Noun - Institute of Management and Development

Report
ENGLSIH PROGRAMMED OF UME
THE UNIVERSITY OF
MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC
PREPARED BY: MEN TUM
ENGLISH TEACHER
OF
IMD & UME
Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher
Scheduling for students study
at 6.00 to 8.00 from Monday to
Friday in UME
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Core English
Vocabulary
Grammar
Do exercises
Core English
Vocabulary
Grammar
Do exercises
Core English
Vocabulary
Grammar
Do exercises
Core English
Vocabulary
Grammar
Do exercises
English for Business
Ready context
Translation to
Khmer language
Students’ mark!!!
Description
Minimum
Maximum
Attendance (Class participation)
2
7.5
Homework
3
7.5
Mid-term Examination
20
35
Final –term examination
35
50
Total
65
100
Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher
 Content
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UNIT I
UNIT II
UNIT III
UNIT IV
UNIT V
UNIT VI
UNIT VII
UNIT VIII
UNIT IX
UNIT X
Can You Understand The Text
Classroom Language
Prefixes
Nouns and adjective suffixes
Compound Nouns
Compound Adjective
Phrasal Verbs
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Prepositions
English Grammar for Business
Prepared by Men Tum English and Business teacher
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slide 47
UNIT I Can You Understand The Text
Where are the English words From?

From the old English
Many basic English words come from old English, e.g. England, house, woman, man,
child, bird, water,. They sometimes have irregular pronunciation.

From Latin
Other English words come from Latin, e.g. family, wine, number, school, educate.

From French
Some English words come from French, e.g. royal, hotel, menu, beef.

From other Languages
Today English is an international language. Thousands of English words come from other
languages, e.g. siesta (siˈes.tə/ noun [ C ] a rest or sleep taken after lunch , especially in
hot countries), (Spanish). Judo /ˈdʒuːdəʊ/ /noun [ U ] a sport in which two people fight
using their arms and legs and hands and feet, and try to throw each other to the ground.
He's a black belt (= has the highest level of skill) in/at judo.

From New words
Every year hundred of words come into English from new technologies, e.g. internet,
text massage, e-mail, modem.
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Do your exercises
a) Read the text once. Do you know the
highlighted words?
b) Read the text again. Now cover the text. Can
you remember where these words come
from. Write them in in the chart.
Internet
mine
menu
house
hotel
Family
siesta
woman
judo
e-mail
Old
English
Latin
French
Other
Languages New Words
Internet
c) Where are words in our country from?
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Unit II: Classroom Language
A) Equipment:
There are some of the things you may use in your
classroom or school. There are:
Chalkដីស,
OHP ឧបករណ៍បញ្ច ាំងស្លាយ,
Rubberជ័រលុប,
Board Pen ប៊ិចគ្រូ,
Boardក្តារខ ៀន, Pencil sharpener ឧបករណ៍សគ្រួចខមៅ ដដ,
File សឺរីរឹង,
Briefcase ក្តបូបយួរខោយដដ
Socket រនធឌុយខ្ាើង
Plug ឌុយខ្ាើង
Cassette recorder ម៉ា ខ ៉ា
Photocopier ម៉ា សុីនថតចរាង
Highlighters ប៊ិចរូសចាំណាំពាកយសាំខាន់
We can use some of these nouns as verbs: video a
programme (= record it on video); photocopy an exercise;
highlight new owrd; file some papers (= put them in a file)
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Classroom Language (cont’)
B)
Classroom activities
Things students or teachers do in the classroom:
Look up a word (= find a meaning of a word in a dictionary)
Borrow someone’s dictionary or rubber (=use it and then return it)
Rub out mistakes in a notebook (= remove mistakes using a rubber)
Plug in the tape recorder (= put the plug in the electric socket)
Turn up the tape recorder if you can’t hear it (= increase the volume) (opp of turn down)
Rub things off the board (= remove writing from the board)
Correct students’ English (= give the correct English if students make mistakes)
Things a teacher may ask students to do in the classroom:
Could you clean a board, Carlos? (= remove all the writing from the board)
Write these words down . ( Write these words on a piece of paper/ in a notebook)
Enrique, could you swap place (change places) with Lorina?
Kim, could you share your book with Petra? (= Use it together at the same time)
Repeat this sentence after me. (= say it again)
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Classroom Language (cont’)
C) Question about Vocabulary
What does ‘ plug’ mean? (Not what means plug?
How do you pronounce it?
How do you spell ‘bicycle”?
How do you use ‘ anyway’ in a sentence?
What’s the difference between ‘lend’ and
‘borrow’?
 Form……
 borrow something (from someone)
lend something to someone
lend someone something
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EXERCISES

Answers these questions
1) What do you rub off the board? Write
2) What do you put in a tape recorder?____________
3) What do you put on the OHP?_________________
4) What do you use the rubber for?_______________
5) What do you put on the photocopier?__________
 Match the verbs to the nouns
1)
Correct
a) place
2)
Clean
b) a ward
3)
Borrow
c) someone’s mistakes
4)
Swap
d) the board
5)
Video
e) a dictionary
6)
Do
f) a program
7)
Turn up
g) an exercise
8)
Look up
h) the tape recorder
 Here are some answers. What are possible questions?
1)
A: ………………………………………..? B: It means to exchange places
2)
A: ………………………………………..? B: /swǝd/ like ‘shop’ or ‘stop’.
3)
A: ………………………………………..? B: S-W-A-P.
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Unit III Prefixes
 What are prefixes?
Prefixes are groups of letters added before a word, which
then creates new words and new meaning. For example:
 biannual - "bi" means twice, so the new meaning is
"twice a year"
distrust - "dis" means not, so the new meaning is "not
to trust"
submarine - "sub" means under, so the new meaning is
"under water"
 There are many prefixes in English, some of which are
quite common and some of which are used-less
frequently. In some cases, the same prefix may have
more than one meaning, too. If you learn prefixes, your
ability to comprehend new words will greatly improve.
Unfortunately, it comes down to memorization.
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Prefixes cont’
Here's a list of many prefixes. The ones marked with
the following symbol (O) are more often used, and
should perhaps be studied first.
anti- against; opposite from/to
anti-aging
anti-bacterial
anti-viral
Some anti-aging skin creams can get quite pricey.
bi- twice; to
biannual
biplane
bipolar
The top sales reps have a biannual meeting in sunny
Puerto Rico.
circum- around; round about
circumlocution
circumnavigate
It's always been a dream of mine to circumnavigate the
globe in a sailboat.
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Prefixes cont’
de- opposite; reverse
decompose បាំបបកធាតុ, ខ្វើឲ្យខៅហ្ៅង defrag
demystify /mɪs.tɪ.faɪ/ បកគ្ស្លយ# ឆ្ងល់
The news program really demystified the race for the US Presidency.
O dis- not; opposite from/of
disagree
disappear
disconnect
As the stock market tumbled, my savings disappeared!
en- or em- អនុញ្ាតឲ្យ, យល់គ្ររឲ្យ, ទទួលយក, into; make into; put into; within
entitled ផ្ាល់សិទធិ, យកខោររងារ embed បងកប់ឬបញចចុះកនចង
empower ឲ្យអាំណច
Bob felt empowered the day of his promotion, and strutted around the office.
ex-រីរនុ , ខាងខដើរ former អតីត,
ex-boss
ex-colleague សហ្ខសវិករីរនុ
ex-wife
My ex-boss couldn't/didn't have a clue. He was incompetent!
fore- អាចដឹងបាន រាករណ៍បាន before; front; in front of
forefront
forerunner
foretell
The old lady could foretell when and where a person would die.
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UNIT IV: NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES
A)
Verbs + Nouns suffixes = Noun and Nouns or verbs + suffixes = Adjectives
Verb
Suffix
Improve (= get better)
Govern (=control affairs of a city or country)
Manage (= direct or control a business)
Elect (= choose somebody by voting)
Discuss (= talk about some thing seriously)
Jog (= running to keep fit or for pleasure)
-ment
-ion
-ing
Noun
Improvement
Government
Management
Election
Discussion
jogging
There has been a big improvement in the economy. Who do you think will win the
election? The problems are due to bad management.
Mix of Nouns or Verbs
Danger, fame
Music, politics, emotion
Economics, industry
Cloud, sun, fog, dirt,
attract, create
Suffix
-ous
-al
-y
-ive
Adjectives
Dangerous, famous ( = known by lots of people)
Musical, political, emotional ( = have or show
strong feelings) economical (= saves you money)
Cloudy, sunny, foggy, dirty (opp of clean)
Attractive (= pretty, good-looking) creative (=
ability to produce new ideas; with imagination.
The road were dangerous this morning. It was foggy and I can’t see far. He
was very emotional when he said ‘good bye’. Did you buy a diesel car
because it’s more economical
than petrol.
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NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES cont’
B) Adjectives + Noun suffixes
Adjectives
Suffix
Noun
Weak (= opp strong)
Happy
Ill (= sick/ not well)
Stupid (opp intelligence, clever)
Active
Similar (= almost the same; opp different)
-ness
Weakness
Happiness
Illness
Stupidity
Activity
similarity
-ity
*** Students will find out the example of these words
C) -able, -ful, and –less
-able: This common suffix creates adjectives from nouns and verbs:
An enjoyable evening, a comfortable chair, Jeans are still fashionable.
-ful: often means ‘full of’ or ‘having the quality of noun’ careful (= doing sth
with care and attention) careful driver, very helpful, painful, thoughtful.
-less: often means “ without”:
Careless, useless, homeless, etc….
*** Students will find out the examples for these words
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NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES SUFFIXES cont’
D) -r, -er, -or, -ist.
These suffixes can be added to nouns or verbs. They often describe
people and jobs.
-r
Bullet dancer
Shop manager
Party organizer
Bus driver
-er
Pop singer
Footballer
Employer
Hairdresser
-or
Television actor
Director
Coordinator
Translator
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-ist
Artist
Economist
Psychologist
Journalist
EXERCISE OF UNIT 4
Exercise I
a) How many suffixes are there in this unit studying?
b) How many types of those suffixes?
c) Are the words leaded suffixes “-ous, -al, -y, -ive”
nouns/verbs or adjectives?
d) Are the words leaded suffixes “ –ness, ity” nouns/verbs or
adjectives?
e) What are the type words when we suffix to them by
“-ment, -ion, -ing”?
Exercise II
1) Describe the 3 suffixes -able, ful, and -less. What do they
means?
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UNIT V: COMPOUND NOUNS
 WHERE IS A COMPOUND NOUN FORMATION FROM?
A COMPOUND NOUN IS FORMED FROM TWO WORDS, AND OCCASSIONALLY
THREE, TO CREATE A NEW SINGLE IDEA. E.G. EARRINGS, FRYING PAN, TIN
OPENER= cans opener, WASHING MACHINE, SUNGLASSES, CREDIT CARD,
TOOTHBRUSH ETC.. THEY ARE MORETHAT WRITTEN WITH A HYPHEN E.G. TSHIRT, MAKE-UP (= STUFF YOU PUT ON THE FACE, OFTEN ON LIPS AND AROUND
EYES, TO BE ATTRACTIVE)
 WHERE IS THE STRESS SYLLABLE STAND ON?
Most of the compound nouns , the main stress are usually on the
first part. E.g. post office, income tax. But sometime they are on
the both parts, e.g. science fiction, mother tongue.You must
have a good friend for helping you is a large size dictionary.
 HOW TO FORM THE NEW COMPOUNDS
One part of compound often forms the basis for a number of
compound noun as you can see the following:
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COMPOUND NOUNS cont’
Postman
Postbox
Post office
Film star
Pop star
Rock star
Toothbrush
Toothpaste
Toothache
Living room
Waiting room
Chat room (= an area for communication on the internet)
Here are some samples of compound nouns:
noun
adjective
verb(-ing)
+ noun
+ noun
+ noun
bus stop
Is this the bus stop for the number 12 bus?
fire-fly
In the tropics you can see fire-flies at night.
football
Shall we play football today?
full moon
I always feel crazy at full moon.
blackboard
Clean the blackboard please.
software
I can't install this software on my PC.
breakfast
We always eat breakfast at 8am.
washing machine
Put the clothes in the red washing machine.
swimming pool
What a beautiful swimming pool!
sunrise
I like to get up at sunrise.
noun
+ verb(-ing)
haircut
train-spotting
You need a haircut.
His hobby is train-spotting.
verb
+ preposition
check-out
Please remember that check-out is at 12 noon.
noun
+ prepositional phrase mother-in-law
My mother-in-law lives with us.
preposition + noun
underworld
Do you think the police accept money from the
underworld?
noun
truckful
We need 10 truck-ful of bricks.
+ adjective
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COMPOUND NOUNS cont’
Plural forms of compound nouns
In general we make the plural of a compound noun by adding -s to
the "base word" (the most "significant" word). Look at these
examples:
singular
a tennis shoe
one assistant headmaster
the sergeant major
a mother-in-law
an assistant secretary of state
my toothbrush
a woman-doctor
a doctor of philosophy
a passerby, a passer-by
plural
three tennis shoes
five assistant headmasters
some sergeants major
two mothers-in-law
three assistant secretaries of state
our toothbrushes
four women-doctors
two doctors of philosophy
two passersby, two passers-by
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COMPOUND NOUNS cont’
Note that there is some variation with words like spoonful or truckful. The old
style was to say spoonsful or trucksful for the plural. Today it is more usual to
say spoonfuls or truckfuls. Both the old style (spoonsful) and the new style
(spoonfuls) are normally acceptable, but you should be consistent in your
choice. Here are some examples:
old style plural(very formal)
new style plural
teaspoonful
3 teaspoonsful of sugar
3 teaspoonfuls of sugar
truckful
5 trucksful of sand
5 truckfuls of sand
bucketful
2 bucketsful of water
2 bucketfuls of water
cupful
4 cupsful of rice
4 cupfuls of rice
Some compound nouns have no obvious base word and you may need to consult a
dictionary to find the plural:
higher-ups haɪ.ərˈʌp/ someone with a more important position than you in an organization
also-rans /ˈɔːl.səʊ.ræn/ someone in a competition who is unlikely to do well or who has failed
go-betweens some1 who takes messages between people who are unable or unwilling to meet
has-beens: DISAPPROVING, a person who in the past was famous, important, admired or good at
something, but is no longer any of these.
good-for-nothings a person who is lazy and not helpful or useful . She told him he was a lazy
good-for-nothing and should get a job.
grown-ups: an adult, used especially when talking to children Ask a grown-up to cut the shape out
for you.
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COMPOUND NOUNS cont’
Note that with compound nouns made of [noun + noun] the first
noun is like an adjective and therefore does not usually take an -s.
A tree that has apples has many apples, but we say an apple tree,
not apples tree; matchbox not matchesbox; toothbrush not
teethbrush.
With compound nouns made of [noun + noun] the second noun
takes an -s for plural. The first noun acts like an adjective and as
you know, adjectives in English are invariable. Look at these
examples:
long plural form becomes ›
plural compound noun [noun + noun]
100 trees with apples
100 apple trees
1,000 cables for telephones
1,000 telephone cables
20 boxes for tools
20 tool boxes
10 stops for buses
10 bus stops
4,000 wheels for cars
4,000 car wheels
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Compound noun quiz
Using compound nouns, can you shorten the following phrases?
No phrases are not compound nouns
Change to compound nouns
1 a room for stores
2a tape for measuring up to 300 cms
3the assistant manager of the restaurant
4a station for express trains
5size of cables
6reduction in cost
7two periods of three months
8plugs with 3 pins
9two steel boxes for the tools
10the husband of my daughter
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Unit VI Compound Adjectives
 What is a compound adjective?
 A compound adjective is an adjective that comprises more than
one word. Usually, hyphens are used to link the words together
to show that it is one adjective.
Examples:
- Please request a four-foot table.
('Four-foot' is an adjective describing the table. A hyphen is used
to link 'four‘ and 'foot' to show that it is one adjective.)
- It is a 6-page document.
- Claire worked as a part-time keeper at the safari park.
- That is an all-too-common mistake.
12-page magazine, free-range eggs, never-to-be-forgotten
experience.
Compound adjectives can also be grouped using italics,
quotation marks and title case (i.e., capital letters). This is covered
more in the lesson Alternatives to Hyphens in Compound Adjectives.
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Compound Adjectives cont’
 Compound Adjectives from Proper Nouns
Often adjectives are formed from proper nouns (i.e., the names
of things), which should be written using capital letters. In these
circumstances, there is no need to group the words together
using hyphens.
Examples:
Did you manage to get the Billy Elliot tickets? (The words 'Billy
Elliot' are one adjective describing the tickets. As the capital
letters group the words, there is no need to use a hyphen.)
The village fete will be held on the Red Lion lawn.
្ូរិគ្បាររធរខោគ្សរនិងខ្វើខ ើងខៅឯវាលខៅៅ
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Compound Adjectives cont’
 Compound Adjectives with Quotation Marks and Italics
Although a less common practice, it is also possible to group the
words in a compound adjective using quotation marks, italics or a
combination of the two. (Italics tend to be used for foreign words.)
Examples:
It is an ab initio course (i.e., for beginners) initio is a Latin, From the
beginning; from the first act; from the inception. (italics used to
group the adjective)
Amber looked at the stick in the water, looked me in the eye and
then turned away, giving me a "get it yourself" look. (quotation
marks used to group the adjective)
For more than ten years, Jack claimed to be part of the "Mary
Celeste" crew before admitting to his cousin at a party that he was
not. (capital letters, italics and quotation marks used to group the
adjective)
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Compound Adjectives cont’
 Adverbs and Compound Adjectives
As covered in the Adverbs, an adjective is often preceded by a word like
very, well, beautifully or extremely. (These are adverbs.) Usually, there is
no need to link an adverb to an adjective using a hyphen.
Examples:
Young Tracey is an extremely brave girl. (The adverb 'extremely'
modifies the adjective 'brave' but is not part of it. There is no need to
group it and 'brave' together with a hyphen.)
It was a beautifully painted portrait in a skillfully carved frame.
(The adverb 'beautifully' adds to the adjective 'painted' but is not part of
it.
It is the same with 'skillfully' and 'carved'. There is no need for hyphens.)
 USE A HYPHEN WITH WELL
The following rule will cover most scenarios:
When preceding an adjective with the adverb well, use a hyphen.
well-known actor, well-known lawyer (< hyphen with 'well')
widely known actor (< no hyphen with any other adverb)
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Compound Adjectives cont’
 Ambiguous Adverbs
បដលមនន័យរិនគ្បាកដ
However, with words like well and fast (which are both
adjectives and adverbs), a hyphen can be used to avoid
ambiguity.
Example:
Jacob took the well-fatted calf to the riverside.
('well-fatted calf' as in a very plump calf)
Jacob took the well fatted calf to the riverside.
('well fatted calf' could be construed as a 'well' (i.e.,
healthy) and 'fatted' calf.
In the first example, the 'well-fatted calf' could be ill.)
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Practice your exercises of compound
adjectives

REWRITE EACH OF THE SENTENCES BELOW, FORMING A COMPOUND ADJECTIVE
FROM THE WORDS IN ITALICS AND MAKING ANY OTHER CHANGES NECESSARY
Example:
 The journey took ten hours. They make these chocolates by
hand. The memory was both bitter and sweet.
Answer:
 It was a ten-hour journey. These chocolates are hand-made.
It was a bitter-sweet memory.
1) That thing looks dangerous.
2) Mr. Reed is an accountant who was born in London.
3) She always dresses very smartly.
4) It was painted red like the color of bricks.
5) She has eyes like a Prepared
cat. by Men Tum English and Business teacher
Practice your exercises of compound adjectives
6) It was an occasion which was happy and sad at the
same time.
7) The tower has a shape like a mushroom.
8) He was famous all over the world.
9) The meal tastes awful.
10) Only planes with a single engine can land here.
11) A building of five storey suddenly collapsed.
12) We walked along a corridor which had a red carpet.
13) This machine is operated by hand.
14) The new director is an economist educated in Oxford.
15) He has very broad shoulders.
16) She's always very satisfied with herself.
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UNIT VII
Phrasal Verb
 What are phrasal verbs?
 Phrasal verbs are mainly used in spoken English and
informal texts. (The more formal a conversation or
text, the less phrasal verbs are found.)
Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and a particle
(preposition, adverb). The particle can change the
meaning of the verb completely. For example::
look up – consult a reference book (look a word up
in a dictionary)
look for – seek (look for her ring)
look forward – anticipate with pleasure (look
forward to meeting someone)
There are no rules that might explain the meaning of
phrasal verbs. All you can do is look them up in a good
dictionary and study their meanings.
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Phrasal Verb cont’
 Position of the Particle:
In some cases the particle is placed either after the verb or after the object.
 Example:
Write down the word
Write the word down
If the object is a pronoun, however, the particle has to be placed
after the pronoun (object).
 Example:
Write it down.
Your photo album. Put it down
Your jacket. Take it off
Phrasal verbs are mainly used in spoken English and informal
texts. (The more formal a conversation or text, the less phrasal
verbs are found.)
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Phrasal Verb cont’
Frequently Used Phrasal Verbs with:
 break, bring, call, carry, come, do, fall, get, go,
keep, look, make, put, run, set, take, turn
Exercise on Phrasal Verbs
Phrasal Verbs with 'up'
Complete the first part of the phrasal verbs. Use each verb only once.
1) Jane and I want to……………… up smoking.
2) Could you …………………me up at 6 o'clock?
3) We must ……………………up or we will miss the bus.
4) Can you ……………………... me up at the station?
5) In many countries, the pupils have to ……………….. up when the
teacher enters the class-room.
6) I usually have to ………………….. up at half past six.
7) I must ………………………………………up my room today.
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ANSWER KEY
 Jane and I want to give up smoking.
 Could you wake me up at 6 o'clock?
 We must hurry up or we will miss the bus.
 Can you pick me up at the station?
 In many countries, the pupils have to stand up
when the teacher enters the class-room.
 I usually have to get up at half past six.
 I must tidy up my room today.
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UNIT VIII:
Countable and uncountable nouns
 In English, nouns are "countable" or "uncountable“.
Countable nouns refer to things and concepts that
can be counted, like two hours, five puppies and
twenty geraniums. Uncountable nouns refer to
things and concepts that cannot be counted, such
as luggage, information or courage.
 Although identifying countable and uncountable
nouns sounds easy, it isn't always so—sometimes,
the same noun can have both a countable and
uncountable sense. Think of time, as in we've had
some good times (countable) versus it's time to leave
(uncountable).
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Countable and uncountable nouns cont’
 In English grammar, words that refer to people,
places, or things are called nouns. They can be
classified in many ways.
One way to classify nouns is according to
whether they can be counted or not. Many English
mistakes are related to this point. By learning
through this page, you will understand:
1) what countable and uncountable nouns are.
2) how to use them correctly in a sentence
Countable (or count) nouns are words which
can be counted. They have a singular form and a
plural form. They usually refer to things. Most
countable nouns become plural by adding an ‘s’ at
the end of the word.
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Countable and uncountable nouns cont’
For example:
Singular
Plural
Uncountable (or non-count) nouns are
words which cannot be counted.
chair
chairs
Therefore, they only have a singular form.
bottle
bottles
They have no plural forms. These words
are thought of as wholes rather than as
student
students
parts. They usually refer to abstractions
(such as confidence or advice) or collectives (such as equipment or
luggage).
For example:
Singular
money
furniture
information
Using Countable & Uncountable Nouns
When using countable or uncountable nouns,
pay attention to articles and adjectives! Some
articles and adjectives can be used with both
countable and uncountable nouns. However,
others can be used with only countable or
only uncountable nouns. Let’s see together!!!
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Countable and uncountable nouns cont’
Used with Countable Nouns Only
Used with Uncountable Nouns Only
a
a doctor, a pen, a meal, a class, a college
many
many cups, many books, many libraries, many
flights
few
Much
much money, much time, much
food, much water, much energy
little
little trouble, little equipment, little
meat, little patience
a little bit of
a little bit of confidence, a little bit of
sleep, a little bit of snow
few questions, few tables, few apples, few
holidays, few countries
a few questions, a few problems, a few issues, a
a few
few issues
Used with Countable & Uncountable Nouns
the
some
any
no
a lot of
countable
the monkeys, the schools, the teachers, the boats, the bananas
uncountable
the cheese, the machinery, the luggage, the grass, the knowledge
countable
some tables, some stores, some grapes, some cities, some nurses
uncountable
countable
uncountable
countable
uncountable
some time, some news, some bread, some salt, some mail
any forks, any socks, any bathrooms, any waiters, any beliefs
any advice, any soap, any transportation, any gold, any homework
no magazines, no chocolates, no pilots, no rings, no markers
no trouble, no grass, no scenery, no money, no furniture
countable
a lot of animals, a lot of coins, a lot of immigrants, a lot of babies
uncountable
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a lot of
help,
aEnglish
lot ofand
aggravation,
lot of happiness, a lot of fun
Countable and uncountable nouns cont’
lots of
enough
plenty of
Countable
uncountable
countable
uncountable
countable
uncountable
lots of computers, lots of buses, lots of parties, lots of colleges
lots of cake, lots of ice cream, lots of energy, lots of laughter
enough plates, enough onions, enough restaurants, enough worries
enough courage, enough wisdom, enough spaghetti, enough time
plenty of houses, plenty of concerts, plenty of guitars, plenty of
plenty of oil, plenty of sugar, plenty of cheese, plenty of space
Partitive Expressions with Uncountable Nouns
A list of 100 partitive expressions containing a partitive
+ uncountable noun, each with an example sentence.
(These expressions are in alphabetical order based on
the uncountable noun.)
Note that most of these expressions collocate strongly.
Let us discuss together with all those sentences in the
next slides……
Partitive is from old French mean that devid
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Countable and uncountable nouns cont’
a torrent of abuse
The manager was so angry that he let loose a torrent of abuse at his
workers.
Can I offer you a piece of advice about investing your savings?
a fit of anger
Harry slapped his girlfriend in a fit of anger.
a work of art
Everyone says her garden’s a work of art, it’s so beautiful.
a rasher of bacon How many rashers of bacon would you like with your breakfast?
a glass of beer
If you drink more than two glasses of beer, you shouldn’t drive a car.
a drop of blood
There were two or three drops of blood on the carpet.
a piece of advice
a spot of bother
I’m in a spot of bother because I can’t find my car keys, and I’m already late.
a loaf of bread
How much does a loaf of bread cost in Japan?
Could I have three pats of butter and some jam, please?
a game of chess
We played three games of chess, and Bobby won all of them.
a bar of chocolate If you’re a good boy, I’ll give you a bar of chocolate.
an item of clothing Put any items of clothing you no longer need into this box.
a pat of butter
a lump of coal
a cup of coffee
The kids found some lumps of coal beside the railway tracks, and took them
home.
The first thing I do when I get to work is have a cup of coffee.
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Decide whether these nouns are countable (C) or uncountable (U)
1. The children are playing in the garden. C
2. I don't like milk. U
3. I prefer tea. U
4. Scientists say that the environment is threatened by pollution. C
5. My mother uses butter to prepare cakes. U
6. There are a lot of windows in our classroom. C
7. We need some glue to fix this vase. U
8. The waiters in this restaurant are very professional. C
9. My father drinks two big glasses of water every morning. C
10. The bread my mother prepares is delicious. U
11. Drivers must be careful; the road is slippery. C
12. Some policemen are organizing road traffic to avoid any accidents. C
13. I bought three bottles of mineral water for our picnic. C
14. I'd like some juice please! U
15. Successful candidates will join the camp later this year. C
16. A rise in oil prices is inevitable since there is more and more world demand for energy. U
17. The exercises on this website are interesting. C
18. Dehydrated babies must drink a lot of water. U
19. Adult illiterates learn through a special government program. C
20. I met some nice people when I was walking along the beach. C
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UNIT IX Prepositions
What is a Preposition?
A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word
or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition.
A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to
the rest of the sentence as in the following examples:
The book is on the table.
The book is beneath the table.
The book is leaning against the table.
The book is beside the table.
She held the book over the table.
She read the book during class.
In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time.
A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated
adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can function as a noun, an adjective, or an
adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against,"
"along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside,"
"between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in,"
"inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past,"
"since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up,"
"upon," "with," "within," and "without."
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Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
On is used with days:
I will see you on Monday.
The week begins on Sunday.
At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with
the time of day:
My plane leaves at noon.
The movie starts at 6 p.m.
In is used with other parts of the day, with
months, with years, with seasons:
He likes to read in the afternoon.
The days are long in August.
The book was published in 1999.
The flowers will bloom in spring.
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Preposition “Extended time”

To express extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by,
from—to, from-until, during,(with)in
She has been gone since yesterday. (She left yesterday and has not returned.)
I'm going to Paris for two weeks. (I will spend two weeks there.)
The movie showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending in October.)
The decorations were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending in fall.)
I watch TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
We must finish the project within a year. (No longer than a year.)

Place
To express notions of place, English uses the following prepositions: to talk about the
point itself: in, to express something contained: inside, to talk about the surface: on, to
talk about a general vicinity, at.

There is a wasp in the room.

Put the present inside the box.

I left your keys on the table.

She was waiting at the corner.
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“Higher than a point”



To express notions of an object being higher than a point, English uses the following
prepositions: over, above.
He threw the ball over the roof.
Hang that picture above the couch.
“Lower than a point”





To express notions of an object being lower than a point, English uses the following
prepositions: under, underneath, beneath, below.
The rabbit burrowed under the ground.
The child hid underneath the blanket.
We relaxed in the shade beneath the branches.
The valley is below sea-level.
“







Close to a point”
To express notions of an object being close to a point, English uses the following
prepositions: near, by, next to, between, among, opposite.
She lives near the school.
There is an ice cream shop by the store.
An oak tree grows next to my house
The house is between Elm Street and Maple Street.
I found my pen lying among the books.
The bathroom is opposite that room.
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Preposition cont’
 To introduce objects of verbs
 English uses the following prepositions to
introduce objects of the following verbs.
At: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare
She glanced at her reflection.
(exception with mirror: She glanced in the mirror.)
You didn't laugh at his joke.
I'm looking at the computer monitor.
We rejoiced at his safe rescue.
That pretty girl smiled at you.
Stop staring at me.
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Preposition cont’
 Of: approve, consist, smell
I don't approve of his speech.
My contribution to the article consists of many pages.
He came home smelling of alcohol.
 Of (or about): dream, think
I dream of finishing college in four years.
Can you think of a number between one and ten?
I am thinking about this problem.
 For: call, hope, look, wait, watch, wish
Did someone call for a taxi?
He hopes for a raise in salary next year.
I'm looking for my keys.
We'll wait for her here.
You go buy the tickets and I'll watch for the train.
If you wish for an "A" in this class, you must work hard.
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Exercise on Prepositions – McDonald’s
Complete the exercise with the correct prepositions.
1. The first McDonald’s restaurant was opened
Dick and Mac
McDonald
the 15th
May 1940.
2. The best selling products
their restaurant were hamburgers.
3. So the McDonald brothers thought
a way to produce
hamburgers more quickly.
4. This was introduced
1948 and became known
the Speedee
Service System.
5. The first franchised McDonald’s restaurant was opened
1953,
and today you can find McDonald’s restaurants
more than 100
countries.
6. The meats
the burgers vary
the culture
the country.
7. Franchisees and future managers
McDonald’s restaurants are
trained
Hamburger University, which is located
Oak Brook, a
suburb
Chicago.
8. McDonalds is also known
its sponsorship
various international
sport events.
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UNIT X
English Grammar for Business
 Form of Present Perfect Progressive





P: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
Present Perfect Simple is used for actions that started in the past and
stopped recently or are still going on. The focus is on the course or
duration of the action (not on the result).
Action that is still going on
Action that started in the past and is still going on. We want to emphasize
how long the action has already been going on..
Examples:
We have been successfully working in this field since 1990.
I have been working in this company for over five years now.
Action that stopped recently and has an influence on the present
Action that has been going on for a certain period of time and is the
reason for a present situation.
Examples:
I am so tired – I have been working all night.
I have been trying to change the toner cartridge – now my fingers are dirty.
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English Grammar for Business cont’
The present perfect progressive expresses an action that recently stopped or is still going on. It
puts emphasis on the duration or course of the action.
Form of Present Perfect Progressive
Positive
Negative
Question
I / you / we / they
I have been speaking.
I have not been speaking.
Have I been speaking?
he / she / it
He has been speaking.
He has not been speaking.
Has he been speaking?
Exceptions in Spelling
Exceptions in spelling when adding ing
Example
final e is dropped
(but: ee is not changed)
come – coming
(but: agree – agreeing)
after a short, stressed vowel, the final consonant is doubled
sit – sitting
l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled (in British English)
travel – travelling
final ie becomes y
lie – lying
Use of Present Perfect Progressive
puts emphasis on the duration or course of an action (not the result)
Example: She has been writing for two hours.
action that recently stopped or is still going on
Example: I have been living here since 2001.
finished action that influenced the present
Example: I have been workingPrepared
all afternoon.
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Exercise on Present Perfect Progressive
 Complete the sentences in Present Perfect Progressive.
1) We (do)
business since 1995.
2) Mister Vincent (wait)
in the entrance hall for 20
minutes already.
3) Our company (supply)
pumps for almost 20
years.
4) I need a break - I (type)
in those numbers for
three hours now.
5) These customers (purchase)
our machines for
over a decade.
6) For the last 30 minutes, I (try)
to get through to
Misses Ryan.
7) Jane (work / not)
here for two years, but for
five years.
8) How long (you / learn)
English?
9) Marta is completely out of breath. (she / run)
?
10) (you / read)
the catalogue?
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English Grammar for Business cont’

Form of Present Progressive
P: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?

Use of Present Progressive
Present Progressive is used for actions in the present and
focuses on the course or
duration of the action.

Action taking place now
Being in the middle of doing something at the time of speaking.

Examples:
Carla is preparing the briefing.
I am looing for Mister Miller’s phone number.

Action taking place for a limited period of time only.
Actions that don't take place regularly, but only temporarily.

Examples:
Mister Thomson is on sick leave, that's why I am doing his job.
Three temporary employees are helping out this month.

Arranged future actions
Future actions that are already arranged (and maybe even jot down in a diary)
Beispiele = e.g = i.e:
I am meeting Misses Walker at 5 pm.
Bob is doing overtime tomorrow.
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English Grammar for Business cont’

Signal Words of Present Progressive

at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
The present progressive puts emphasis on the course or duration of an action.

The present progressive is used for actions going on in the moment of speaking
and for actions taking place only for a short period of time. It is also used to
express development and actions that are arranged for the near future.
*** Present progressive is also known as present continuous.

We’ll continue our Business English Grammar to the next version soon.
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Exercise on Present Progressive
 Complete the sentences in Present Progressive.
1) I (look for)
my pen.
2) Jane (print out)
the contract.
3) As long as I am on holiday, Hannah and John (take care)
of everything.
4) Look! Graham (wear)
a tie today.
5) That's because he (meet)
the big boss
in the afternoon.
6) I (work / not)
tomorrow.
7) Bob (talk / not)
on the phone.
8) What (you / do)
?
9) Where (Mister Bradley / stay)
?
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