Election reporting in the media

Report
Election reporting in the media
• Session 1:
The concept, the values (what is it, what is the tradition?)
• Session 2:
Story ideas and techniques (what to cover, how to cover)
• Session 3:
Your story process (what will you write about, why and how?)
The concept, the values
• The watchdog role of journalism (Fourth Estate)
• Media, democracy and voter education (public interest)
• Horse race vs. issue reporting, candidates’ rhetoric vs voter’s voice
Code of conduct
• Freedom– free, uncensored flow of information
• Independence and honesty
• Obligation to report- democratic morality
• Factual, impartial, objective
• Accuracy and verification
• Balance, neutrality and honesty
News coverage
Context
• The last CA elections and news coverage
• Uncertainties, skepticism
• Post-conflict, transition to a new system
Depends on
- Individual journalist’s efforts
- Newsroom budget meetings/news agenda
- Campaign environment
Election Code of Conduct (imposed by EC)
निर्वाचिको अर्धिमव आम सञ्चवर मवध्यमले दे हवयकव आचरण पवलिव
गिना पिेछ :
1. सच
ू ना वा समाचार सम्प्रेषण गर्ाा तथ्यमा आधाररत भई, पक्षपात
नगरी र वस्तुननष्ठ ढं गले सम्प्रेषण गनुा पनेछ ।
2. सच
ू ना वा समाचार सम्प्रेषण वा रसारण गर्ाा कसैरनत पव
ू ााग्रह
नराखी र कसैलाई पक्षपात नगरी सम्प्रेषण गनुा पनेछ ।
3. सच
ू ना वा समाचारकोसंकलन तथा सम्प्रेषण रोक्न, र्बाउन वा
लुकाउन हुुँर्ैन ।
4. सच
ू ना वा समाचार सवासाधारणलाई भ्रममा पाने गरी सम्प्रेषण गना,
रकाशन वा रसारण गना हुुँर्ैन ।
5. ननवााचनसुँग सम्प्बन्धधत शशक्षामल
ू क समाचार र सच
ू ना सम्प्रेषणलाई
उच्च राथशमकता दर्नुपनेछ । सूचना र समाचार संकलन र सम्प्रेषण
गना कसैले वाधा अवरोध पर्ु याएमा सो कुरा समेत सच
ू ना तथा
समाचारमा समावेश गनुा पनेछ ।
Election Code of Conduct (from EC), contd.
6. कसैबाट कुनै ककशसमको अनुचचत लाभ ग्रहण गना वा पेशागत
आचरण एवं माधयता ववपरीत हुने कुनै काम कारबाही गनुा हुुँर्ैन ।
7. सच
ू ना र समाचार सम्प्रेषण गर्ाा, रकाशन गर्ाा वा रसारण गर्ाा
कसैरनत कुनै ककशसमले भेर्भाव र्शााउने वा दहंसालाई उक्साउने
खालको भाषाको रयोग गना र ववशभधन जातजानत, धमा, शलङ्ग,
भाषा र सम्प्रर्ाय वीचको सम्प्बधध र सद्भावमा कुनैपनन ककशसमबाट
खलल पने गरी सम्प्रेषण गना, रकाशन गना र रसारण गना हुुँर्ैन ।
8. ननवााचनमा ववशभधन जात जानत, धमा, शलङ्ग, भाषा र सम्प्रर्ायको
सहभाचगता अशभबवृ ि हुनेगरी सच
ू ना र समाचार सम्प्रेषण गनुा पनेछ
।
9. कुनै गलत वा भ्रामक सूचना वा समाचार, सम्प्रेषण, रकाशन वा
रसारण हुन गएमा सम्प्बि सञ्चार माध्यम तथा
सञंचारकमीलेत्यस्तोसूचना वा समाचार तुरुधत सच्याउनु पनेछ ।
Election Code of Conduct (from EC), contd.
सरकवरी स्र्वममत्र्कव सञ्चवर मवध्यमको आचरणः
10. कुनैपनन राजनीनतक र्ल वा उम्प्मेर्वारको पक्ष वा ववपक्षमा
सम्प्पार्कीय लेख्न र रसारण गना हुुँर्ैन ।
11. राजनीनतक र्ल वा उम्प्मेर्वारलाई मतर्ाता माझ आफ्नोववचार, नीनत
तथा कायाक्रम अशभव्यक्त गना मनाशसब अवसर दर्नु पनेछ ।
12. ननवााचन तथा मतर्ाता शशक्षासम्प्वधधी सामग्री रकाशन तथा रसारण
गना राथशमकता दर्नु पनेछ ।
Election Code of Conduct (from EC), contd.
निःशल्
न क प्रसवरण सवन र्िव
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
समानप
ु ानतक ननवााचन रणाली अधतगातको ननवााचनमा र्लले खडा गरे को कुल उम्प्मेर्वारको अनप
ु ातमा रे डडयो र
टे शलशभजन रसारणसेवामा ननिःशुल्क समय उपलव्ध गराउनेछ ।
समय उपलव्ध तीन चरणमा
क) पदहलो चरणमा राजनीनतक र्लको घोषणापत्र सावाजननक गनाको लाचग पाुँचर्े खख बीस शमनेटसम्प्म रे डडयो रसारण
सेवामा
ख) र्ोस्रो चरणमा ननवााचन रसारको लाचग र्ई
ु र्े खख पाुँच शमनेटसम्प्म टे शलशभजन रसारण सेवामा,
ग) तेस्रो चरणमा रत्येक राजनीनतक र्ललाई अशभमतको लाचग अन्धतमरुपमा आव्हान गना र्फा ९३ बमोन्जमको मौन
अवचध शरु
ु हुनअ
ु नघ एक एक शमनेट टे शलशभजन रसारण सेवामा ।
र्फा ९१ मा उन्ल्लखखत चरणमा रसारण गररने सामग्री सम्प्वन्धधत र्लले तयार गरी सम्प्वन्धधत रसारण सेवालाई दर्नु
पनेछ ।
मौि अर्धिमव प्रचवर–प्रसवर गिा िहनिेः आम सञ्चार माध्यमले मौन अवचधमा कुनै राजनीनतक र्ल वा
उम्प्मेर्वारकोननवााचनको रचार–रसार हुने गरी सूचना वा समाचार सम्प्रेषण, रकाशन र रसारण गनुा हुुँर्ैन । तर
आयोगले रवाह गरे को सूचना तथा समाचार सम्प्रेषण, रकाशन वा रसारण गना यस र्फाले वाधा पुर्याएको माननने छै न,
स्पष्टीकरणिः यस र्फाको रयोजनको लाचग “मौन अवचध” भधनालेमतर्ान हुनेदर्नको अनघल्लो अठचालीस घण्टा र्े खख
मतर्ानको दर्न अन्धतम मतर्ान केधर बधर् नहुधजेलको समय सम्प्झनु पछा ।
अशभलेख राख्नु पनेिः आम सञ्चार माध्यमलेननवााचनको सम्प्बधधमा रकाशन वा रसारण गरे का रत्येक सूचना र समाचार
त्यसरी रकाशन वा रसारण भएको शमनतले पैंतीस दर्नसम्प्म सरु क्षक्षत राख्नु पनेछ ।
सच
ू ना तथा समाचार सम्प्रेषणको अनग
ु मन गनेिः (१) आयोगले आम सञ्चार माध्यमहरुबाट सम्प्रेषण, रकाशन र
रसारण भएका ननवााचन रचार–रसारसम्प्वधधी सूचना र समाचारको ननयशमत अनुगमन गनेछ ।
(२) उपर्फा (१) बमोन्जम अनग
ु मन गर्ाा कुनै समाचारको सम्प्रेषण, रकाशन वा रसारणबाट आचार संदहताको उल्लङ्घन
भएको र्े खखएमा त्यस्तो सूचना वा समाचार सच्याउन आयोगले सम्प्वन्धधत सञ्चार माध्यमलाई ननर्े शन दर्नेछ ।
(३). उपर्फा (२) बमोन्जमको ननर्े शन राप्त भएपनछ सम्प्वन्धधत सञ्चार माध्यमले त्यस्तो सूचना सच्याउनु पनेछ ।
“Free & Fair”
Elections are “free” if before polling day there is
•
•
•
•
•
Freedom of movement,
Freedom of speech (for candidates, voters and others),
Freedom of assembly,
Freedom of association
Freedom from fear in connection with the election and electoral
campaign,
• Absence of impediments to standing for election (for both political
parties and independent candidates)
• Equal and universal suffrage.
• If on polling day there is opportunity to participate in the election.
• If there are legal possibilities of complaint after the polling day. (Elklit
and Svensson, 2001, p.204)
“Free and Fair”
• Elections are “fair” if before polling day there is
• a transparent electoral process,
• an election act and an electoral system that grant no special privilege
to any political parties or social group,
• absence of impediments to inclusion in the electoral register,
• establishment of an independent and impartial election commission,
• impartial treatment of candidates by police, the army, and the courts of
law;
• equal opportunities for political parties and independent candidates to
stand for elections,
• Impartial voter education programs,
• an orderly election campaign (observance of a code of conduct),
• equal access to publicly controlled media,
• impartial allotment of public funds to political parties (if applicable),
• no misuse of government facilities for campaign purposes. (Elklit and
Svensson, 2001, p.204)
“Free & Fair”
• Elections are “fair” if on polling day there is
• access to all polling stations for representatives of the political parties, accredited
local and international observers, and the media;
• secrecy of the ballot,
• absence of intimidation of voters,
• effective design of ballot papers,
• proper ballot papers,
• impartial assistance to voters (if necessary),
• proper counting procedures,
• proper treatment of void ballot papers,
• proper precautionary measures when transporting election materials,
• impartial protection of polling stations. (Elklit and Svensson, 2001)
• Elections are “fair” if after polling day, there is
•
•
•
•
official and expeditious announcement of election results,
impartial treatment of any election complaints,
impartial reports on the elections results by the media,
acceptance of the election results by everyone involved. (Elklit and Svensson, 2001, p.204)
Citation: Elklit, Jergen & Svensson, Palle. “What makes elections free and fair?” Journal of
Democracy 8 (July 1997): 32–46.
Covering CA Elections 2008
Media Monitoring 2008
You are being monitored again!! Election coverage is of interest to many
Media
Coverage
Relevant Actors
All Media
Individual Media
All Programs
Individual
Programs
Total Time
Direct Speech
Tone
(positive/negative)
Parties
Candidates
Election
Commission & its
Commissioners
Others
Key features of coverage in 2008
•
•
•
•
•
Monitoring had deterrent effects on media outlets
Overall, restrained coverage
It was generally helpful to the election process
Of the 74 political parties, most coverage went to only four parties
Of the 9,923 candidates running for election, fewer than a dozen got most
of the media space
• Bias was the main issue in news/views coverage
• Voter’s education was covered fairly well
• Media Impact? Avenues TV newsclip showing several underage (teen)
voters casting ballots at a Birgunj polling center. Yet the polls at that center
were not invalidated.
Electronic Broadcast Media
News Program
Political Parties
NC
73:26:17
others
52:36:45
CPN-UML
CPN-Maoist
51:10:52
41:08:21
Time Coverage in Hrs
Voter Education Program
Political Parties
NC
11:50:49
OTHERS
8:53:11
CPN-UML
8:43:07
CPN-Maoist
0:00:00
7:26:09
2:24:00
4:48:00
7:12:00
9:36:00
Time Coverage in Hrs
12:00:00
14:24:00
Views Program
Politial Parties
CPN-Maoist
17:27:34
14:54:43
NC
CPN-UML
13:49:53
12:21:09
OTHERS
Time overage in Hrs
Print Media
News Program
Political Parties
NC
104423
86833
OTHERS
CPN-UML
80022
59474
CPN-Maoist
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
Space Coverage in sq cm
100000
120000
Voter Education Program
Political Parties
OTHERS
12472
NC
6457
CPN-UML
3716
1695
EC
673
CPN-Maosit
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Space Coverage in sq cm
12000
14000
Top ten candidates – Broadcast media
Top Ten Candidates
24:17:56
24:00:00
20:57:51
18:59:38
19:12:00
14:24:00
9:36:00
6:05:25
5:58:02
4:40:36
4:48:00
4:20:32
4:39:05
4:22:28
4:00:54
ba
D
B
S
S
M
eu
ah
at
de
l
Pa
u
C
P
M
N
Candidates
R
Bi
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kc
hh
e
pa
Th
a
K
P
K
Bh
B
Si
ta
at
ta
ul
a
ra
i
al
ep
N
K
M
P
G
K
D
Ko
ah
al
ira
la
0:00:00
P
Total Time Coveerage in Hrs
28:48:00
Top ten candidates – Print media
Top Ten Candidates
35000
33387
30000
25000
22374
20000
15954
15000
11427
10000
6831
5327
5261
4176
5000
3225
2195
at
M
S
P
Bi
ju
N
M
K
ah
kc
hh
e
a
Th
ap
de
l
R
P
K
C
Si
ta
Pa
u
ul
a
ba
D
B
S
B
Bh
a
tta
eu
ra
i
al
ep
N
K
M
P
G
K
D
Ko
ah
al
ira
la
0
P
Space Coverage in sq cm
40000
Directives by EC – About two dozens-- Most
concerned bias and partiality
• NTV: Jana Aawaj program aired appeals seeking votes for Maoists
• Radio Nepal: EC asked for clarification from Paribesh and Ghatana Ra
Bichar. Ordered suspension Ghatana Ra Bichar until end of elections
• Radio Today, Janakpur (code violation in "Garmagaram Chaa" program)
• Government media: Asked to clarify on one-sided news and views favoring
a particular party.
• Radio Ganatantra: Dang-based station asked to submit a clarification in 24
hours as for news favoring CPN (Maoist) and exclusion of the news of other
parties.
• Bypass: Birgunj-based newspaper - discrimination between Madhesis and
Pahades.
• Hamro Aafnai Patrika: Birgunj-based newspaper, door to door campaign of
a single party, NC.
Contd. EC directives
• Rupandehi F.M: favorable election coverage to UML and NC.
• Butwal F.M.: favorable coverage to NC alone.
• Jana Aawaj: Sunsari-based weekly cast doubts on elections by publishing materials which
said voters were not ready to "risk life for voting".
• Radio Bheri Aawaj: news report on the "threat to life" issued by YCL to UML candidate
Gaura Prasai.
• Kantipur TV: contents of its show "Bholiko Nepal", promo projected Pushpa Kamal Dahal
of CPN (Maoist) as Tomorrow's Nepal.
• Aabhusan Dainik: Morang-based daily, called for election boycott.
• Jana Bidroha Dainik: favoring the Maoists alone.
• Bhaktapur FM: favoring Nepal Workers and Peasants Party (NWPP) alone.
• Morning Bell Daily and Dhangadhi Post: EC asked in a letter if the newspapers, both from
Dhangadhi, were favoring UML alone.
Contd. EC directives
• Rupandehi F.M: favorable election coverage to UML and NC.
• Butwal F.M.: favorable coverage to NC alone.
• Jana Aawaj: Sunsari-based weekly cast doubts on elections by publishing materials which
said voters were not ready to "risk life for voting".
• Radio Bheri Aawaj: news report on the "threat to life" issued by YCL to UML candidate
Gaura Prasai.
• Kantipur TV: contents of its show "Bholiko Nepal", promo projected Pushpa Kamal Dahal
of CPN (Maoist) as Tomorrow's Nepal.
• Aabhusan Dainik: Morang-based daily, called for election boycott.
• Jana Bidroha Dainik: favoring the Maoists alone.
• Bhaktapur FM: favoring Nepal Workers and Peasants Party (NWPP) alone.
• Morning Bell Daily and Dhangadhi Post: EC asked in a letter if the newspapers, both from
Dhangadhi, were favoring UML alone.
Issues in coverage
• Bias is the main issue--- How to avoid bias in coverage?
• Proper attributions/quotes
• Avoid qualifiers/adjectives (focus on facts)
• Report issues rather than focusing on events/incidents
• How to write quality articles or produce good programs to benefit all
audiences?
• Plan ahead, select proper story ideas
• Follow techniques/formats/processes
MORE ON THIS IN THE NEXT SESSION!
Election reporting in the media
• Session 1:
The concept, the values (what is it, what is the tradition?)
•Session 2:
Story ideas and techniques (what to
cover, how to cover)
• Session 3:
Your story process (what will you write about, why and how?)
Story Ideas and Techniques
• Story conception
• Idea generation
• Selecting story ideas
• Issues/agenda
• Story types and techniques
• Planning the story
• Story Guidelines
Story conception
• Generate story ideas from group small-group discussions (3-5 people). Methods
can vary, depending on the context.
Idea generation
• Jotting down random thoughts—let participants know beforehand that they
should jot down penitential story ideas for their final assignment
• Asking the 5W & H questions—which among these questions merits a story
• Clustering/mind-mapping— picturing the ideas inside participants heads (use
white board, flip chart, etc. to illustrate them)
• Brainstorming or listing on white board or flip chart (this may be the most
practical & effective in most cases)
Story conception
Selecting story ideas
• Once all the ideas are listed, consider the “news values”.
• Ask group members to vote on a story’s value (scale: 1=highest score, 10=lowest score)
Issues/Agenda
• Campaign coverage; newsroom policy
•
•
•
•
The political parties and candidates
The issues
The voting process
The voters
• Issues in your constituency–
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
security arrangements/situation;
candidate background,
voting process/polling facilities,
political intimidations,
abuse of power,
external interference,
forced donations, etc.
Voting fraud, rigged elections
Etc.
Story approach/types
Approach
• Information (News), opinion (views), education, advertisements
Story types
• News (5Wis and H)
• Editorials/commentaries
• Feature stories (issue, problem, trend, profile)
• Interviews, etc.
• Candidate debates, roundtables of candidates and panels of experts, or
interactive programs
Forms
• Audio
• Video
• Online
Techniques
• Choose between program types/formats/layouts
• Deal with media manipulation by candidates
• Tell voters’ stories (voters’ voice, inclusion, their stories)
• Use campaign reporting techniques
• Election speeches reporting techniques
• Techniques for interviewing candidates/politicians, other stakeholders
• Techniques for interviewing voter issues/voices
Planning the Story
• PLANNING FORM
• Name ____________________________________
Story topic
________________________________________________________
• I. Why: Answer each question as briefly as possible (in one or two
sentences).
•
A. Why are you writing this story?
_______________________________________________
•
B. What overall impact do you think this story will have?
________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
• II. Targeted readers
•
A. Reader Matrix: Identify potential readers (a good story has
materials for more than one type of reader; combine as many as
possible)
Contd. Planning
B. Story Outline: Type, angle and components: Respond to the following.
1. What type of story are you writing (news, feature, interview, etc?) _________________________
2. How long will be the story (in words)? _____________________________________
3. How will you organize it?
a) Opening____________________________________________________________________
b) Body__________________________________________________________________________
c) Ending ______________________________________________________________________
III. Sources
Your human sources (include voters, candidates, experts, officials, etc.): a) __________________
b) ___________________ c) _________________ Others_______________________________
Document sources (local officers, press releases, online materials, etc.).
____________________________________________________________________________
Personal observations (describe objectively what you see, e.g. Field visits, press conferences, etc.)
______________________________________________
IV. Potential challenges
Describe potential challenges in reporting, writing and finally editing the story, and your ideas to
address them.
•
____________________________________________________________________________
Story Guidelines= Outline, format, organize
• The following is an example. This framework will also be useful to review/edit/evaluate the draft
of the stories.
Story Guidelines
Story slug –
• Name of participant, email ID, story topic, time of submission, etc.
Story outline –
• Headline should come 4 spaces below the story slug
• Headline should accurately reflect the essence of the story and it should be succinct, meaningful
and enticing)
• Intro/lead-- set the tone with it (scene, quote, anecdote, fact/statistics, idiom, etc.)
• Nut graph- the 5Ws +H plus the "so what" (impact statement) to expand the Intro/lead
• Main body - Give facts, quotes, statistics, and other supporting information/evidences to explain
the "so what?"
• Ending- restate the main point (tie back, punchline, quote, idiom, etc.)
Story Guidelines; contd.
Gathering information
• Where can the reporter/writer get the information from? (human sources,
documents- print and online, observation)
• How many sources to use?
Attributions and verification
• Attribute sources for important assertions or facts.
• Use a variety of quotes, including partial/phrasal quotes and paraphrases
• For every human source you quote, give the full name of that source with
accurate spelling, age and designation.
• Explain clearly what constitutes plagiarism, distortion of quotes, etc.
Story Guidelines; contd.
Document format
• Document: MS Word, font (Preeti, Kantipur, etc), font size?
• Spacing: single or double?
• Indents: Needed or not needed?
• Margins (1 inch)
• Page numbers (bottom-middle, including first page?)
• Sentence length (maximum
Session 3: is 25 words)
story process
you sentences)
write about, why and how?)
• Paragraph length Your
(no more
than 1(what
to 3will
short
• Length (minimum word length for the story is 900. Do not exceed 1200 words)
• Mode of submission: Email/shared Google doc., etc.
Schedule/deadline
• Separately specify deadlines for story idea, outline, draft, revision, and final version.
• How to submit the final story?
• Session 3:
Your story process (what will you write about, why and how?)
FEATURE STORIES
Issues
Problems
Trends
Profiles
Story Format
Focus
• Begin with a focus on ONE relevant (affected) individual, group or institution for a
hook
• Know what type of story you are writing (issue/problem)
• Look beyond the obvious: who is affected, how and why? What is the issue?
What is the trend? What is the root problem? What is the problem of the
problem of the problem?
Story Format (2)
A Clear “set-up”?
• What opening technique does it use? (Scene, dialogue, or anecdote?)
• How explicit is the transition to the theme paragraph or the nut graph?
• Does the theme paragraph relate to the larger problem?
• Does the set-up foreshadow what is to come?
• Does the set-up explain the “so what”? (Why should readers care?)
• Does the set-up refer to the “to be sure?” (Another side to the story immediately)
Story Format (3)
The Body
• Does the body have enough good examples to support your
main points?
• Does it have enough scenes, dialogues, foreshadowing and
anecdotes? (Use at least one of these techniques in the
body)
• Does it use chronology, sequence of events? (Do not use too
much of this)
• Does it alternate between inverted pyramid and
chronology? (Better to use this technique, it is more flexible)
• Does it explain the “whys” and “hows?”
• Does it explain the scope and dimensions of the topic?
Story Format (4)
The Ending
• Does the end reinforce beginning?
• Does it wrap up the main story line, not the last section?
• Does it tie back to the set-up? (Go back to the focus lead or set-up)
• What device does the ending use? (Quotes, Scenes, Anecdotes,
Dialogues, Teaser)
Narrative Techniques
1. Scene-recreation
• Use all your senses
• Describe smell, sounds, sights, touch and taste
• Provide rich and meaningful details
Narrative Techniques
2. Dialogue
• Characters take center stage
• Readers and viewers transported to the scene
• The journalist only facilitates in the dialogue
• Quotes come with body language, scenes
Narrative Techniques
3. Foreshadowing
• Story promises more good stuff
• Creates suspense, hooks the reader to the story
Narrative Techniques
4. Anecdotes
• Stories within a story, lifeblood of narrative structure
• They inform, entertain and leave a mark on readers
• Sources become eyes and ears of the reporter
• Ask sources for examples (superlative questions)
STORY PARTS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Catchword
Headline
Byline
Dateline
Lead
Tagline (Summary Blurb)
Creditline
Caption
Kicker
Transition
Subhead
Focus/Nut Graph
Box Item/Fact Box
Empowerment box (for further info)
Sidebar (Story within a story, a
shorter one)
Pull quote
Info-graphic/ Diagram
Attribution
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ATTRIBUTION & QUOTES
News is usually what others tell you, hence the importance of attributions and quotes
Attribution is sourcing (where did you get the info?)
Quote unique, crisp, succinct, meaningful material.
The quoted material is surprising, unusual, important, clever, colloquial, opinionated,
controversial etc.
Take extreme care when quoting children, mentally disabled people, crime victims etc.
Never fabricate or make up quotes.
Do not use offensive language (paraphrase if necessary)
Quote or use only on-the-record material but not off-the-record information.
“Background” (information that can be used with general attribution, without proper
name and title, such as “a government official").
Material labeled as “deep background” cannot be attributed at all
•
• ATTRIBUTIVE VERBS
•
• Neutral
• Preferred in Hard News
• Use neutral words all the time. The most common form is:
• Said (To avoid monotony, use “added,” “continued,” “went on to say,”
“explained,” “elaborated,” etc.)
• No descriptive verbs such as laughed, joked, whined, quipped, etc.
• Value-laden
• Use the following only when you
are absolutely sure about the
context
• Agreed
• Alleged
• Announced
• Charged
• Cited
• Claimed
• Conceded
• Confirmed
• Contented
• Declared
Declined
Denied
Disclosed
Highlighted
Insisted
Maintained
Noted
Pointed out
Reminded
Ruled
Stated
Warned, etc.
• What is wrong with “Said”?
(From North Carolina Press Association Bulletin)
• “You can’t expect me to ride the hose without a saddle,” he bridled.
• “This is our 12th child,” she proliferated.
• “Marriage is great,” he espoused.
• “I don’t know why I always get stuck with committees,” she volunteered.
• “I like my new glasses,” he speculated.
• “Get out of my cab!” he hacked.
• “That’s is damn big bird,” she ostracized.
• “Watch out he is going to jump!” he alleged.
• “My shorts are too tight,” he jockeyed.
• “This building has to be kept clean,” she maintained.
• “Sounds like an F-flat,” he noted.
•

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