dr_Shreeranjan_india

Report
India: ‘Status and Vision for
ECCE’
Dr Shreeranjan,
Joint Secretary,
Ministry of Women and Child Development,
Government of India
India: The Context
•
•
•
158.8 million children in the 0-6 years
age group (2011), 13.1 % of the total
population
– 8,29,52,135 boys
– 7,58,37,152 girls
20 States and Union Territories have
over 1 million children in the age
group 0-6 years; large diversity
Burdens of Malnutrition
–
–
–
22% babies born with low birth weight
42.5% underweight (0-5 years)
79% children anaemic (6-35 months)
India’s Commitment
•
•
•
86th Constitutional Amendment : Art.21
The State shall endeavor to provide ECCE for all Children until they
complete the age of six years
Several international conventions, summits and resolutions
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act ( Section 11) :
With a view to prepare children above the age of three years for elementary
education and to provide ECCE for all children until they complete the age
of six years, the appropriate government may make necessary arrangement
for providing free pre primary education for such children
• A holistic and Integrated approach ( I C D)
based on the continuum of growth,
development and early learning for the child
under 6 years through convergence and
synergies in order to provide health,
nutrition, care and early education (in local
language)
opportunities
for
holistic
development of young children
ECCE Provisions in India
NGO
Private
Public
CSR
Unregulated, gaps in data base, ranging from minimalist to
profit oriented academically accelerated approach, untrained
teachers , questionable pedagogical inputs. About 50%
children outside public system
71509 SSA
Centres
1.3
million
Anganwadis, 80
million children, 35
million for ECCE
Child care
Kindergartens
Preschools
Balwadis
ICDS: World’s Largest ICD Programme
• An integrated early child development programme
aimed at addressing health, nutrition &
development needs of young children, P&L women
• Package of six services
• Started in 1975 with 33 CD blocks, today world’s
largest early childhood development programme
• Reaching out to about 10 crore beneficiaries:
• Children ( 6 months to 3 years) : 4.35 crore
• Children (3 to 6 years)
: 3.47 crore
• P& L Women
: 1.82 crore
1400000
2012-13
1303300
2011
706800
2005
290655
101864
4891
1975
1995
1985
Achievement during Eleventh Five Year Plan
•
32.88% increase in beneficiaries for SN [from 705.43
lakhs at the end of X Plan to 960 lakh during XI Plan]
•
18.96% increase in beneficiaries for PSE [from 300.81
lakh at the end of X Plan to 347 lakh (including 180 lakh girl
child) during XI Plan]
Integrated Child Development Framework
•
Bronfenbrenner, 1979
ICDS encompasses growth and
development of the child through
– preschool non-formal education
(ECE), linkages with primary
schools
– nutrition supplementation
– immunization, health check up,
– growth monitoring, home visits
and parent counseling
– health and nutrition education
– coordination and convergence
with allied departments
ECCE: Gaps and Challenges
• Low awareness and clarity regarding Early Childhood Care and
Development in families and society
• Absence of policy, curriculum and action framework at all levels
– Issue of access, diversity, standards and quality
– Parental aspirations and commercialization
– Weak linkages with family and community
– Weak linkages of ECCD resource centres/ universities/ learning centres
• Inadequate human resource: professional courses, training and personnel
preparation
• Inadequate attention and investment in child development
• Lower harmonization of efforts; absence of comprehensive strategy,
absence of allocation of roles and responsibilities
• Absence of the system of regulation and comprehensive child
development legislation
New Emerging Directions
• At the National Level
Ministry of Women and Child Development, the nodal ministry for care of
pre-school children including pre-primary education constituted a Core
Committee for preparing the ECE Framework and policy
•
At the State Level
Initiatives to Strengthen Preschool Education in ICDS
State ECCE Policy
Chattisgarh
Curriculum/ Activity Books
Thematic Curriculum (Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Chattisgarh,
Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Tripura), Calendar of Activities
(Bihar), Activity Books (Orissa, Punjab, Bihar, Chattisgarh,
Karnataka), rhyme and song books (Assam, Tripura)
Celebration of ECCE Day
Bachpan Divas (Bihar), ECCE Day (Karnataka), Bal Sabha (Madhya
Pradesh), Kanya Kelavani (Gujarat)
Child Friendly Anganwadis
AWCs based on BaLA (Building as Learning Aid) Concept (Madhya
Pradesh, Karnataka)
•
Innovative Initiatives:
Some innovative initiatives have also been undertaken by nongovernmental
organizations ; development partners etc.
New Emerging Directions: National ECCE Policy
Framework
National ECCE
Policy
ECCE
= ICD
Quality Standards
for ECCE
National ECE
Curriculum
Framework
Towards a Child Centric Environment
A Child Centered
Holistic
Approach
A Comprehensive
Policy &
Curriculum
An Integrated
Multi –
Sectoral
Convergent
Service
Delivery
Mechanism
Supportive
Supervision
Effective &
Continuous
Training
Advocacy for
Community
and Parent
Awareness
Creating Integrated systems of care and education practices with
enabling, promotive and supportive policies, legislations and affirmative actions
Feedback
10
The ECCE Policy in India
The cardinal principles informing this policy are
• Universal access with equity
• Quality in ECCE
• Strengthening institutional capacity
Access with Equity
• Universalise the provision of ECCE for all children
• Decentralized and contextualised approach
• ICDS Anganwadi Centre (AWC) repositioned as a “vibrant
child friendly ECD Centre”
• Conversion of AWCs into AWCs cum crèches with a planned
early stimulation component
• Partnerships across public, private and voluntary sectors
• Convergence with related care schemes, SSA and other
schemes
• Young children with different abilities would also be
reached.
Quality in ECCE
• Quality Standards and Specifications: Essential and Desirables
Interaction (teacher/child, child/child);health, nutrition, personal care and
routine; protective care and safety; infrastructure/ physical environment;
organisation and management; children experiences and learning
opportunities; assessment and outcome measures
• National Curriculum Framework promoting play based,
experiential and child friendly provision for early education
and all round development
• Child friendly and developmentally appropriate play and
learning materials
• A Regulatory Framework for ECCE to ensure basic quality
inputs and outcomes, across all service providers
Curriculum Framework for ECE
• Objectives of Preschool
Education
• Principles of Learning
• Curriculum Content
• Pedagogy: Methods
• Essential Play Material
• Assessment
• Role of Teacher/ ECCE
Educator
• Role of Parent
• Supportive Essentials
Language
Development
Motor
Development
Physical
Development
Creative and
Aesthetic
Appreciation
•
Non Formal
Preschool Education
Cognitive
Development
SocioEmotional
Development
Scientific
Temperament
Strengthening ICDS Service Package
• Early Childhood Care Education & Development (ECCED)
– Monthly ECCE Day
– Contextualized curriculum , including early stimulation package for under 3s
and school readiness interventions for children 5+
– Joyful learning and activity based, experiential learning pedagogy
– Local and culturally relevant, developmentally appropriate play and learning
material
– Child assessment
– Additional Anganwadi worker: Trained HR support
• Child Development, Care & Nutrition Counselling
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–
–
–
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Infant & Young Child Feeding (IYCF) Promotion &Counselling
Joint Mother and Child Protection Card
Maternal Care Counselling
Care, Nutrition, Health & Hygiene Education
Community based Management of underweight children
Strengthening ICDS Service Package
• Health Services
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–
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Immunization
Regular Fixed Monthly VHNDs
Immunization sessions
ANC / PNC support
Care & treatment of severely underweight through NRCs
Referral services to pre-identified referral network
Support for IMNCI / JSY & JSSK / RCH / NRHM
Health Education
• Community Mobilization, Advocacy & IEC
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–
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Interpersonal Communication
Information dissemination & awareness generation
Appropriate food demonstration
Voluntary Action Groups
– Village contact drives

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