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OUTLINE
Background
“AIS”
Asian Carp Species
Origin, Introduction & Distribution
Impacts
Common Carp vs. Asian Carp
Positive Effects
Negative Effects
Management of AIS
North American Legislation
Canadian Methods
U.S.A Methods
Research
Limitations to Distribution Northwards
Suitability / Susceptibility of Manitoba
Implications of Climate Change
Management Recommendations for Manitoba
Pathways of Introduction into Manitoba
Sustainable Water Management
References
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Aquatic Invasive Species
“AIS” are defined as accidentally or intentionally
introduced organisms that out-compete native
species for resources in aquatic environments
Asian carp are deemed “great” invaders – for their
reproductive capacity & immense consumption
rates, which effectively pushes out native fish
populations pound per hundred pounds
“The biology & ecology of carp are two of the major
reasons for their success as a vertebrate pest”
- BROAD RANGE of environmental tolerances
- Thrive in habitats disturbed by human activity
“Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis”
Easy establishment of AIS in disturbed areas
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Origin, Introduction & Distribution
ORIGIN: Native to expansive pacific drainages in
eastern Asia
INTRODUCTION: Stocked for phytoplankton
control in a private pond in the U.S.A in 1960s &
1970s then in hatcheries & sewage lagoons
Found in Mississippi waters in 1980 –
Combined result of INTENTIONAL cultural good
luck live releases; and UNINTENTIONAL emptying
of bait buckets, and flooding of aquaculture fish
farm operations in the U.S.A
DISTRIBUTION:
Reported in waterways in up to 45 states
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Asian Carp Species
SILVER (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
1 metre & 100 lbs – planktivorous
BIGHEAD (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)
1.4 metres & 110 lbs – planktivorous
Collected from Lake Erie
GRASS (Ctenopharyngodon idella)
1.25 metres & 79 lbs - herbivorous
Collected from Lake Huron and Lake Ontario;
currently stocked in Alberta and Saskatchewan
BLACK (Mylopharyngodon piceus)
1.5 to 2.2 metres & 150 lbs - molluscivorous
Eurasian Carp Species
COMMON (Cyprinus carpio)
1.2 metres & 94 lbs – omnivorous/benthivorous
In Canada (sans Alberta) since the late 1880s
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Impacts
Impact difficult to predict because of its place in the
food web – acts as an ENERGY TRAP by growing
to a large size & feeding at low levels
In numbers, diets & consumption rates, Asian
carp could cause enormous damage
These species could decrease the density &
diversity of native aquatic organisms through
competition
SCIENTISTS FEAR AN INVASION OF ASIAN
CARP WOULD DEVASTATE NATIVE FISHES
- Minimal changes to date, despite Asian carp
making up 63-95%biomass of the Illinois River
- Reduced weights in native species: Bigmouth
buffalo and Gizzard shad
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Common Carp vs. Asian Carp
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE
ASIAN CARP
COMMON CARP
KNOWN
- Past widespread popularity as a food fish
- Hugely symbolic in Asian culture
- Ornamental varieties are kept for decorative purposes
KNOWN
- Widespread abundance
- Destroy vegetation and stunt the growth of aquatic plants
- Increase water turbidity and decrease water quality through feeding and reproductive behaviours
- Deteriorate stream, channel and wetland habitat for species requiring rooted vegetation or clear water
- Occasionally prey on the eggs of native fish species
- Compete with ecologically similar species such as Bigmouth buffalo
- Decrease waterfowl and fish populations in areas
- Reduce aquatic ecosystem health and function
- Total degradation of aquatic environments
- Common carp is difficult and expensive to eliminate
KNOWN
KNOWN
- Stocked for phytoplankton control in eutrophic waters (Silver carp) - Cause injuries to recreational boaters and fishers (Silver carp)
-Reduce nutrients in sewage lagoons (Silver carp)
- Damage nets and fishing equipment, where they occur in large numbers (Silver & Bighead carp)
-Food fish (Bighead & Black carp)
-Removal of vegetation can have negative effects on native fish: elimination of food sources, shelter,
-Biological control of vegetation or snails (Grass & Black carp)
and spawning substrates (Grass carp)
POTENTIAL
POTENTIAL
- Potential for mass export to China
- Reproductive success and large size may force out native species in occupied areas
-Increase in tourism in areas for recreational flying fish tournaments - Immense intake of plankton or vegetation may cause changes in diet, density and growth of native
-Opportunity for an inexpensive quality protein source for bait, pet
fishes
food, oils and restaurant menus
-Significantly alter the food web and trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems, acting as an energy trap
- Proposed biological control for invasive Zebra mussels
-Removal of vegetation can have negative effects on native fish: elimination of food sources, shelter,
and spawning substrates, and increasing risk of predation by birds due to lack of cover
-May carry parasites and diseases transmissible to native fishes (infection of endangered species)
- High potential to affect aquatic communities by reducing populations of native mussels and snails,
which eat algae, thereby increasing algae in the system and decreasing water quality
- Lifespan of over 15 years would allow sterile males to persist and impact the aquatic ecosystem
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Positive Effects
- Cheap bait production for crayfish & lobsters
- High-quality protein for fertilizers & pet foods
- Small quantities sold for local consumption
“Carp has all the health benefits associated with
eating fish & since it eats low on the food chain,
has few contaminants such as mercury that tend to
be concentrated in the flesh of other fish species”
- Potential for mass export back to Asia
- Valued by some recreational fishers
- Potential for tourism in infected areas with
adjusted legislation & flying carp fishing derbies
- Small carp may be an important part of the diet
of large native fish predators
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Negative Effects
Consume vast amounts of plankton, outcompeting native fish fry; affects larger fish that
feed on fry, including walleye, musky & trout
All Asian carp species are very fast growers &
reproducers – millions of eggs per year
Asian carp are carriers of diseases - Asian
tapeworm, Koi herpes virus, and SVCV, which
could be passed to native species
Vigorous movement, feeding & reproductive
behaviours degrade channel banks, increase
turbidity & decrease water quality
Feeding activity and diet of carp may increase
algal bloom formation in areas
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
North American Legislation
Canada has 20% of the world's fresh water & an
expansive coastline, making it high risk for AIS
The Action Plan is an approach to dealing with
species that are or could become established
Managing pathways through which AIS enter:
BOATS / LIVE BAIT / LIVE FOOD TRADE
AQUARIUMS / CANALS & H2O DIVERSIONS
In 2010, the United States introduced: “The Asian
Carp Prevention & Control Act”, focused on:
- Management
- Removal
- Restoration projects
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Canadian Methods
COOTES PARADISE
- The Great Lakes’ first two-way FISHWAY & CARP
BARRIER
- Prior to establishment, Asian carp population was
estimated at 70 000 in the water body
- Functional in 1997, the FISHWAY works to
maintain water flow and facilitate movement of
native species, while blocking Asian carp
- Baskets collect the fish, which are individually
sorted by hand and shunted in either direction:
back to Hamilton Harbour (AIS) or to the marsh
In the first year of operation, 95% of carp were
removed, with fewer than 1 000 found presently
WETLAND RESTORATION PROJECT
- Used Christmas trees were arranged to re-create
the natural shoreline & maintain flow
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
U.S.A Methods
CURRENT
- Electric fish barriers
- Legalized firearms on watercrafts
- Bow-hunting recreational & tourism strategy
- “Red-neck” fishing derbies
- Localized commercial harvesting
- Addition to supermarkets & restaurant menus
- Enforcement & fines
INVESTIGATING
- Acoustic fish deterrents: bubble curtains & water
guns
- Mass export to China
- Hydrological separation
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP in MANITOBA
Limitations to Distribution Northwards
Nutrient, habitat & temperature thresholds
Food resources, as required by metabolic rates
based on body size, swim speed and reproductive
stage
According to DFO: ALL Canadian rivers are at
RISK for Asian carp invasion
FACTORS considered:
-Phytoplankton availability
-Water temperature
-Flow rates and their effect on mobility
-Effects of flood pulses
-Preferential habitat and spawning sites
-Seasonal fluctuations
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP in MANITOBA
Suitability / Susceptibility of Manitoba
CONDITIONS in Lake Winnipeg
Temperature conditions in southern and central
regions of Manitoba suitable for colonization of
invasive Asian carp
Nutrient availability, such as algal biomass, will
probably be the limiting factor for Asian carp
populations in Manitoba
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP in MANITOBA
Implications of Climate Change
Climate change predictions plus anthropogenic
eutrophication issues = double-edged sword
Predictions of Environmental Changes:
-Increased flooding
-Warmer average temperatures
-Longer open water periods
-Frequent cyanobacterial blooms
= BETTER CONDITIONS FOR ASIAN CARP
Georeferenced satellite images in conjunction with
algorithms that quantify environmental variables in
freshwater bodies
Integrated into Ecological Niche Models
= Powerful predictive tool for AIS
(not just limited to carp)
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP in MANITOBA
Pathways of Introduction into Manitoba
Uncontrollable & CONTROLLABLE channels
Human-mediated transport of Asian carp into new
areas & water bodies:
- Illegal sale of live Asian carp in the States
- Fines & enforcement at border crossings
Water-mediated transport:
- Possible invasion of the Saskatchewan River
- Manitoba is the “end of the toilet bowl”
- Proximity to Great Lakes Basin, which is
connected to infected waterways in the U.S.A.
Manitoba has 15 AIS
Great Lakes Basin has upwards of 250 AIS
Mississippi River Basin has upwards of 150 AIS
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP in MANITOBA
Sustainable Water Management
Levels of Management:
(1) PREVENTION (AIS not established)
(2) MITIGATION (AIS present)
(3) REMEDIATION (Area overrun with AIS)
Focus on PREVENTION for Asian carp species &
MITIGATION for thriving Common carp
In the case of AIS: ONCE THEY’RE HERE
THEY’RE HERE TO STAY
FIRST LINE: Public awareness & education
DEFENSE: Enforcement at borders
SECOND LINE: Rehabilitation & restoration of
aquatic habitat to suit native fish species
ONGOING MONITORING EFFORTS
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Sustainable Water Management
ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION
Improve habitat quality to favour native species
- Aims to increase native fish numbers, including
large predators, which will increase predation
pressures on young carp
Manitoba applications: “River flow alteration caused
by dams…has impeded the spawning, recruitment
and migration of native fish and created habitats in
which carp survive well”
Restoration of natural features has greater results
than traditional removal attempts Population
dynamics = DENSITY DEPENDENT
-Asian carp juveniles replace any number of
removed adults in an area
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
ASIAN CARP
Since humans perfectly altered the
environment for Asian carp,
essentially assisting the spread of
these aquatic invaders –
It is not a question of IF they will
arrive in Manitoba but WHEN, and
what can be done now to mitigate
the future impacts of Asian carp in
the province.
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA
REFERENCES
See REPORT
PHOTO CREDITS
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2525/4120506314_a0d062d56f_o.jpg
http://www.giantrobot.com/wp-media-uploads/1273171420-asian-carp.jpeg
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-tAl2707S_5I/TbTSsn5wxBI/AAAAAAAAADc/8GxvX_bSreQ/s1600/SilverCarpBuck.jpg
http://www.watershedcouncil.org/learn/aquatic%20invasive%20species/asian-carp/images/Image%201%20carp_id_image_credit%20USGS.jpg
http://prairierivers.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/asian-carp-1.jpg
http://prairierivers.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/asian-carp-5.jpg
http://cdn.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/hires/2012/asiancarpwer.jpg
http://www.tsusinvasives.org/dotAsset/4ce170df-e783-4812-97b8-7889523ad132.png
http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/0801-asian-carp/10560936-1-eng-US/0801-Asian-Carp_full_600.jpg
http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/2010/0308-weekly/0308-alakecarp-asian-carp-lakes-illinois/7458115-1-engUS/0308-ALAKECARP-ASIAN-CARP-LAKES-ILLINOIS_full_600.jpg
http://science.kqed.org/quest/files/2011/09/Asian_Carp_300.jpg
http://www.outdooralabama.com/images/Image/fish/CarpGrassRecordMartin99.jpg and http://thereevesreport.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/asian-carp3.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/--GoTFVsH9Uc/T3tHGzww9yI/AAAAAAAAe6M/G56kZ14LtF0/s1600/Asian-carp-631.jpg
http://healthylakes.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/asian-carp-thumb-572xauto-181226.jpg
http://www.luresforfishing.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/asian-carp-jumping.jpg
http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/0823-asian-carp-hearing/8522419-1-eng-US/0823-asian-carp-hearing_full_600.jpg
http://pics4twitts.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/RBG-fishway-2-.jpg
http://www.glslcities.org/images/Asian-carp%20face%202.jpg
http://corncorps.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/asian-carp.jpg
http://apps.startribune.com/blogs/user_images/marcot_1339003222_carp.JPG
http://wac.450f.edgecastcdn.net/80450F/wjon.com/files/2012/03/Asian-Carp.jpg
http://www.chicagoreader.com/binary/b435/1262721607-carpwatch_w.jpg
http://www.heraldtimesonline.com/stories/2012/05/13/out_ck_asiancarp_0513.jpg
http://www.csmonitor.com/var/ezflow_site/storage/images/media/images/21210-asian-carp/7388372-1-eng-US/21210-asian-carp_full_600.jpg
http://i.ytimg.com/vi/Yhfd9dIkXEk/0.jpg
http://si.wsj.net/public/resources/images/NA-BF653_CARP1_G_20100425191844.jpg
http://www.anglinglines.com/img/upload/news/large_CAR_2200.JPG
BACKGROUND
IMPACTS
MANAGEMENT
RESEARCH
MANITOBA

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