AIS Development Strategies

Report
AIS Development Strategies
Chapter 21
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Learning Objectives
• Describe how organizations purchase application software, vendor services,
and hardware
• Explain how information system departments develop custom software
• Explain how end users develop, use, and control computer-based
information systems
• Explain why organizations outsource their information systems, and
evaluate the benefits and risks of this strategy
• Explain the principles and challenges of business process management
• Describe how prototypes are used to develop an AIS, and discuss the
advantages and disadvantages of doing so
• Explain what computer-aided software engineering is and how it is used in
systems development
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How to Obtain an AIS
• Purchase
• Develop in-house
• Outsource to outside organization
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Purchasing
• Select a vendor (from referrals, trade shows,
etc.)
• Request for proposal (RFP) that meets needs
• Evaluate proposals
▫ Top vendors invited to give demonstrations on
how their system will fit your needs
• Make a final selection based upon your criteria
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Develop Software In-House
• Advantages
▫ Provides a significant competitive advantage
• Risks
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫
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Requires significant amounts of time
Complexity of the system
Poor requirements defined
Insufficient planning
Inadequate communication and cooperation
Lack of qualified staff
Poor top management support
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End-User Computing
Advantages
Disadvantages
• Allows for end-users to create,
control, and implement simple
systems
• More likely to meet user needs
• Saves time
• Frees up system resources
• Easy to use and understand
• Lack of testing of application
and possible calculation errors
• Inefficient systems
• Poorly controlled
• Poorly documented
• System incompatibilities
• Duplication of data
• Increase costs in later years
with upgrades
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Outsourcing
Advantages
Disadvantage
• Allows companies to
concentrate on core
competencies
• Asset utilization
• Access to greater expertise and
better technology
• Lower costs by standardizing
user applications and splitting
development and maintenance
costs between projects
• Less development time
• Elimination of peaks-andvalleys usage
• Facilitates downsizing
• Inflexibility
• Loss of control
• Reduced competitive
advantage
• Locked-in system
• Unfulfilled goals
• Poor service
• Increased risk
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Business Process Management Systems
• Automate and facilitate business process
improvements using:
▫ Process engine to model and execute applications
and business rules
▫ Business analytics to identify issues, trends, and
opportunities
▫ Collaboration tools to remove communication
barriers
▫ Content manager to store electronic documents
and images
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Prototyping
Advantages
Disadvantages
• Results in well-defined user
needs
• Higher user satisfaction and
involvement
• Faster development time
• Fewer errors
• Opportunities to suggest
changes
• Less costly
• Requires significant user time
• Resource efficiency may not be
achieved
• Inadequate testing and
documentation
• Negative behavioral reactions
• Continuous development of
iterations leaves a feeling of no
project completion
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Computer-Aided Software Engineering
(CASE)
Advantages
Disadvantages
•
•
•
•
•
• Incompatibility with other
systems
• Unmet expectations
Improved productivity
Improved program quality
Cost savings
Improved control procedures
Simplified documentation
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Key Terms
• Canned software
• Turnkey systems
• Application service provider
(ASP)
• Request for proposal (RFP)
• Benchmark problem
• Point scoring
• Requirement costing
• Custom software
• End-user computing (EUC)
• Help desk
• Outsourcing
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• Business process
reengineering (BPR)
• Business process management
(BPM)
• Business Process Management
System (BPMS)
• Prototyping
• Operational prototype
• Nonoperational (throwaway)
prototype
• Computer-aided software (or
systems) engineering (CASE)
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