Student Shop Safety Presentation - ITS

Student Shop Safety Presentation
Swarthmore College
By Julian Leland, 2010
Welcome to the Student Shop!
The Student Shop is intended to be a place for Engineering
students to work at their convenience on class and personal
• As Engineering students, the Student Shop is OUR
responsibility. We keep it clean, we keep it safe, we keep it
maintained, and we keep it open.
• In this presentation, you’ll learn the rules of the student shop,
guidelines for safe and productive use and be introduced to the
tools available to you in the Shop.
• Once you’ve finished reading through the presentation, please
complete the accompanying quiz and give it to the Faculty
3 Basic Steps to Safety
2. If you don’t know how to do it, ask.
3. If you see something unsafe, say so.
These simple steps will prevent 90% of shop injuries and accidents.
Rules Of The Shop
students are responsible for:
Safe shop practices and appropriate use of safety equipment
Maintaining a clean, safe workspace
Logging broken tools
Respecting the management practices of the shops (key restrictions, shop
hours, not removing tools from the shop) and assisting the Student Shop
Manager in their duties.
Students with access to power tools are responsible for:
– Keeping power tools secured/locked away when not in use
– Observing safe usage practices at all times, especially when other users are
in the shop.
Rules of the Shop
The Student Shop is open between 6 AM and 1 AM daily.
Only students who have been given keys to the Shop by the Department may
use the Shop.
Students wishing to have access to power tools must complete the Engineering
Machine Shop course and be confirmed by the Machinist as competent, safe
Students may NOT allow unauthorized students access to the shops.
Students with access to power tools may NOT allow unauthorized students access to
power tools, even to students who have access to the Shop.
Students must have at least one other person working in the shop with them when
operating power tools. If the student is using a benchtop tool, their companion may
not be using power tools at that time.
Please be reasonable and mature with regards to determining relative
importance/precedence of projects (class projects come before personal
projects, etc.).
Rules of the Shop
Safety glasses are to be worn at ALL TIMES in the Shop. There are no exceptions to this rule.
Closed-toe shoes must be worn in the shop.
Ear protection must be worn when working with powered tools.
Long hair, jewelry, flowing clothing and anything else that might be caught in a machine/impair your ability
to work safely must be removed, tied back, or otherwise managed.
Tools and other equipment may not be taken from the Shop under any circumstances.
Any messes made must be cleaned up, including debris produced as a result of work (sawdust, chips, etc).
Tools must be returned to their proper hangars/drawers/racks.
Damaged, missing or suspect tools or equipment must be logged with the Student Shop Manager. Failure
to do this makes the shop dangerous for everyone.
Others’ projects should be left alone unless absolutely necessary. If something is in a vise/clamp/machine,
it should not be removed.
– If you need to leave a project set up in a vise/clamp/machine, please leave a note in clear view
explaining the need for the equipment and including contact information. Please be considerate of
others’ needs for the equipment.
Egregious violations of decent conduct, such as theft, vandalism or endangerment, will be met with
immediate expulsion from the Shop, semester-long loss of shop privileges, and hopefully a serious
whomping. Don’t be evil.
This shop is everyone’s responsibility. Please respect and care for it accordingly.
There are virtually infinite ways that you can hurt yourself in the Shop! Hooray!
Among the things that you should be aware of are:
– Flying Debris - chips, tools, parts, people, etc.
– Sharp Parts or Tools
– Fumes
– Machine Entanglement
– Burns and Fires
– Heavy Stuff Falling Down
– Electrical Shocks
– Slippery Surfaces
Thankfully, there’s a whole bunch of ways that you can prevent these things
completely, or manage them safely when they occur.
General Safety Equipment
Basic safety equipment is your best friend in the shop - it will help mitigate the
vast majority of hazards.
Safety Glasses: your best friend, they must be worn AT ALL TIMES regardless
of what work you are doing. They will help protect against flying debris and
splashes: plus, they look damn sexy.
Face Shields: safety glasses for the serious engineer. Use these whenever flying debris
or splashes are a serious concern, or when using abrasive tools (especially wire
Earplugs: necessary when working with power tools.
Breath masks: use when working with large particulates (spray paint, sawdust)
Note that standard breath masks do not protect against fumes. If you are working with
dangerous fumes, you must either procure an appropriate respirator or work under a fume
Gloves: useful for protecting your hands against burns and abrasion. However, do
NOT use gloves when working with power tools, especially rotary tools they can get caught and pull you into the tool.
General Safety Equipment
Ventilation System: work near the ventilation fan if your work is producing fumes/smoke.
Be careful of fumes! All fumes are dangerous to some degree, and the Shop ventilation system
is not designed to manage serious fumes. Do not let yourself be exposed to excessive
fumes: if you start feeling light-headed or ill, stop work, move to fresh air
IMMEDIATELY, and get professional medical attention if necessary.
Fire Extinguisher: use in the event of a fire. Only attempt to control a fire if it can
be safely done.
In the event of a fire
Neutralize all immediate, life-threatening danger (evacuate the room, assist injured students)
Ensure that the fire alarm is pulled/Public Safety is called.
Attempt to control the fire if safe. To use the fire extinguisher:
Your brain: Ultimately, you are your best defense against injury. Work slowly
and carefully, think through your actions first, and ask if you are unsure about
Now on to the fun stuff - the tools!
The tools are in the shop for you to use - be cautious and safe,
but don’t be afraid of them. Other students will be happy to
show you how to use a tool that you’re unfamiliar with.
There are three basic categories of tools in the shop: hand
tools, power tools and auxiliary tools.
Hand Tools
Hand tools comprise the majority of tools you will use while you are in the Shop.
They include general-purpose tools (hammers, screwdrivers, wrenches, pliers),
cutting tools (saws, knives, shears) and measuring tools (rulers, squares,
calipers, micrometers).
Although simple, hand tools can be just as dangerous as power tools if misused.
If you aren’t sure how to use a tool, ask someone.
If someone tells you that you are using a tool unsafely, don’t get offended - they are
concerned for your safety. Listen to their advice.
General Purpose Tools
• Hammers
There are 3 types of hammers in the Shop: claw, ball-peen and soft.
All hammers: Hold the hammer at the end of its handle. Pivot at the elbow,
not the wrist. Strike with the the face of the hammer parallel to your target.
Claw hammers: For use with nails ONLY. The flat surface of the hammer
drives nails in: the claw can be used to take them out. To use the claw, slide
the fingers of the claw under the nail head. Push the handle of the hammer
away from the nail such that the claw lifts up, pulling the nail out.
Ball-peen: Can be used with wood and metal. Use this hammer with punches,
cold chisels and other cutting tools. The ball end is extremely hard and can be
used to shape metal.
Soft: May be made out of rawhide, lead or rubber. Use this hammer for
pounding wood fasteners, tightening/loosing vises or other machine parts,
fitting parts together and positioning objects (such as positioning a vise on a
DO NOT use the claw hammer with cold chisels, punches, et cetera. It is not designed
for use with hardened steel and may shatter!
DO NOT use the soft hammer with hard fasteners or on sharp objects - it will damage
the hammer face!
With all hammers, ensure that the head is securely attached to the handle!
Flying hammer heads can kill!
General Purpose Tools
• Screwdrivers
Screwdrivers are for tightening and loosening screws ONLY. Using them to scrape,
chisel or pry can damage the screwdriver and hurt you.
There are a variety of tip shapes for screwdrivers. Use the correct shape for your
Blade Shapes (looking at tip):
Flat Head
Phillips Head
Torx Head
Hex Head
(can be inside or outside)
Screwdrivers are sharp! Don’t hold your work in your hand while using a
screwdriver - clamp it down, put it in a vise, or on a table.
General Purpose Tools
• Wrenches
There are many varieties of wrenches, but all are used to tighten
and loosen fittings and bolts, and have jaws that are kept at a
specific angle to each other (generally parallel).
Adjustable Wrench: Good for general-purpose light duty work. The
jaws are open and closed with the thumb wheel in the body of the
wrench. Keep the jaws tight!
Socket Wrench: Comprised of a ratcheting body and different-sized
sockets that can be interchanged. Useful for bolts that require a lot of
Open Wrench: Simple, but useful for heavy-duty work. Some have
“box-wrench” heads - circular heads - which are extremely slipresistant.
Hex/Allen Wrench: Typically smaller than other wrenches. Fit inside
the fastener instead of around the outside.
Avoid damaging bolt heads whenever possible! If a bolt is not
turning, apply oil, gently tap with a ball-peen hammer and
consult other people before turning harder/increasing your
leverage on the wrench.
General Purpose Tools
• Pliers
Pliers are used to hold, twist and bend work. They can also be used to cut wire.
Never use pliers to turn nuts/bolts! You will round the corners of the fastener head, making
it harder to turn.
Use the correct set of pliers for the job. Thin needlenose pliers should not be used to bend
sheet steel - they will become “sprung” (the jaws will be bent away from each other) and
will be useless. Use flat jaw pliers instead.
Some special-use pliers:
Vise Grip Pliers: Something that all E6 students know and hate, vise grips are extremely useful pliers
nonetheless. A screw at the end of the handle is used to adjust the angle of the jaws. The pliers will
lock closed at this angle. To open, either pull the handles apart or (if applicable) press the opening
General Tools
• Punches, Transfers and Awls
Use all of the above tools with a ball-peen hammer.
Punches are long and non-tapered, with a flat tip. They are used to drive pins through
holes, drive nails/fasteners that are inaccessible to a hammer and clean holes
Drift pins are tapered punches. They are used to align holes before putting pins in.
Transfer punches are round, hardened steel bars with small sharp tips on one end.
They are used to transfer hole positions from one part to another. To use a transfer
punch, select a punch of the same diameter as the hole you are trying to transfer.
Place the punch in the hole; make sure the parts are correctly aligned, and strike the
punch firmly with a ball-peen hammer.
Center punches are used to make small indentations in metal before drilling a hole:
this prevents the drill from “walking” and drilling in an unintended location. They
typically have a slightly tapered end which abruptly points at the end.
When attempting to start holes, screws or nails in wood, an awl may be used - it is similar to a
center punch, except typically much thinner. Do not beat on an awl - they are not as durable
as metal punches. Use either hand pressure or a gentle tap from a ball-peen hammer instead.
Cutting Tools
• Saws
Saws are among the most common cutting tools in the Shop.
There are two primary varieties of saw in the Shop: wood saws and metal
saws (hacksaws)
Wood Saws: These are either “push” or “pull” saws, referring to which part of
the saw stroke causes actual cutting. They (typically) have larger teeth than
Metal Saws/Hacksaws: These are commonly comprised of a thin metal blade
held in a U-shaped metal frame, with a handle at one end. The blades can be
released from their frame and replaced, either when dull or when a different
blade is needed.
General Saw Use: Cut with as much of the length of the saw as is practical. Use
full, steady strokes. Let the saw do the work - you do not need to apply
excessive pressure. Choose an appropriate blade for the work: generally, finer
blades (more teeth per inch) are used for cutting thinner or softer stock. Cut in
such a fashion that at least 2 teeth are in contact with the work at all times. Be
careful at the end of the cut - the saw will tend to twist or tear the material.
Cutting Tools
• Files
Files are used for cutting, smoothing or removing small amounts of metal. They can be used to achieve
extremely precise dimensions, but must be appropriately cared for.
Files only cut in one direction - do not apply pressure on the backstroke! You will damage the file.
There are two primary types of file in the Shop: single-cut files, where the file teeth are cut in only one
direction, and double-cut files, where two sets of teeth are cut crossing one another. Use double-cut files
for rough work and single-cut files for finishing.
Regardless of file type, start with coarse-toothed (few teeth/inch) files and move to progressively finer
Files come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Use the appropriate file for the job - do not use a small
file to take large cuts out of hard materials, but similarly do not try to perform finish work with a coarse
File Cuts:
Cross-Filing: With one hand on the file handle and the other on the tip of the file, hold the file flat against the surface to
be filed, at an angle relative to the edges of the surface. Start the cut at the tip of the file, maintaining light pressure:
push the file straight across the surface being filed. Repeat, ensuring that you do not exert pressure when bringing the
file back.
Draw-Filing: Holding the file firmly in both hands, place the blade perpendicular to the direction of filing (but still flat
against the surface to be filed). Slide the file across the surface, exerting sufficient pressure to cut (but not enough to
bend the file). Note that pressure does not need to be relieved during the backstroke.
ALWAYS STORE FILES PROPERLY! Contact between files will damage their teeth. Store files in the
designated drawers or racks, taking care that the file blades do not touch.
Cutting Tools
• Chisels
There are two primary varieties of chisels that you may encounter in the
Shop; cold chisels and wood chisels. Do not confuse them! You can cause
the chisel or the work to shatter, seriously hurting yourself and
those around you!
All chisels are used by placing the blade against the workpiece between 15º
and 60º relative to the surface being cut, and then hitting the handle/end of
the chisel with a hammer.
Wood chisels are used for making square cuts and pockets in wood. They
typically have a wood or plastic handle. The blade may be a variety of
different shapes: however, the most common shape is a flat blade. Wood
chisels should always be used with a mallet - never a hammer.
Cold chisels are used for cutting and “chipping” steel. They are made from a
solid bar of steel. The cold chisel will cut any metal softer than itself. Use a
ball-peen hammer to drive a cold chisel.
If you notice the handle of the cold chisel “mushrooming” - developing a rough,
spread-out ring where the hammer has impacted it - let the Shop Manager know.
Cutting Tools
• Shears
There are a few different types of shears in the Shop: each is for a different
– Scissors: Well…duh. They’re scissors. You can cut soft material with
them - don’t use them for wire or sheet metal.
– Compound/Aviation Snips: These are heavy-duty shears used for
cutting sheet metal. Some aviation snips are designed to cut left- or
right-hand curves (l - they can be distinguished by their curved blades.
– Wire cutters: Also known as diagonal cutters, these cutters are similar
to pliers in size and shape, except that they have straight blades
running the length of the plier jaw.
– For other cutting tasks, including bolts, chains and wire cable/aircraft
cable, ask the Shop Manager for assistance. You can damage shears by
attempting to cut material that is too thick/hard: other tools may be
appropriate for the task you have at hand.
Measurement Tools
• Basic Measurement Tools
Rulers: These are self-explanatory. There are both measuring tapes and machinist’s rules
(6-inch rulers with very fine gradations) in the shops.
Levels: Used to determine the parallelness of a surface relative to the ground. They
commonly consist of a flat surface (a ruler or block) and a fluid-filled chamber with a small
air bubble inside. There will be two lines on the outside of the chamber: when the air
bubble is between the two lines, the surface is level. When using a level, ensure that no
debris is between the level and the surface being measured.
Measurement Tools
• Layout Tools
Combination Squares: Among the most useful measurement & layout tools available. A combination square is
comprised of a steel ruler and one of three head attachments.
Squaring Head: The combination head may be used to mark perpendicular and 45º lines. Combination heads also typically
contain a small level.
Protractor Head: The protractor head may be used to mark angular measurements. Be careful where you place the centre
of the angle!
Center Head: The center head is used to mark the center/midlines of circular objects. It consists of 2 arms that sit at 45º on
either side of the ruler.
Compasses: Almost identical to compasses used in geometry classes, except that they have hardened steel
or carbide tips. Can be used to scribe circles on steel.
Height Gauges: The height gauge typically consists of a long track that stands vertically in the air and a
“head” that can be set precisely at different heights along the track. The head has a carbide blade extending
from it. The height gauge is commonly used with a layout table, a smooth granite or steel block that is
ground and polished to be extremely flat, to scribe straight lines at precise positions in metal. To use a layout
table and height gauge, set the height gauge to the dimension desired. Placing your part on the layout table,
press the part firmly (but do not move the height gauge!) against the corner of the carbide blade and push it
so that the blade scores a line into your part.
DO NOT USE THE LAYOUT TABLE FOR ANYTHING BUT LAYOUT WORK! It is extremely tempting to hammer/work on
the table - DO NOT DO THIS.
Measurement Tools
• Precision Measurement Tools
Precision measurement tools are among the most valuable tools at your disposal, but they
are extremely fragile, and do not perform well if roughly or improperly used. Take the
proper care when using precision tools, and they will serve you well. Always
ensure that all surfaces to be measured, as well as your tools, are free from dirt and
grease. Do not drop, throw or rest things on precision tools. Do not expose them to
extreme heat or extreme cold. Do not use excessive force with precision tools - it will
reduce the accuracy of your measurements greatly.
Calipers: Possibly the most common precision measurement tool. Calipers can be used to
measure outer dimensions (with the main jaws), inside dimensions (with the rear jaws not very accurate) and depths (with the rod that extends from the end of the calipers
when the jaws are opened). When holding/using calipers, hold the calipers gently but
firmly around the body of the calipers and actuate the jaws using the thumb wheel.
Measure at the center of the jaws. If two hands are needed, gently grasp the front jaw of
the calipers to stabilize them.
Measurement Tools
• Precision Measurement Tools
Micrometers: Micrometers typically have a smaller range than calipers (1” vs.
6”) but are far more accurate, being capable of accuracies down to .0001”. To
use a micrometer, gently but firmly grasp the frame of the micrometer and
actuate the thimble with your other hand. Measurements are read from a
Vernier scale, which are used thus:
From Wikipedia: “The spindle of an inch-system micrometer has 40
threads per inch, so that one turn moves the spindle axially 0.025 inch
(1/40 = 0.025), equal to the distance between two graduations on the
frame. The 25 graduations on the thimble allow the 0.025 inch to be
further divided, so that turning the thimble through one division moves
the spindle axially 0.001 inch (0.025/25 = 0.001). Thus, the reading is
given by the number of whole divisions that are visible on the scale of
the frame, multiplied by 25 (the number of thousandths of an inch that
each division represents), plus the number of that division on the
thimble which coincides with the axial zero line on the frame. The result
will be the diameter expressed in thousandths of an inch. As the
numbers 1, 2, 3, etc., appear below every fourth sub-division on the
frame, indicating hundreds of thousandths, the reading can easily be
taken mentally.Suppose the thimble were screwed out so that
graduation 2, and three additional sub-divisions, were visible (as shown
in the image), and that graduation 1 on the thimble coincided with the
axial line on the frame. The reading then would be 0.2000 + 0.075 +
0.001, or .276 inch.”
Micrometer reading .276”
Power Tools
• Power tools are extremely useful, speeding up most
construction tasks greatly
• However, they must be treated with respect - they
can hurt you severely if used improperly.
• There are three primary types of power tool in the
shop - drilling tools, cutting tools and abrasive tools.
Drilling Tools
Drilling tools include hand drills and drill presses. Drill bits and tap
& die sets will also be covered here.
Drill bits:
The drill bits in the Shop are twist drills. They are primarily high-speed
steel, which can be used to cut most metals. It cannot, however, cut
high-speed steel or tap steel - if you break a tap/drill and need to
remove it, please see the Shop Manager
Note that drills will cut holes slightly larger than their rated dimension
(i.e., a 1/4” drill may cut a hole that is .257 in diameter)
When drilling metal, always be sure to start the hole with a punch
followed by a center drill. The center drill should be driven in until its
tip can no longer be seen
Use appropriate coolant when drilling, and do not overheat the
material that you are working with
Other types of drill bit include spade bits (for wood), masonry bits (for
stone), and countersink bits (for countersunk screws)
Drilling Tools
Taps and Dies
Taps and dies are used to cut threads into holes (taps) or onto rods (dies).
They are extremely hard, but are brittle, and will break if dropped or forced.
When tapping/threading, make sure that the dowel/hole you are
working with is the correct diameter! This should be checked with a
micrometer or very carefully with calipers. Consult the Shop Manager if you
need help with this - the proper diameter is rarely what you think it should be!
To thread/tap:
Prepare the hole/dowel by slightly beveling the edge that the tap/die will start
cutting at.
Mount the tap/die in the correct wrench. Place the tool in the hole/on the rod
to be threaded.
While turning the tool clockwise (for a right-handed thread), apply just enough
pressure that the tool begins to cut into the rod/hole being cut.
Once the tool has gained purchase, cut 3 turns, stop, and then reverse the tool
until you feel a slight “snapping”. When the tap/die cuts, it forms a spiral of
metal in front of each of its blades - this “snapping” is the spiral breaking off.
Repeat this process to cut.
Occasionally remove the tool completely and remove accumulated chips from
the hole.
ALWAYS use oil when cutting threads.
Drilling Tools
• Drills
– There are two primary types of drills you will encounter
in the Shop: hand drills and drill presses. They are
functionally the same; the drill press allows greater
accuracy and force, while the hand drill is more mobile
and versatile.
– With all drills, ensure that work is adequately secured
before drilling. The drill can catch on parts and cause
them to spin, causing severe injury. Always wear
safety goggles when drilling!
– Speak with the Shop Manager before drilling exotic
materials (plexiglass, bronze, brass, etc.) Some
materials require specially shaped drill bits to prevent
Cutting Tools
Saws: Used for making linear cuts in parts.
Bladed saws
The powered bladed saws you are likely to encounter in the Shop are
the hand-held jigsaw and the stationary vertical bandsaw.
Jigsaw: May be used to cut metal or wood - ensure the correct blade
is in the chuck. When using the saw, make sure to adequately
support your work and keep the saw pressed firmly against it.
Vertical Bandsaw: May also be used to cut metal or wood. Use slower
cutting speeds for harder materials. Before cutting, lower the blade
guide to the lowest possible height that will allow your work to pass
underneath it.Be cautious when cutting tubes or circular stock - the
bandsaw will attempt to spin them. NEVER attempt to cut wire or
other fibrous materials on the bandsaw - it will pull the material into
the saw, damaging the saw and potentially causing serious injury.
Cutting Tools
Abrasive Saws
– Abrasive saws are most commonly encountered as cut-off
wheels. They are typically rough and a dark color: they may
range in size from 1” diameter (Dremel tool cut-off disk) to 5”
(angle grinder cut-off wheel) to more than 1’ (tile saws, pipe
– Be extremely careful when using cut-off wheels, as
they can fracture. They spin at extremely high speeds
(10,000+ RPM), and throw sparks/other debris everywhere additionally, if they fracture, they will throw fragments of
wheel. Always wear proper eye protection: respirator masks
and face shields are highly recommended.
• If a cut-off wheel is ground down below 75% of its original
diameter (or to manufacturer specification), replace the wheel
Abrasive Tools
Abrasive tools are used for removing areas of material as you would with
a file. They include sanders, brushes and grinders.
Be extremely cautious around abrasive tools - they can sand off
your skin far more easily than they can sand metal. Be especially
careful to contain flowing clothes, hair and other things that could be
“grabbed” by the tool.
Sanders: Most materials can be shaped on a sander. You will most likely
encounter a vertical belt sander in the shop. To sand, support the workpiece on
the sander table and press it against the moving belt.
Ensure that the material/fingers are not pulled down into the gap between the
sander table and the belt! If the belt gets torn, notify the Shop Manager immediately.
Sanders can release great quantities of dust, sparks and fumes. Be conscious of these
hazards, and wear appropriate safety equipment.
NEVER sand metals when debris from sanding wood or plastic is around. The
sparks released can ignite this debris.
Parts that have just been sanded can become EXTREMELY hot - be cautious of your own
well-being, and also be cautious that you do not damage the material you are working
Abrasive Tools
Wire wheels: Used to clean and polish metals.
Among the most dangerous tools in the shop. They spin at extremely
high speeds, and will grab any soft material they contact and wrap it
around the wheel. Additionally, they occasionally throw wires during
regular use, making proper eye protection (and reasonably, full body
protection) absolutely mandatory - the wires will easily penetrate .25”
into skin.
When using a wire wheel, make sure that the wheel does not catch an
edge at more than 45 degrees - the wire wheel will throw the part if this
Never leave a wire wheel running, even if you are still in the room.
Grinders: Used to shape metals
Although not as dangerous as wire wheels due to their wheels being
mostly enclosed, grinders can still cause great harm, especially from
sparks or if a part is thrown.
When using a grinder, make sure you are using the correct wheel for the
job - consult the Shop Manager for help with this. Do not use the
grinder for sanding - it will clog and not work.
Support your part on the grinder table and take small cuts.
Auxiliary Tools
Auxiliary tools are primarily used for holding parts. They
consist of vises and clamps.
Vises: Use a screw action to close two jaws on parts and hold
them in place. Vises should be attached to something.
Some vises have anvil heads, which may be used for
hammering/shaping metal. If a vise does not have an anvil head, do
not use it as though it does!
For working with soft metals/other materials that might be damaged by
the vise, use soft jaws (typically made of copper or another soft metal)
or cut wooden shims to fit between your part and the vise jaws.
To clamp circular parts, use a 90º V-block (or even 2, if need be) - hold
the part between the V-blocks, and clamp the V-blocks together with
the vise.
Vises that are attached to machine tools should be treated with great
care - they are precision devices, and should be carefully maintained.
Auxiliary Tools
– Clamps: Clamps are used to hold parts together. They can also be used to
give better purchase on a part that you are trying to hold.
• C-Clamps: The most common type of clamp. Slow to use, but capable of exerting
extreme force. Tighten/loosen the clamp by rotating the handle.
• Furniture Clamps: Used to clamp over large distances (typically, across cabinets) can exert moderate force. Commonly, the head of the clamp will slide freely up
and down the shaft of the clamp until the two jaws of the clamp are tightened
around something.
• Spring clamps/hand clamps: Low force, but extremely easy to use - can be
applied one-handed.
First Aid
In the event that something goes wrong…
Neutralize any exigent danger (shut off a running tool, put out a fire,
disconnect power to a shorted tool) unless doing so would put you
at risk or more seriously injure the hurt person.
Contact the appropriate authorities:
Public Safety: (610)-328-8333 or 8333 from any campus phone.
Fire/Ambulance/Police: 911
Only if you are qualified, attempt basic first aid.
This is not intended to be a first aid course - rather, it outlines the
correct procedures for some basic injuries you may encounter. Unless
you are trained in first aid and comfortable with these procedures,
do not attempt these or any other first aid.
First Aid
Injuries and First Aid
– Cuts and Abrasions: For minor cuts and abrasions, clean with soap and
water, and then apply sterile bandages. For larger wounds, elevate the
wound above the heart if possible, and apply pressure. If bleeding does not
stop within 5 minutes, seek medical assistance. Large incisions, those that
still contain debris or those caused by dirty objects should also be examined
by a medical professional.
– Burns:
• Small burns (under 2” diameter) up to second degree (blistering, no charring of
skin) may be treated by soaking the burned area in cold water or by applying cold
wet cloths. Larger burns require medical attention.
• Chemical burns: Remove any clothing covering the affected area, and flush with
water for 10 or more minutes. Immediately seek medical attention.
• Use non-stick bandages when bandaging burns.
First Aid
Debris in Eye: If the eye has been penetrated by a foreign object, do not attempt to
remove it - seek medical attention. Other debris may be removed by gently moistening
eye and allowing debris to be carried out by tears.
Puncture Wounds: For small (under .5” deep) wounds, flush with water and soap to
clean after removing foreign body. For larger wounds, do not attempt removal - seek
professional assistance. Consult a doctor if the wound is caused by a dirty/rusty object.
Severed digits: Elevate the injured limb: staunch bleeding with sterile material,
applying consistent, firm pressure. Wrap the severed digit in sterile material, place in a
plastic bag and pack in ice. Seek immediate medical attention
Electric shock: If possible, shut off power. Standing on a dry surface, disengage victim
from source with a wooden broom handle or other dry nonconductive object.
Immediately get emergency help.
If there’s problem in the shop, contact:
– Student Shop Manager: ____________________
• Phone: ___ - ___ - ____
• Email: [email protected]
– Faculty Supervisor: Nelson Macken
• Phone: (610)-328-8073
• [email protected]
You’re Done!
Hooray! You’ve completed the Student
Shop Safety Presentation! Now,
complete the safety quiz that you’ve
been given and hand it in to the Faculty
Supervisor to receive your key.
Welcome to the Swarthmore Engineering
Student Shop!

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