services: are
there differences between university faculty, staff, and students? Reference User Services Quarterly, in press.
Chow, White, & Bahr (2011). Public library space and technology. A paper to be presented at the Biennial North Carolina
Library Association , October 4-7, 2011, Hickory, NC, USA
Experian Hitwise (2011), Top 20 Sites & Engines. Accessed 14 April 2011, from Experian Hitwise:
http://www.hitwise.com/us/datacenter/main/dashboard-10133.html
Kolowich, S. (2011). What Students Don’t Know. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved on August 24, 2011 from
http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2011/08/22/erial_study_of_student_research_habits_at_illinois_university_libra
ries_reveals_alarmingly_poor_information_literacy_and_skills
McDougall, P. (2010), Tablets Will Replace One in Three PCs, Study Says. Accessed 11 April 2011, from Information Week:
http://www.informationweek.com/news/storage/systems/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=228800307
w3schools.com (n.d.(b)), Browser Statistics. Accessed 19 April 2011, from w3schools.com:
http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_stats.asp
w3schools.com (2011), OS Platform Statistics. Accessed 14 April 2011, from w3cschools.com:
http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_os.asp
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