Preston Steele BME 281 The brains ability to actively rewire itself in response to external stimuli Creation of BION microstimulator based on this Uses FES(Functional Electrical Stimulation) to send small electric shocks to muscles to induce movement Small capsule with rechargeable battery, antenna and charging coil for electrical impulses inside In glass casing with nickel on the ends 2.1 mm diameter, 16 mm long 1791- Luigi Galvani 1960- Liberson’s drop foot stimulator developed 1989-when AMF began work on the microstimulator 2008-AMF develops working prototypes of injectable microstimulators without exoskeletal system Non profit organization Main focus in medical research Have worked on other devices such as : ▪ Cochlear implant (hearing impaired) ▪ Retinal prosthesis (vision) ▪ Fully implantable glucose sensor (diabetes) Uses FES (Funcional Electrical Stimulation) FM device located in motor cortex sends messages in real time down to the relevant muscles Once the message is received the microstimulator sends out an electrical impulse triggering muscle movement PREVIOUS NOW/ NEAR FUTURE ~ 750,000 people suffer a stroke every year ~11,000 suffer a spinal cord injury ~500,000 live with cerebral palsy ~270,000 with MS ~5.3 mill with after affects of traumatic brain injury Small and can be imbedded directly in the affected muscle tissues Doesn’t just “fix” the problem – it helps reteach the brain how to use the affected area Can remain safely in the body for up to 80 years PAST Surgical procedure In operating room PRESENT BION implantation tool(BIT) Outpatient office procedure No surgical tools needed Consists of long cannula(10 cm) Cannula made of Vectra B130-liquid crystal polymer, 30% glass reinforced Cannula has 2 conduction holes at end of probe Microstimulators that are temperature and pressure sensitive and also respond to touch Possibly applying them to next generation prosthetics Application to lower extremities <iframe src="http://player.vimeo.com/ video/24179538?title=0& byline=0&portrait=0" width="400" height="300" frameborder="0" webkitAllowFullScreen allowFullScreen></iframe><p ><a href="http://vimeo.com/2417 9538">2006</a> from <a href="http://vimeo.com/user6 522156">Ray Bauer</a> on <a href="http://vimeo.com">Vim eo</a>.</p> Alfred Mann Foundation. 2011. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://aemf.org/>. Burridge, Jane. "A Preliminary Clinical Study Using RF BION® 1 Microstimulators to Facilitate Upper Limb Function in Hemiplegi." Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation 4.2 (2004): 26-27. Advances in Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation. ACNR. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.acnr.co.uk/pdfs/volume4issue2/v4i2rehab.pdf>. Kaplan, Hilton M., and Gerald E. Loeb. "Design and Fabrication of an Injection Tool for Neuromuscular Microstimulators." Annals of Biomedical Engineering 37.9 (2009): 1866+. Biomedical Engineeering Society. Biomedical Engineeering Society, 24 June 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.springerlink.com/content/u6v57p33l1532288/fulltext.pdf>. Lewis, Simon. "Don't Take Consciousness for Granted." Speech. Ted Partner Series. 29 Sept. 2011. TED Talks. July 2011. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/simon_lewis_don_t_take_consciousness_for_granted.html >. Hankin, David. “Implantable Microstimulator System: Artificial Nervous System” Annual Conference. Presentation slides from 14 June 2008. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. <http://www.neurotechnetwork.org/pdf/FutureDevelpmt_Microstimulator.pdf>. USED WITH PERMISSION OF THE ALFRED E MANN FOUNDATION Taylor, Paul. "The Use of Electrical Stimulation for Correction of Dropped Foot in Subjects with Upper Motor Neurone Lesions." National Clinical FES Centre. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. <http://www.salisburyfes.com/dropfoot.htm>.