China and Korea After 1279
By Adam Trubitt
Varun Koganti
Jesse Wang
Hugh Nguyen
Period 3
1. The Forbidden City in China was laid out with three walls. The outer wall protected the
Imperial City. Further inside the Forbidden city existed with limited access. The Forbidden
City was the home of the emperor and a place of elaborate ritual The Suzhou Gardenshad a
variety of flower assortments and were very aesthetically pleasing.
2. Chinese art was influenced by European style. In the Qing dynasty artist’s such as
Giuseppe Castiglione created art that mixed Italian style with Chinese. Many European
missionaries were in China and came to influence the ideas presented in the style of the
3. Communism in China led to a changing of the artistic style. Artists started to become
focused on realism and portraying struggle. Images such as Ye Yushan (27-17) show the
struggles of the people before communism. Communist art represented the people becoming
free and was used to show communist ideals.
4. The literai art of the Yuan dynasty was created as personal expression. As literai grew,
the works from the Ming dynasty differed. Literai artists of the Ming dynasty split into two
schools the northern school of rigid painting or the southern school of freer painting. This
caused new kinds of literai art that was very expressive in its nature.
5. Chinese architecture had an impact on Korean architecture because of the ideas and
traditions that it started. Chinese architecture employed great arches with elaborate designs
to show power. Korean architecture followed this and used it in some of their own pieces
created in the Choson dynasty(27-19).
1. Discuss the impact the Mongol
emperors had on the arts of China.
• Genghis Khan’s Grandson, Kublai Khan, ruled
china from 1279-1294, creating the Yuan Dynasty
• Marco Polo appreciated Khan’s opulent lifestyle,
palaces, paper currency, porcelain, and hygiene.
• China was more technologically advanced than
late medieval Europe.
• Though changed for the better, many Chinese did
not appreciate the foreign government and
created their own, very “Chinese”, traditional art
in rebellion. (Refer to 27-2 – 27-4)
2. Differentiate Chinese literati
painters in the Yuan and Ming
• Yuan Dynastic literati painters used simplistic
design and left out specific sharp details of
nature. They did not use much color.
(Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains, Huang
Gongwang, Fig. 27-4)
2. (continued)
• Ming Dynastic literati painters used sharp,
precise detail and use colors to create the
most realistic effect possible.
(Lofty Mount Lu, Shen Zhou,
Fig. 27-11)
3. Describe the Ming Imperial City
including the Forbidden City and the
pleasure gardens
• Imperial palace designed in Beijing
• Laid out as three nested walled cities
• Imperial City was walled, Forbidden City was moated
• Rituals of the imperial court were held in the Forbidden City
• Noon Gate – entrance gateway with five portals
• Suzhou Gardens – pleasure gardens
• Did not lay out flora like other cultures, but instead used scenic
arrangements of natural and artificial elements to display irregularities of
• Verandas and pavilions rise on pillars above water
• Dredged stones from nearby Lake Tai created the element of natural and
fantastic rockwork
4. Discuss the concept of primordial
line in Qing literai painting.
• The literai painting that established in the Ming
dynasty continued to be popular in the Qing
dynasty. Pieces with expressive force were
created by Shitao. In his writing, Shitao, stated
the use of a single brush stroke, primordial line,
should be the basis of all representation. Shitao
animated his paintings and depicted forces
flowing through his work. This was done with the
use of primordial line.
• Refer to 27-14
5. Elaborate on foreign influence in
Chinese arts and culture.
Chinese past and present is composed up of extraordinary art
and culture. Although many artworks were invented and perfected
by the nation itself. Some were influence by foreign countries. To
convey, during the Qing Dynasty, from increased contact with
Europe bought many Jesuit missionaries to the Qing court. This lead
to Jesuit artists, such as Giuseppe Castiglione to developed a hybrid
of Italian-Chinese painting styles. To further analyze, one of
Castiglione’s painting, Auspicious Objects, was made in honor of the
Yongzheng emperor’s birthday. This painting emphasis on a single
source of light that creates consistent shadows. The painting also
obtains motifs such as an eagle that connotes imperial status and
courage. The evergreen pines and rocks of the paints bring that idea
of longevity.
6. Summarize the porcelain traditions
in from the Yuan to the present.
Porcelain is a Chinese art form; which has achieved a magnitude of such worldwide
admiration, “inspired such imitation”, or penetrated so deeply into everyday life. The term
“porcelain” refers to an object whose body is composed up of clay comprising kaolin. The
kaolin is also mixed with ground petuntse (a type of feldspar). The porcelain is then covered
with a glaze and is fired at an extremely high temperature (well over 2,000 degrees
Fahrenheit). This process is done so that the body material fuses and the resultant object is
impervious to liquids and is resonant when struck. A tradition of the porcelain made by
Chinese ceramists is when they would often decorate the porcelains with colored designs or
pictures. The minerals which changed color dramatically in the kiln are made out of finely
ground minerals suspended in water with a binding agent. This led to the over glaze colors or
“enamels” being fused to the glazed surface in an additional firing. This step offers glaze
decorators with much brighter palette with colors that would set the “vase” off. Different
time periods have different “images” that are imprinted on the porcelain. To exemplify, in
1351 vases that were donated to a Buddhist temple as a prayer for “pace, protection, and
prosperity” was consisted of decorations of bands of floral motifs. The vase also contained
symbols including phoenixes and dragons. These magnificent creatures symbolize the
traditions and culture of China. To further illustrate, the dragon inscribed in the vase
represents yang as it is the symbol of active masculine energy of Chinese principle. On the
other hand, the Phoenix is the principle of passive feminine energy; which is a representation
of yin.
Name: Temple Vase
Fig. 27-5
Date: 1351
Period/Style: Yuan Dynasty, Traditional Chinese elements.
Creator: Unknown
Material/Technique: Porcelain with under-glaze decoration.
Function: Part of Buddhist Prayer Set.
Context: Admired highly as “Chinese Jade”, very valuable to
the people. One of the oldest example of Cobalt UnderGlaze.
• Ideas: Used for prayers of peace, protection, and prosperity
7. Discuss the impact of Communism
on Chinese art
• Communism in 1949 inspired social realism
that broke from the past
• Intended purpose of Communism art was to
serve the people in the struggle to liberate
and elevate the masses
• Introduction of contemporary, modern art
Image 27-17
Name: Rent collection Courtyard
Date: 1965
Period/Style: Dayi China/Modern
Artist: Ye Yushan and others
Material/Technique: Clay
Function: Thought the supplication of that depicted the exploitation of
peasants by their merciless landlords before the Communists’ over ran
• Context: 100 yards long with life-size figures
• Descriptive terms: Life size, stiff, rigid, precise, pessimistic
• Ideas: The monument stood as a message that the type of exploitation
though cruelty of humanity must not occur again. Another message was
that only collective action could effect the transformations the People’s
Republic sought
8. Describe the impact of Chinese
architecture on Korean architecture.
• Korean architecture followed the example of
Chinese architecture in its strong structure
and elaborate detail. Gateways of Korean
architecture were influenced by the structures
of the Forbidden City in China. The gateways
were symbols of power in China and had the
same purpose in Korean architecture.
• Refer to 27-19
• Name: Namdaemun
• Date: 1398
• Period/Style: Chonson dynasty. Influenced by East Asian traditional
• Architect: Unknown
• Material/Technique: Stone foundation combined with bracketed
wooden superstructure.
• Function: South gate to Seoul
• Context: Similar to other elaborate arches this one is a symbol of
the rulers power
• Descriptive Terms: Elaborate detail, simple structure
• Ideas: Gateways were supposed to surround cities and be a symbol
of power. This is also seen in the Forbidden City.
Fig. 2719
A (Siphnian Treasury 5-18) vs B
(Wangshi Yuan 27-7)
• Both use some sort of columns as support structures
• Both appear grand and exquisite, with an ostentatious display of wealth
• Both have angled rooftops, suggesting the influence of Asia in Greek architecture (possibly
during the Orientalizing Period)
• Both are designed and serve to show the high power, status, and wealth of their countries
• Sculptures and reliefs are present on the pediment and frieze on all four sides
• This building served as a treasury: a storehouse for a city’s votive offerings
• The building utilizes the Ionic style
• Elaborate use of gold and silver was used to create this building
• Served as a pleasure garden: beauty lay more in the nature around the building and not so
in the building itself
• Garden was not arranged in a rigid order: designed to reflect and reproduce the irregularities of
uncultivated nature
• Rockwork was a prominent feature of the Suzhou garden – created a sanctuary for the wealthy
to commune with nature
• The garden opposes the formality of the Greek treasury, which was designed to reflect wealth
and power.

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