Sex_and_gender_23_10

Report
SEX AND GENDER
PSYCHOLOGY
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
E.G.
HORMONES
GENETICS, ETC
USED TO EXPLAIN SEX DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
GENDER DYSPHORIA
• HTTP://WWW.NHS.UK/CONDITIONS/GENDERDYSPHORIA/PAGES/INTRODUCTION.ASPX
BIOLOGICAL APPROACH
JOST (1970) FOUND:
• RATS & RABBITS - IF WE REMOVE THE OVARIES IN THE EMBRYOTIC STAGE, IT MAKES LITTLE
DIFFERENCE TO DEVELOPMENT – STILL DEVELOPS INTO A GIRL
• BUT IF WE REMOVE THE TESTICLES (BEGINS AS A BOY), THE BABY RAT WILL DEVELOP
DIFFERENTLY AND BECOME A GIRL
ITS ALL ABOUT THE ‘Y’ (CHROMOSOME)
JOST
• JOST PROPOSED THAT:
• NATURAL FORM OF ALL HUMAN BABIES IS F
• Y CHROMOSOME SEEMS TO BE HIGHLY CORRELATED WITH ‘BIOLOGICAL VULNERABLILTY’
BEFORE BIRTH AND AFTER BIRTH
- MORE LIKELY TO CONCEIVE A BOY
JOST
• MORE BOYS ARE ABORTED IN THE EARLY STAGES OF PREGNANCY OR ARE
STILLBORN
• MORE BOYS DIE OF TRAUMA DURING BIRTH • THROUGHOUT LIFE MEN ARE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO CERTAIN ILLNESSES:
• E.G.
Heart disease, certain types of cancer, viruses, cerebral palsy
DISCUSSION
• HOW MANY PEOPLE BELIEVE IN THE TRADITIONAL GENDER ROLES NOWADAYS?
• DO YOU THINK THINGS HAVE CHANGED IN TERMS OF MEN AS BREADWINNERS AND WOMAN
AS HOMEMAKERS?
• WHO THINKS MEN AND WOMEN ARE MORE SUITED TO DIFFERENT ROLES?
• WOULD EVERYONE AGREE THAT WOMEN ARE MORE NURTURING THAN MEN?
• ARE LITTLE BOYS MORE ROUGH WHEN PLAYING THAN LITTLE GIRLS?
RESEARCH
ANIMAL STUDIES: HAVE PROVIDED EVIDENCE OF THE EFFECTS OF HORMONES ON BEHAVIOUR
GOY & ROSKO (1968):
• INJECTED PREGNANT MONKEYS WITH TESTOSTERONE
• OBSERVED THEIR FEMALE OFFSPRING
RESEARCH
FOUND:
• THEIR BEHAVIOUR WAS MORE LIKE THAT OF M MONKEYS - MORE AGGRESSIVE & M SEXUAL
BEHAVIOUR. SOME MONKEYS EVEN DEVELOPED PENISES INSTEAD OF A CLITORIS
RATS INJECTED WITH OPPOSITE SEX HORMONES DURING EARLY DEVELOPMENT ALSO EXHIBITED
OPPOSITE-SEX TYPE BEHAVIOUR
EVALUATION
• WHETHER OR NOT THIS APPLIES TO HUMANS IS DEBATABLE - WE CANNOT CARRY OUT SUCH
STUDIES ON HUMAN EMBRYOS
• HOWEVER SOME STUDIES HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED ON HUMANS WHO HAVE DEVELOPED
‘ABNORMAL’ HORMONAL CONDITIONS…
TESTICULAR FEMINISING SYNDROME
• MORE PROPERLY CALLED ANDROGEN INSENSITIVITY SYNDROME (AIS)
• E.G = PSEUDOHERMAPHRADITISM
OCCURS WHEN:
• NORMAL XY [MALE] FOETUS DOES NOT DEVELOP TESTOSTERONE RECEPTORS IN THE BODY
• THUS IS INSENSITIVE TO TESTOSTERONE - STILL PRODUCED BUT BODY DOES NOT PICK IT UP
• LACK OF INFLUENCE FROM TESTOSTERONE = FOETUS WILL NOT DEVELOP TESTES & WILL
DEVELOP INTO A ‘FEMALE’
• EXTERNALLY = LOOKS F BUT INTERNALLY ARE M [WITHOUT TESTES
TESTICULAR FEMINISING SYNDROME
PUBERTY
• TESTICLES (UNDESCENDED) BEGIN TO PRODUCE A LOT OF ANDROGENS BUT BODY STILL CAN'T
RESPOND NORMALLY
HOWEVER IT CAN CONVERT TESTOSTERONE INTO OESTROGEN [FEMALE HORMONE]
– SO PERSON DEVELOPS VOLUPTUOUS BREASTS, VERY LITTLE BODY HAIR
- BUT WILL HAVE NO UTERUS = NO MENSTRUAL CYCLE & INFERTILE
GOLDWYN CASE STUDY
DAPHNE WENT
• VISITED HER DOCTOR FOR HELP AFTER EXPERIENCING PROBLEMS FALLING PREGNANT
• DISCOVERED SHE WAS NOT ENTIRELY FEMALE
• SHE WAS MARRIED AND WENT ON TO ADOPT TWO CHILDREN AND LIVED HAPPILY AS A
WOMAN
ANDROGENITAL SYNDROME
THIS IS THE REVERSE OF TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION
• NORMAL CHROMOSOMAL F RECEIVES TOO MANY M HORMONES DURING EMBRYONIC
DEVELOPMENT
• MIGHT HAPPEN IF MOTHER GETS HORMONE INJECTIONS DURING PREGNANCY [SOMETIMES
GIVEN TO AVOID MISCARRIAGE]
• IN EXTREME CASES - FEMALE BABY CAN DEVELOP M EXTERNAL GENITALIA [PENIS AND
SCROTUM] BUT INTERNALLY IS STILL F
TURNER SYNDROME
• TURNER SYNDROME IS A GENETIC SYNDROME THAT ONLY AFFECTS FEMALES
• IT IS CAUSED BY AN ABNORMAL SEX CHROMOSOME
• FEMALES USUALLY HAVE TWO X CHROMOSOMES (XX)
• GIRLS WITH TURNER SYNDROME ONLY HAVE ONE FULL X CHROMOSOME
• THE CHARACTERISTICS ARE OFTEN TO DO WITH GROWTH AND UNDERDEVELOPED OVARIES
WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH GENDER
IDENTITY? WELL…
MONEY & HINES (1972) & HINES (1982) STUDIED FEMALES EXPOSED TO MALE HORMONES
BEFORE BIRTH
FOUND:
• GIRLS DISPLAYED MORE TYPICALLY MASCULINE BEHAVIOURS THAN THOSE NOT EXPOSED
• BUT INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS CAN BE CRITICISED AS CHILDREN WHO ARE EXPOSED TO
ABNORMAL LEVELS OF M HORMONES ARE OFTEN BORN WITH GENITAL ABNORMALITIES
– MASCULINE BEHAVIOUR COULD REFLECT HER OWN AND OTHERS REACTION TO HER MORE
MASCULINE APPEARANCE
EVALUATION
• BIOLOGICAL APPROACH ASSUMES WE CAN SEPARATE NATURE AND NURTURE
• SOME BIOLOGISTS DISMISS NURTURE WHILES SOME SIMPLY BELIEVE IT PLAYS A SMALLER ROLE
THAN BIOLOGY IN DETERMINING SEX ROLES
• BIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE IS FAR FROM CLEAR
EVALUATION
• GENERALISING FROM ANIMALS TO HUMANS IS NOT CLEAR-CUT
• STUDIES OF HERMAPHRODITES & PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITES SEEMS TO SHOW THAT
ASSIGNED SEX AT BIRTH DETERMINES SEX ROLE CHARACTERISTICS RATHER THAN BIOLOGY
• HAYES (1994), "LOOKING AT HUMAN GENDER BEHAVIOUR PURELY AS A RESULT OF
‘BIOLOGICAL SEX IS NOT VERY LIKELY TO PROVIDE US WITH A FULL EXPLANATION."
EVOLUTION
WHAT IS MEANT BY ‘NATURAL SELECTION’?
• ONLY THE STRONGEST, FITTEST SPECIES SURVIVE TO REPRODUCE – THE REST…
MALES = PHYSICAL STRENGTH, GREATER LUNG CAPACITY = BETTER SUITED TO HUNTING &
DEFENDING FAMILY/TERRITORY
FEMALES = CHILDBEARING, MILK PRODUCING = REPRODUCTION, CHILD-REARING, NURTURING,
DOMESTIC LABOUR
PARENTAL INVESTMENT THEORY (KENRICK, ’94)
INEXPENSIVE FOR MEN AND COSTLY FOR WOMEN - WHY?
• MEN CAN REPRODUCE MANY MORE TIMES DURING THE COURSE OF A WOMAN’S
PREGNANCY – LEAVING PLENTY MORE TIME FOR MEN TO PRODUCE MORE BABIES IN THE TIME
IT TAKES A WOMAN TO CREATE AND GROW JUST ONE!
• HUMAN INFANTS ARE BORN COGNITIVELY & PHYSICALLY IMMATURE - CANNOT SURVIVE ON
THEIR OWN – A WOMAN THEREFORE IS ‘BOUND’ TO CARE FOR A CHILD UNTIL CAPABLE OF
SELF-CARE, TAKING SEVERAL YEARS – THUS LEAVING YET MORE TIME FOR MEN TO FATHER YET
MORE BABIES
OTHER KEY TERMS
• PHENOTYPE: CAN BE DESCRIBED AS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN INDIVIDUAL
• GENOTYPE: CAN BE DESCRIED AS THE GENETIC MAKE-UP
• NATURE: IS GENETIC/ INHERITED
• NURTURE: IS DOWN TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
THANK YOU!
• HTTP://WWW.TEACHERS-DIRECT.CO.UK/RESOURCES/QUIZ-BUSTERS/QUIZ-BUSTERSGAME.ASPX?GAME_ID=4659

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