第四章英汉文化对比分析 - 精品课程

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青岛滨海学院精品课程
英语精品课程
孙敏副教授
第六章 词语的翻译
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第一节 汉语中多义词、歧义词及双关语的英译处理 实践一
第二节 同义词与反义词的英译处理
实践二
第三节 抽象性词语、形象性词语及拟声词的英译处理 实践三
第四节 数词与量词的英译处理 实践四
第五节 虚词的英译处理
实践五
第六节 文言虚词的英译处理
实践六
第七节 连动式与兼语式的英译处理 实践七
第八节 定语性词组和状语性词组的英译处理 实践八
第九节 习语与对偶语句的英译处理 实践九
第十节 词语基本译法综述 实践十
第一节 汉语中多义词、歧义词及双关语的英译处理
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“词本无义,义随人生。”(Eric Partridge: Words do not have meaning;
people have meanings for words.)因此,出现了多义词、歧义词及双
关语等常见而难以翻译的语言现象。本节将着重讨论这些语言现象和英
译问题。
一、多义词的处理
任何一个词,用在新的上下文中就有了新义。可见,要确定多义词在特
定语境中的含义一要紧密联系上下文,二要注意这些语言现象和英译问
题。
1.上下文与语义选择
例如,“发”是多义词, 在下列语句中含义不同, 英译时必须分别选择
在特定上下文中的英语对应词。
(1)发货
to deliver goods
(2) 发传单 to distribute leaflets
(3) 发言
to speak at a meeting
(4) 发光发热 to emit light and heat
(5) 发电
to generate electricity
目录
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再如, “意见”的基本意义与英语的opinion , view, suggestion 等相近,
但究竟如何译还要视上下文而定。
(1)两位领导人就双边关系共同关心的问题交换了意见。
The two leaders exchanged views on bilateral relations of issues of
common concern.
(2) 党员应该虚心倾听群众的意见。
A party member should listen carefully to be opinions of the masses.
(3)他们对这项计划提出了修改的意见。
They made some suggestions for the revision of the plan.
(4)大家对你很有意见。
People have a lot of complaints about you.
(5)他们就推举谁做下届总统候选人取得了一致意见。
They have reached unanimity on who will be the presidential candidate
for the next general election.
(6) 他们会上闹起了意见。
They got into dispute at the meeting.
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2.上下文与词义的褒贬
译词必须辨析词义的褒贬。现代汉语中视上下文区分褒贬的词很多。现
以“热衷”、“动心”为例略作说明。
(1)他热衷于个人名利。
He is always hankering after personal fame and gains.
(2)她热衷于花样滑冰。
She is fond of figure skating.
(3) 金钱、美女、城市的繁华生活,都没有使他动心,他仍旧埋头科学研
究。
Neither money nor pretty women, still less the pleasures of city life,
lured him away from immerging himself in scientific studies.
“动心”再很多情况下用作褒义,但在上句中,显然带有贬义。因此,不
能用attract, appeal, rouse one’s desire等来译, 英选用贬义的lure。
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3.上下文与词义的广狭
汉英相比,汉语中整体思维,命名统一,故多类名词,而英语少类名词。
如英语有skin(人皮), bark (树皮), hide (兽皮), cover(书皮),却没有
与统称“皮”对应的词。汉语中,有时用类名词表示一部分。英译时,
就需要根据上下文宾别词义的广狭。例如:
(1)出入下车
No cycling at the gate.
(2) 兔死狐悲。
The fox mourns the death of the hare-like grieves fir like.
此处“兔”与“狐”相提并论,应指“野兔” (hare)
(二)搭配
汉英表达习惯不同。翻译时,应在准确把握上下文的基础是那个,根据
英语习惯进行词语搭配。例如,“看”在下列各句中译法不同:
(1)我看出了他的心事。
I could read his mind.
(2)他看出了她的破绽。
He spotted her weak point.
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二、歧义词
歧义词指同时具有两种或两种以上解释的词,这些词的实际意义与其字
面意义不同,容易引起误解或误译。下面介绍三种情况:
(一)古今含义不同的词
有些词古今含义不同,翻译时应弄清不同的历史含义。
(1)君不闻汉家山东二百州,千村万落生荆杞。(杜甫《兵车行》)
Have you not herd-in Shandong there two hundred districts lie/All
overgrown with briar and weed and wasted utterly?(Tr. Fletcher)
据考据家考证,在古代, “山东”指华山以东,不是现在的山东省。
(2)贾政笑道:“不当过奖他。他年小的人,不过以一知充十用,取
笑罢了。”(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
“ No exaggerated praise, if you please, or the boy will get notions
about his bit of knowledge. Better laugh at him; it would be more
beneficial to him, “ objected China Cheng, smiling. (Tr. Florence
&Isabel McHugh)
“取笑”在此意为for fun译为 laugh at (嘲笑),是以今度古。试比较杨宪
益夫妇的译文:
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“You mustn’t flatter the boy”, protested China Cheng with a smile. “He’s
simply making a ridiculous parade of his very limited knowledge.
“取笑”一词未单独译出,其意融于上下文之中。
有些词,在古今汉语中的本义虽没有变,但词义的轻重有所变化。英译
时,也应予以充分注意。例如:
女子要求男的具有男子气,而男子则要求女方贤惠,温柔,善于操持家
务。
Women expected manly men, and men look for virtuous, warm and
tender –hearted women, capable of housekeeping.
“贤惠”一词的词意已随时代发生了变化。它的旧义较重,指孝敬公婆,
顺从夫婿,很接近“三从四德”。现在,“贤惠”通常指通情达理,襟
怀明豁,译为 “virtuous似欠妥帖。有人改译为:
Women favor manly men, and men expect the kind of women who are
considerate and broad-minded, gentle and soft, and capable of
housekeeping.
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(二) 同形异义词
古汉语中多单音节词,这些单音节词逐步向双音节词发展。于是,与现
代汉语相比较,古汉语的一些形同义不同的词需要特别注意。例如“妻
子”在古汉语中是两个词,指妻子和儿女,而在现代汉语中仅指前者。
(1)诗曰:“妻子好合,如鼓瑟琴;兄弟既翕,和乐且耽。(《中庸》)
It is said in The Book of Songs: “ Living affectionately with one’s wife
and children is like playing musical instruments harmoniously. Getting
along fraternally with one’s brothers is highly delightful.”
(2) 矜寡孤独废疾者皆有所养。
译文I: Helpless widows, the lonely, as well as the sick and disabled, are
well cared for.
译文II: Widowers, widows , orphans, childless old people, the physically
handicapped and the sick should all be properly taken care of.
译文I显然没有注意古今汉语的不同,误将“孤独”当作现代汉语中的一
个词来译。
(3)“八德”指的是“忠孝仁爱信义和平”。
译文I: The Eight Virtues refer to loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, love,
faith, justice, peace.
译文II: The Eight Virtues embrace loyalty, filial piety, benevolence, love,
faith, justice, harmony and peace.
现代汉语忠的“和平”就是peace,古汉语忠却是两个单音节词,意为
harmony 和peace。
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(4)操曰:“汝既为水军都督,可便宜从事,何必禀我?”(罗贯中
《三国演义》)
“As naval commanders, you do what you see fit”, retorted Cao Cao.
“What is the use of telling me this?”
现代汉语中,“便宜”有“价钱低”、“小利”或“轻饶某人”的意思,
但引文中的“便宜”应读作bianyi,表示“按实际情况办事”。两个词
实为同形异音异义词。
(三)一物多称
汉英语言中都有用不同的词语指代同一事物的现象,如金星亦称启明星
或太白星。英语中也有Venus和Vesper两种说法。再如,银河也有很多
名称,如迢迢河汉女”、“长河渐落晓星沉”、“差池上舟楫,窈窕入
云汉”、“星河欲转千帆舞”中的“河汉”、“长河”、“云汉”、
“星河”均指银河(the Milk Way)。如果不了解这一点,就容易译错。
著名汉学家(Arthur Waley)就曾经把“河汉”译为the Han River。再
如:
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(贾雨村)……偶遇两个旧友,认得新盐政,知他正要请一西席教训女
儿,遂将贾雨村荐进衙门去。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
Fortunately, he had two old friends here who knew that Salt
Commissioner was looking for a tutor. Upon their recommendation Yutsun wan given the post, which provided the security he needed. (Tr.
Yang Xianyi & Gladys Yang)
汉语中,对教师的称呼也有好多,如“西席”、“西宾”、“先生”、
“师长”“师傅”等,万万不可将“西席”译为west seat或guest from
the west.
(四)俗语、称谓
俗语用法不依常规,若单凭字面意义翻译,很容易译错。称谓也不宜按
字面处理。例如:
(1)自从嫁得你哥哥,吃他忒善了,被人欺负。 (施耐庵《水浒传》)
译文I: Ever since I was wed to your brother I have suffered too much
from him and people have deceived me and …(Tr. Peral Buck)
译文II: Ever since I married your brother, people have taken advantage
of his excessive meekness and never ceased to insult us. (Tr. Clement
Egerton)
“吃“在此为俗语用法,并非”吃亏“之意,而表示原因。译文I中得
suffer源于理解有误。
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(2)若得一人到颖州取得小弟家眷上山,实拜成全之福。(施耐庵
《水浒传》)译文I: If there are those who go into the soldier’s camp to
find my brother’s household and bring them here, the whole city will
know of it. (Tr. Pearl Buck)
译文II: If some one should go to Yingzhou to fetch my family members
to the mountain, I should be very grateful for our reunion.
“小弟”是谦称,指说话人本人。
(3)兄弟我虽不才,但还懂得“不以言举人,不以言废人”的道理。
Ignorant as I am, I know not to promote a person for what he says nor
to undervalue what is said because of the person who says it.
“兄弟”为方言,不能照字面译成elder and young brother.
三、双关语的英译
所谓双关,就是利用语音、语义条件使得某些词或句子在特定语境狭具
有明暗双重意义,因此有一语双关之说。双关语的英译主要有以下三种
情形:
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(一)直译加注
一种语言中两个同音词能构成双关,在另一种语言里很难找到类似的两
个词;一个词在一种语言里有两种意思可以构成双关,它在另一语言中
的对应词很难也有同样的两种意思。英译时,只能借助注解。例如:
祖师道:“……你姓什么?”猴王又道:“我无性。……一生无性。”
祖师道:“不是这个性。你父母原来姓什么?”(吴承恩《西游记》)
“Oh well, “said the Patriarch, “…But tell me, what is your hsing?”
“ I never show hsing,” said the Monkey. “All my life I have never shown
hsing.”
“ I don’t mean that kind of hsing,” said the Patriarch, “ I mean what was
your , what surname had they?”(Tr. Arthur Waley)
Note: There is a pun on hsing, “surname”, and hsing, “temper”.
加注法也有不足,它削弱了双关原语的艺术效果。
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(二)有些双关语实属不可译,只能将就译出意思。例如:
(1) 观后面画着一簇鲜花,一床破席……(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
On the next page Pao-yu saw painted a brush of flowers and a tattered
mat…(Tr. Yang Xianyi & Gladys Yang)
原文中, “花”、“席”暗示袭人。汉语中“花”为姓,“席”与“袭”
同音,在英语中跟男找到与他们对应的双关词。若加注,则篇幅太长。
(2)玉带林中挂,金簪学里埋。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
Buried in snow the broken golden hairpin,
And hanging in the wood the belt of jade. (Tr. Yang Xianyi &Gladys
Yang)
“玉带林”暗指林黛玉, “金簪雪”指薛宝钗。都是双关语,无法译出。
(3) 春蚕到死丝方尽,蜡炬成灰泪始干。(李商隐《无题》)
And the silk-worms of spring will weave until they die,
And every night the candles will weep till they dry.
“丝”与“思”同音,构成双关。
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(三)双关语难译,但不能因此放弃努力。相反,译者应付出更多的创
造性劳动。事实上,也不乏有关佳作。例如:
(1) 你是萍—凭什么打我的儿子。例如:(曹雨《雷雨》)
Why, you are my—mighty with your fist?
(2)狗撵鸭子呱呱叫。
Chased by the dog, the ducks quack-crack.
补充材料:
汉语双关语大致可分为三个类型:语音双关,语意双关和二者兼有的双
关。在汉语双关语的英译过程中虽然存在着一定的困难和局限,制约着
双关语的翻译,但只要我们在翻译中掌握一定的技巧和方法,汉语双关
语的英译还是可行的,以下介绍了几种双关语的翻译方法和技巧:
(一)在英语中找到一个相应的双关语
双关语的翻译中有少量的例证说明,当原文直接翻译成译文时,会
出现一个相应的双关语,这是由于在原文和译文当中出现了发音或词义
方面的偶合现象,而这种现象在双关语的翻译当中显然是不多见的。例
如:母亲和宏儿都睡着了。我躺着,听船底潺潺的水声,知道我在走我
的路。(鲁迅《故乡》)Mother and Hong’er fell asleep. I lay down,
listening to the water rippling beneath the boat, and knew that I was
going my way. 在汉语和英语里,走我的路和 “going my way” 都有双
关的含义。有时也会看到这类例子,译者在译文中采用与原文对等的双
关语来取代原文中的双关语,能够做到这一点需要的是对原文和译文两
种语言的娴熟掌握,以及在翻译中的灵感和创造性工作。下面有一个简
单的例子:为什么河流总是富有的?因为它总是向前(钱)流。Why is
the river rich? Because it has two banks .
(二)采取类似的或其他形式的双关
在英语中可以找到相对应和对等的双关的情况很少,有些时候可以
根据汉语和英语的各自文化特点和底蕴,用相关的、类似的或其他形式
的双关词语进行代替。许渊冲在翻译李商隐的《无题》第三句“春蚕到
死丝方尽”时就采用了此种方法:Spring silkworm till its death spins silk
from lovesick heart. 译文既译了“丝”(silk) ,又译了“思”
(lovesick) ,且sick和silk不但音似(谐音),而且形似,堪称是双关
语的妙译。
(三)借助其他修辞手段翻译,以求达到双关效果
在许多情况下,双关语的翻译中其言内意义是难以传达的,因为这
是双关语翻译中的顽疾。如果有可能,译者可以采用其他的修辞手段,
作为对双关语言内意义的补偿。比喻是较为常用的一种手法。这样做可
以较准确地传达原文作者的意图,同时对原文的言内意义进行一定的补
偿。例如:东边日出西边雨,倒是无晴却有晴。(刘禹锡《竹枝词》)
The west is veiled in rain; the east enjoys sunshine. My dear one is as
deep in love as day is fine.
四)直译法
如果原文中双关语是由两个外形及发音都很接近的词构成,我们一般
会直译出这两个词的意义。在这种情况下,原文的所指意义被传达了,而
言内意义往往被丢失。一个语言符号和其所指意义之间的关系具有随意性
和约定俗成性,因此两个在原文中构成双关语的词在译文中往往不再能构
成双关。例如:美国人在北平,在天津,在上海,都撒了些救济粉,看一
看什么人愿意弯腰是起来。姜太公钓鱼,愿者上钩。(毛泽东《别了,司
徒雷登》)The Americans have sprinkled some relief flour in Peiping,
Tientsin and Shanghai to see who will stoop to pick it up. Like Chiang Tai
Kung ng, they have cast the line for the fish who want to be caught.
(五)意译法
在无法直意的情况下我们通常会选择把句子原有的意思表达出来,这
就是我们所说的意译法,将其深层内含的意思表述给读者,以便其更好地
理解作品内容和内涵。在此种情况下也往往不再构成双关。例如:惶恐滩
头说惶恐,零丁洋里叹零丁。(文天祥《过零丁洋》)For the perils on
Perilous Beach Heaved sights; On Lonely Ocean now I feel dreary and
lonely.再如:丰年好大雪,珍珠如土金如铁。
The Hsuehs in their affluence
Are so rich and grand,
Gold is like iron to them
And pearls like sand.
(
(六)添加注解
注解也是双关语翻译中常常采取的一种方式,借以对原文信息进行
补充说明。尤其是对诗歌等文学体裁进行翻译时,注解常被采用。例如
曹雪芹《红楼梦》中的一句:将那三春看破,桃红柳绿待如何?
She will see through the three Springs ①
And set no store
By the red of peach-blossom,the green of willows …
① A pun meaning the three months of spring and the three elder
girls . All the girls had the character chun (spring) in their names.
但是应该说,注解是双关翻译时不得己采取的一种方法,因为在阅
读注解的过程中,双关语所独有的幽默、智慧或讽刺的意味会大大损失。
翻译实践
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一、翻译下列词组:
1.商品经济 commodity economy 2. 市场经济 market economy
3.国有经济 state-owned economy 4. 国营经济 state-run economy
5.个体经济individual economic activity 6.外向型经济 export-oriented
economy
7.集体所有制 collective ownership 8.公有制 public ownership
9. 出口创汇型企业 foreign-exchange earning enterprise
10. 劳动(资金、技术)密集型产业 labour-(capital-, technology-)
intensive industry
11.合资企业 joint venture 12.外商独资企业 exclusively foreignfunded enterprise
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二、翻译下列句子,注意词义的褒贬、轻重:
1.你不要兔死狗烹嘛。
You ought not to kill the hounds once all the hares are bagged.
2.他们讲索取,我们讲奉献。
They preach taking from others, whereas we advocate giving to others.
3.她追求的是真理,而他追求的是荣华富贵。
What she seeks is truth, and what he hankers after is but high position
and great wealth.
4.他弄得家里鸡犬不宁。
He stirred his whole family into a tempest.
5.他对客队的主教练吹捧有加。
He lavished praises on the head coach of the guest team.
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翻译下列各句,注意歧义词的翻译:
1.后太子犯法,刑其师傅,于是人民不敢违。
Later on when the son of Prince Xiao offended against the law his
teacher was punished so that on one dared to violate the law.
2.故将军起东江,刘豫州收众汉南,与曹操并争天下。
Then you raised your army east of the Yangtse River while Liu Bei
assembled his forces south of the Han River and you are
contesting for the empire with Cao Cao.
3.王者重言,伯者重信,不可以女子微躯,而负明于天下,国之祸
也。
Emperors must be true to their words, and princes must keep
promises. If you break a promise simply because of your sympathy
for an unworthy girl like me, calamities would fall upon our country.
4.(精卫)是炎帝之少女名曰女娃。
The bird was said to be Emperor Yandi’s youngest daughter, Nǖwa
5.君子成人之美。
A gentleman is always ready to help others attain their aims.
第二节 同义词与反义词的英译处理
同义词处理
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仔细辨析词义
在一种语言中,几个词表示同一事件、动作或概念的现象是很普遍
的,这是因为同一事件、动作或概念也有好多具体情况。因此,要
准确无误地翻译,首先应进行同义词辨析。
例如,同是描述“哭”的动作,却因方式不同而有“哽咽”、“饮
泣”、“痛哭”、“号啕大哭”等许多词,英语中也有sob, weep,
cry, wail等同义词。翻译时,应在弄清原文意思的基础上,选用最贴
近的对等词。一般说来,“呜咽”、“哽咽”、“抽泣”与sob对应,
“饮泣”、“流泪”与weep对应,“痛哭”与cry对应,“号啕大
哭”与wail对应。
再如:
健康的、有益健康的、卫生的
英语中有healthy, healthful, wholesome 三词。其中,healthy 主要
指健康的状态,healthful 指有益健康的,而wholesome则主要指食
物等卫生可口。请看下述例句:
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(1)幼儿园的孩子们看上去健康活泼。
The children in the kindergartens look healthy and lively.
(2)议员为病人提供有助于健康的食物。
The patients are provided with a very healthful diet in the hospital.
(3) 学校食堂做的饭菜卫生可口,我很爱吃。
I like the wholesome food prepared by the school canteens.
2比较、对比
两者都有两种事物相对的意思。但前者重在比较两事物的异同或优劣,
后者则强调把两事物并列起来,突出其不同之处。两者在英语中的对应
分别是 compare和contrast。
(1)让我们把译文和原文作一番比较,看看有无出入。
Compare the translation with the original so as see if there is any
discrepancy.
(2)他的行为和他的诺言很不相符,很少有人相信他。
His conduct contrasts so sharply with his promise that very few people
believe him.
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2.引导、领导、指导
英语中lead, guide, conduct, direct 等词具有此义。其中,lead指走在前
引路,也可表示“领导”、“指挥”;guide除表示“充当向导”外,也
指给予行动上、思想上的指导;conduct主要用语引客入座、引导参观;
direct意义较抽象,指依照权利指导、管理政务、厂务或事物等。
试译下列句子:
1.司令员亲自率领军队作战。
The commander himself led the army into battle.
2.这本书会指导你更好地掌握写作技巧。
This book will guide you towards a better mastery of the art of writing.
3.参观的人们被引导到工厂各处参观。
The visitors were conducted over the factory.
4.组建了一个专门委员会来领导这次运动。
A special committee has been formed to direct the campaign.
4.熟透、成熟
前者主要用语物质方面,多修饰具体事物,如庄稼、果实等;后者则较
抽象,指智力、个性等经过培养、训练变得完全、发达。英语中与“熟
透”对应的是ripe,与“成熟”对应的是mature,但并非一成不变,ripe也
可喻指条件完全具备。例如:
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这些西瓜熟透了,该摘了。
These watermelons are just ripe. It’s high time to pick them.
(2)这是一个很成熟的计划,现在的问题是如何实施。
This is a well-considered plan. What is now important is how to put it into
effect.
(二)注意感情色彩的差异
有些词虽然词义相近,但使用者的态度可能有所不同,翻译时,也应区别对
待。例如:
1.嫉妒、羡慕
二者都含有“眼馋别人的优势”之意,不过前者消极,后者积极。前者相当
于英语的be jealous of;后者与admire相对应。但英语词envy词义两义兼有。
(1)学生很羡慕她的博学。
Students admire her for her wide range of knowledge.
(2) 你不该嫉妒别人,说人家的坏话。
It is unwise of you to be jealous of others and to speak evil of others.
(3)不少女人忌妒张小姐的美貌。
Miss Zhang’s beauty is the envy of a lot of women.
2.闲散、懒惰
“闲散”含“清闲”之意,无贬义;“懒惰”指“松懈拖沓、厌恶工作”,
为贬义。前者多译成idle,后者常译为lazy。
(1)应把闲散人员变为生产工人。
We should turn the idle breeder eaters into productive workers.
(2)在我们的社会里,懒惰是一种耻辱。
To be lazy is considered a disgrace in our society.
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(三)注意搭配习惯
同义词往往在用法上有较大差别。其中非常重要的一方面是搭配习惯的
不同。例如:
1.撤销、取消、取缔、吊销
四个词都指取掉,但对象不同。“撤销”的对象多是决定、职务或机构;
“取消”的对象是制度、资格或其他抽象事物;“取缔”则指国家转正
籍贯禁止一些团体或活动;“吊销”主要的对象则是证书类的执照等。
请看下列句子:
(1)那位贪污受贿的官员被撤销了职务。
The official who is guilty of corruption and taking bribes has been
dismissed from his post.
(2)取消中国的最惠国待遇,最大的受害者将是美国。
The U.S. will suffer most if it discontinues China’s most favorizednation status.
(3)政府授权工商部门严厉取缔投机倒把活动。
Departments in charge of industry and commerce are authorized by the
government to ban speculation and profiteering.
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(4)他因违章开车被永远吊销了驾驶执照。
His driving license has been revoked once and for all because of his
violation of traffic regulations.
2.有效的、效率高的
两者都有效果好的意思。但前者可用于药物、措施等,后者可用于管理、
机构及人。例如:
(1)这种专利药品治风湿性关节炎挺有效。
This patent medicine is effective against rheumatic arthritis.
(2)执勤的交警立即采取了有效措施来疏导阻塞的车辆。
The traffic policemen on point duty took effective measures to relieve
traffic jams.
(3)他是个很能干的领导,很快就把事情理顺了。
An efficient executive, he soon had matters running smoothly.
(4)有效的管理是降低成本的重要因素。
Efficient management is one of the factors which will lower production
cost.
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3.回答、反应
两个词兼作动词和名词,但前者常用作及物动词,后者多作不及物动词。
英语中,answer, reply既可作及物动词,也可作不及物动词;respond只
作不及物动词。
(1)接下来女发言人回答了记者的提问。
For the next few minutes the spokeswoman answered questions from
some journalists and correspondents.
(2)中国通过对美国商品征收惩罚性关税作为对美方违反中美贸易协定的
回答。
China replied to America’s violation of the Sino-US trade agreement
with imposing punitive tax on American exports to China.
(3)他的演说在听众中反应平平。
His speech met with (called forth) an indifferent response in his
audience.或His audience responded to his speech indifferently.
(四) 区分文体意义
同义词的差别还表现在应用场合上,即其语体色彩的不同。比如,有的
词为口语,有的为书面语;有的随便,有的正式;有的粗俗,有的高雅;
有的为日常用语,有的为专业术语;有的适合孩子,有的符合成人,等
等。例如:
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喜欢、青睐
(1) 她特别喜欢唱卡拉OK。
She is especially fond of singing through karaoke set.
(2)以上事实说明中国出口商品越来越受外国顾客的青睐。
The above facts lead to the conclusion that Chinese export
commodities have enjoyed growing favor among buyers abroad.
2.询问、审问
前者为日常用语,后者为法律用语。
(1)昨天我打热线询问了一些有关如何购买、安装使用数字传呼机
的问题。
Yesterday I asked some questions through the hot line about buying,
installing and using a digital B. P.
(2)连长正在审问战俘。
The company commander was interrogating a prisoner of war.
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3.漂亮、可爱、美丽、端庄
英语中表示好看的词有beautiful, pretty, handsome, lovely, fair等等。一
般说来,“漂亮”最为常用,可以beautiful 来译;“可爱”多形容女性
及孩童,与pretty或lovely接近;“美丽”较为正式些,是文学用语,有
时“美丽”可译成fair;“端庄”多指女性端正大方,可译成handsome,但
后者修饰男性时作“漂亮”讲。总之,这些词使用灵活,翻译也难固定。
例如:
他是一个体态优美的青年,免冠去靴,净高一米八,是个运动员的体格,
肩宽体壮,举止沉稳,仪态端庄。
He is a fine, upstanding young man, 1.80 meters tall in his stockinged
feet and of an athletic build, with broad shoulders and a confident
carriage.
4.困难、棘手
(1)那个小男孩把魔方摆弄了半天,摇摇头说:“真难!”
Having tried a long time, the little boy shook his head at Rubik’s cube,
saying, “This is too much.”
(2) 老局长听完案情报告,皱着眉头道:“这个很棘手!”
Having heard the report on the case, the head of the public security
bureau frowned, saying, “There’s the rub.”
This is too much和There’s the rub体现了两个相关人物的年龄和身份差
别。
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二、反义词的处理
汉语中,两个单音节反义词常结合在一起构成一个新的双音节词,
和表示抽象概念,或表示无条件,有时还保存了原来的一定的意义。
由于字面意义与实际意义不同,且情况比较复杂,很容易造成译者
的误解。下面举例予以说明:
1.表示状况、距离、程度、大小等
(1)那大圣闻言暗笑道:“这如来十分好呆,我老孙一筋斗去十万
八千里,他那手掌方圆不满一尺,如何跳不出去?”(吴承恩《西
游记》)
“This Buddha,” Monkey thought to himself, “is a perfect fool. I can
jump a hundred and eight thousand leagues, while his palm cannot
be as much as eight inches across. How could I fail to jump clear
of it?”
(2)那个湖方圆八百里。
The lake has a circumference of 800 li.
(3)方圆左右的人,谁不知道她。
Who in the neighborhood doesn’t know her.
(4)屋里静悄悄的,一点儿动静没有。
It was still in the house, nothing stirring.
“动静”表示声响,译文根据英文习惯以融合法作了处理。
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2.表示无条件
汉语中表示无条件“无论怎样“的词,如“好歹”、“横竖”、“左
右”、“反正”、“早晚”等,都是由两个意义相反的单音节词构成的
双音节词。英译时,常以anyway, in any case, anyhow或其他表示无条
件的英语表达法进行转换。
(1)不管怎样,反正工作不能停。
Come what may, the work must go on.
(2) 反正得去个人,就让我去吧。
Since someone has to go anyway, let me go.
试比较两种译文的优劣:
(3)你左右将道村子里去卖,一般还你钱。便卖些与我们,打什么不
紧……(施耐庵《水浒传》)
译文I: You take right and left into the village to sell and we will give you
the same money. Sell some to us, therefore, and what cursed matter is
that…(Tr.Pearl Buck)
译文II: In any case, you are taking it to the village to sell. Sell us some
wine and we pay you the same price. What cursed matter is that?
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表示比喻
(1)两种办法各有得失。
Each of the two methods has its advantages and disadvantages.
“得”、“失”原为“得到(gain)和失去(loss)但在这里,则指优点和缺点。
(2)这篇文章纯粹是在颠倒黑白。
The writer of the article is doing nothing but confusing right and wrong.
英语中,也有confound black and white 的用法,因此也可以照字面译。但必须
看出,“黑白“在此是比喻用法。
4.有些合成词依旧保持了单音节词的原意,表示对应关系,英译时常按字面直
译。
不计较个人得失 never give thought to personal gain or loss
远近闻名
be known far and wide
悲欢离合
joys and sorrows, partings and reunions
真假
true and false; genuine and sham
有趣的是,汉语中有些看似相反的词却表示相同的意思,如:“大胜”和“大
败”。
(1)中国女排在决赛中以3∶0大胜古巴队。
The China’s women volleyball team beat the Cuban team with a three love in
the finals.
(2)那位直拍选手,在半决赛中充分发挥长抽短吊和近台快攻的特长,大败世界
头号种子选手。
The pen-hold grip player, who brought into full play his skill of combining long
drive with short drop shots and fast attacks over the table, dethroned the world
first seeded player in the semi-finals.
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(二)由于汉英两个民族的思维方式不同,思维反映现实的角度不同,在某
些思维内容的表层形式上,汉英语言竟呈现出截然不同的视角,许多汉
语词译成英语后变成了自身的反义词,翻译是要特别注意。例如:
太平门 emergency exit (太平-危急)
自学 self-taught (学-教)
肤浅 skin-deep (浅-深)
九五折 a five percent discount (九五-五)
红眼 green-eyed (红-绿)
红茶 black tea (红-黑)
红糖 brown sugar (红-棕)
寒衣 warm clothes (寒-暖)
(三)汉英语言的重要差别之一就是,汉语是图形化方块字,不具备形
态发生学优势,而注重词的附加、黏着;英语形态手段丰富,词语有曲
折变化,词缀附加现象远比汉语显著。词缀可以把一个词变成它的对应
词,根据这一点,汉语反义词英译时,除了译成相应的英语词外,还可
以借助词缀法。例如:
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(1)人的生命是有限的,而为人民服务是无限的。
One’s life is limited but serving the people is limitless.
(2) 这是个编码过程,同时又是个解码过程。
This is an encoding process as well as a decoding one.
(3)你看,这个书店只我一人,我既当老板,又当店员。
I myself alone keep the book store. So, you see, I am both the
employer and the employee.
(4)孟子曰:“体有贵贱……无以贱害贵。”
Mencius said, “The human body has its important parts and
unimportant parts… one should not do harm to the important parts for
the sake of protecting the unimportant.”
(5)这家药膳店里的菜贵的、贱的都有。
The restaurant specializing in medicated food cooks dishes both
expensive and inexpensive.
英语中,costly和dear也表示“价格高的”,但含有“价不符实”的意
思;cheap也表示“价格低的”,但有“价格不高”或“质量差”的含
义。因此,译为expensive and inexpensive比较得当。
翻译实践
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一、口译下列词语:
1 保护关税 protective tariffs
2 互惠关税 reciprocal tariffs
3 报复性关税 retaliatory tariffs
4 自由关税区 tariff-free zone
5 保税仓库 bonded warehouse
6 进口调节税 import regulatory tax
7 工商税 industrial and commercial tax
8 增值税 value added tax
9 营业税 business tax
10销售税 sales tax
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二、翻译下列句子,注意同义词的英译:
1 不等她说完,那个业主已是勃然大怒。
The entrepreneur had flown into a rage before he heard her out.
2 现在,本庭休庭。下次开庭时间为15点整。
Now, the court is to adjourn(休会). The next session will commence
(开始)at 15∶00 .
3 当南极考察队员们看到了陆地时,他们欢呼起来。
The Antarctic explorers shouted with joy when they came in sight of
land.
4 他们在美国大使馆前举行集会,反对美国对其出口商品进行双重征税。
They held a rally before the US embassy against US imposing double
taxation on their exports.
5 欧共体正在召开部长级会议讨论如何对付世界贸易组织中的技术性贸
易壁垒问题。
A ministerial conference was called among EEC members to discuss
how to deal with the technical barriers to trade in the WTO.
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三、翻译下列句子,注意反义词的处理:
1 你真不知好歹。
You simply couldn’t tell what’s good or bad for you.
2 万一她有个好歹,我怎么办?
What if something should happen to her?
3 这是后话。
We’re getting ahead of the story.
4 此事无足轻重。
It’s matter of no consequence.
5 此人说话不知轻重。
That chap doesn’t know the proper way to talk.
第三节 抽象性词语、形象性词语及拟声词的英译处理
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一、抽象性词语的英译
汉英两种语言中,都有相当数量的抽象词语,如雄辩、民主、贸易保护
主义、权威、可行性、首创精神等,见于英语分别是eloquence,
democracy, trade protectionism, authority, feasibility, initiative。因此,
很多情况下,只要将汉语抽象词语译成其英语对应词即可。
但有些汉语抽象词,有时有其具体含义,有时无具体意义,只用于表明
范畴。一般说来,表范畴的抽象词无需译出。举例来看,“完成工作”
中的“工作”有具体含义,必须译出;而“他做翻译工作”中的“工作”
则是表明范畴,不必译出,译出后反而不符号英语规范和习惯。汉语中
表示范畴的抽象词语主要有“现象、问题、情况、态度、局面、制度、
行为”等。下面举例说明:
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(1)他善于做信访工作。
He is experienced in handling letters and visits from the masses.
(2)会谈中,双方集中讨论了保护知识产权方面的问题。
During the talk, their discussion has been centered around protection
of intellectual property rights.
(3) 我国社会主义工业化的建设及其成就,正在日益促进他们的这种积极
性。
Their enthusiasm is being constantly heightened by China’s socialist
industrialization and its achievement.
“建设”表范畴的情况较罕见。但在这里,“工业化”本身就是一个建设
过程,它在意义上是重复的,英译时不必译出。
(4)禁止用迷信、暴力手段残害妇女。
Cruel treatment causing injury or even death of women by superstition
or violence is prohibited.
(5)由于人们在煤的汽化作用方面没有取得突破,空气污染以及酸雨的问
题有可能恶化。
As no breakthrough has been made in coal gasification, the problem of
air pollution and acid rain is likely to worsen.
口头翻译
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请口头翻译下列各句:
1 近期内,迅速城市化与落后的基础设施之间的不协调状态不会有很
大改观。
The incongruity between rapid urbanization and a backward
infrastructure will not lessen (减轻)substantially in the near future.
2 这几年,取消订货的现象已不再发生。
In recent years, there has been no cancellation (取消)of orders.
3 他们的乐观主义精神令我们大为感动。
Their optimism moved us greatly.
4 目前,公司的经营情况已有所好转。
At present, the business in our company is turning for the better.
5 科学化、民主化的决策是实行民主集中制的重要环节。
Scientific and democratic decision-making is essential to democratic
centralism.
6 将国与国之间的争端诉诸武力,并不是最好的解决办法。
Recourse (求助) to arms is not the best solution to a conflict between
countries.
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二、形象性词语的英译
形象性词语,以具体象征抽象,传达微妙情思,生动有力,经常为
文著书着所用。汉英都有丰富的形象性词语,但使用方法却有异同。
翻译时,必须充分考虑这些异同。
习语(包括成语、言语、歇后语、俗语)是形象性词语的重要组成
部分。这里仅就一般的形象性词语汉译英的处理作一番讨论。
人类的思维内容多共通之处,并且反映在语言的使用上。如形象
的普遍性,即在两种语言中,同一形象表达相同的含义。在这种情
况下,照字面翻译可保留原文的形象。
(1)宝玉见王夫人起来,早一溜烟跑了。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
Pao-yu had vanished like smoke as soon as his mother sat up.
(Tr.Yang Xianyi&Gladys Yang)
(2)相公可怜,抬举你做个提辖,比得芥菜子大小的官职,直得恁地
逞能!(施耐庵《水浒传》)
Our lord pitied you and raised you to be a captain, but as an officer
you are no larger than a mustard seed and mightily arrogant as this.
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(3) 数缝里也漏着一两点路灯光,没精打采的,是渴睡人的眼。(朱自清
《荷塘月色》)
Through the branches are also a couple of lamps, as listless as sleepy
eyes.
(4)吾视曹操百万之众,如群蚁耳!(罗贯中《三国演义》)
CaoCao’s million men in my eyes are just a swarm of ants.(Tr.Zhang
Yiwen)
(5)天色向晚,东山月上,皎皎如同白日。长江一带,如横素练。
(罗贯中《三国演义》)
When dusk fell, the moon rose over the eastern hills making all as
bright as day. The Yantse under the moonlight seemed a length of
white silk.(Tr. Zhang Yiwen)
(二)有些形象在中国人习以为常,在英美人却很难理解;有些形象两种
语言都使用,但喻义却不同,这是两种文化差异造成的。为使译文读者
理解无误,只好放弃原文形象,只译其喻义。
(1)况锦衣玉食者未必能安于荆钗布裙也。(沈白《浮生六记》)
Besides, one who is used to beautiful dresses and nice food like her
will hardly be satisfied with the lot of a poor housewife. (Tr. Lin Yutang)
“锦、玉”象征富贵美好,并非实指,以“玉”修饰“食”,是一种比喻
用法,英美人对jade food会很费解,因此只需译其义;“荆钗布裙”喻
指家境贫寒,若保留原文形象智慧给读者冗长拖沓、稀奇古怪之感,也
只好意译。
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(2)会上,两方发生争执,一方拂袖而去。
The two parties fell into a fierce dispute. At last one party got up
abruptly and walked off in a huff.
“拂袖”一词是历史的产物。现代中国人已放弃了古代的服饰习惯,但汉
语依旧保留了“拂袖”一词。但它只有喻义“发怒”,而无实义“拂袖”
了。“拂袖而去”若译成left with a flick of their sleeves, 会有莫名其妙
之感。
(3)你告不赢他的,县里的当官的和他穿一条裤子。
You won’t win the lawsuit against him. Officials in the county are hand
in glove with him.
汉语中表示“互相勾结”时说“与某人穿一条裤子”,而英语中则说
“和某人戴一只手套”。
(4)他一面喝咖啡,一面翻开油墨未干的晨报,看了起来。
As he sipped his coffee, he unfolded a still damp morning paper and
began reading.
(5)我不贪图下海挣大钱,只想毕业后在大学里找个铁饭碗。
I don’t want to earn good money by engaging myself in trade, I just
want to find upon graduation a secured job in a university.
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(三)形象词语生动、逼真、富有感染力。翻译时,应在不违反译语
规范和不影响读者理解的前提下,尽量保持原有形象。例如:
当下磕头如捣蒜,只求饶命。(吴敬梓《儒林外史》)
Koutowing as quickly as a pestle pounding onions, he begged that
his life be spared.(Tr. Yang Xianyi &Glays Yang)
(2)她和我情同骨肉。
She is as dear to me as my own flesh and blood.
“骨肉“变成了”血肉“,与原文形象稍有出入,但符合英语的表达习
惯。
只见地宝同着差人,一条铁锁,锁了一个人来,跪在地下。像鸡子啄
米似的,连声磕头……(刘鹗《老残游记》)
…the local headman and bailiff led in a man in chains, who knelt on
the ground kowtowing continuously like a chicken pecking rice…(Tr.
Yang Xianyi &Glays Yang)
(4)今曹公屯兵百万,将列千员,龙骧虎视,平吞江夏,公以为何如?
(罗贯中《三国演义》)
Now Cao Cao is encamped with a million soldiers and a thousand
generals, rampant as dragons and awe-inspiring as tigers. He was
already swallowed up Jiang Xia. What of Cao Cao’s power?(Tr.
Zhang Yiwen)
Rampant和awe-inspiring点明了“龙”、“虎”两个形象的比喻义。
(5)妻扶视之,额头上堆起如巨卵焉。(蒲松龄《崂山道士》)
His wife, propping him up, saw a bump on his forehead as big as an
egg.
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三、拟声词的英译
(一)音译法
有些汉语拟声词在英语中没有对应词。翻译中若需要保留此修辞手法,
可采用音译法,即创造信的拟声词。
拟声造词不等于死译汉语发音,往往要加小音。比如,木鱼的“笃笃”
声可译成tock-tock;鸟的“唧唧”声可译成jig-jig;发报机的“嗒嗒嗒”
可译成tap-tap-tap,其中ck, g和p等汉语中没有箫音。情看下列的译例:
来吧!唱吧!你嗨唉吧!我算跟你泡上啦……(曹寓《日出》)
Come on then! Sing up! Let’s hear your hai-ai-ing! Now that I’
Hai-ai是“嗨唉”的音译,hai-ai-ing是其动名词形式。
(2)“呃啾”的一声响,爱姑知道是七大人打喷嚏了,但不由得转
过眼去看。(鲁迅《离婚》)
“Ah-tchew!”
Though Ai-ku knew it was only Seventh Master sneezing, she could
not help turning to look at him.(Tr. Yang Xianyi &Glays Yang)
作感叹词的汉语拟声词在一定上下文中往往表示说话者的感情或态度,
英译时应从读者的角度考虑音译是否切实可行。试比较下面例句的两
种译文:
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(3) “啊哟!”赵得宝怯痛地叫了一生,他的左手连忙去按摩着右胳膊。
译文I: “Ayo!” yelped Chao The-pao, his left hand flying to his right
arm and rubbing it gently.
译文II: “Ouch!” yelped Chao The-pao, his left hand flying to his right
arm and rubbing it gently.
很少英美人了解“哎哟”、“啊哟”表示疼痛。译文I无助于英语读者
的理解,译文II采用英语中常用于表示痛的感叹词ouch,效果较加。
很多情况下,表示疼痛、惊讶、恐怖、高兴的“哎呀”,啊呀,咦,哟”
等词,可以酌情借用英语同义感叹词来译。
1 咦,奇怪。
Well, it’s strange.
2 哎呀,钥匙丢了!
Damn, I’ve lost the key!
3 哎哟,真烫!
Ow!, It’s piping hot!
4 哼,我不像你,见钱就忘了命。
Humph! I am not like you… show you a handful of coppers and you
break your neck to get it.
5 哦,这屋子怎么闷得很。
Whew, it’s suffocating in here!
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(二) 补充法
补充法,即原文没有拟声词,为使译文形象生动而增添拟声词的方法。
补充法应以不违背忠实于原文为原则。补充法主要用于以下情况:
1.汉语中非生物的声音常笼统地用“……声”或“……响”来描述,
不附加拟声词。英语中,各种非生物的声音一般都有专词表达。英译时,
为增加语言的具体性,可以借助于这些专门词汇。例如:
(1)工地上传来了马达声。
From the construction site comes the rumbling of the machines.
(2)清幽的小巷里响起了清脆的自行车铃声。
I heard the crisp jangling of the bicycle rising from the quiet alley.
(3)刹车声刺激了我的神经。
The screeching of the brakes got on my nerves.
(4)第二天清早,开门鞭炮响过,排门开了,林家铺子布置得又是一新。
(茅盾《林家铺子》)
When the popping of fire-crackers heralded the opening of business
the next morning, the shop of the Lin family again had a new look.
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试译下列短语:
1皮鞋声 the clickery-clack of the leather shoes
2.锣声 the clangour of the gong
3.表的声音 the tick-tack of the watch
4.雷声 the rumbling (rolling) of the thunder
5 收音机的声音 the squeaking of the radio
6 公共汽车声 the thumping of the bus
7 麻将声 the clatter of mahjong
8 门铃声 the jingle of the door bell
2.现代汉语中,飞禽走兽等动物的叫声往往简单地用“……叫”或
“……鸣”表示,英语却一般用专门的拟声词来表达。
(1)天气还是热,蚊群在窗外柳树上叫着。……青蛙在城郊的田野
里兴奋地叫着。
The weather was still sultry and a swarm of mosquitoes was droning
in the willows outside his window…frogs in the fields outside the
town were croaking cheerfully.
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(2)远处一座小山村笼罩在暮霭之中,炊烟袅袅升起,不时传来深巷
中的狗叫声和墙头上的鸡叫声。
The hamlet spread out in the hazy distance where chimney smokes
seemed to waft in mid-air. From time to time, dogs were heard bark in
the deep lanes and cocks crow on the top of courtyard walls.
(3)深深的秋夜,只有蟋蟀的叫声和案头的灯光伴着我。
Late into the autumn night, there are only the chirping of crickets and
the light on my desk that keep me company.
3.表示人的哭、笑或说时,汉语常常不用拟声词,而英语用拟声词的情
况却很多。汉译时,为准确表达原意和译文的修辞效果,可酌情补充英
语拟声词。例如:
(1)她笑骂道:“该死的,下死我了,我还当是闹鬼了呢。”
She cursed him, giggling,” Damn you! What fright you gave me. I think I
saw a ghost.”
(刘玉英笑着说:“眉!下边马路上有人看你!”(茅盾《子夜》)
Liu Yu-ying tittered and exclaimed,” Mei-ching! Someone down in the
street is looking up at you!”
(3)老板厉声说道:“你昏了头了,教训起我来了。”
The boss snarled, “ You’re crazy! You dare to lecture me!”
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4.有时汉语中的动词虽不是拟声词,但它表示的动作必然带来某种声响,
为使译文更具有感染力,译者可酌情选用适当的拟声词来传达汉语动词
的意义。例如:
(1)炉子里的火(噼里啪啦)烧得正旺,映得她的脸红红的。
The charcoal in the stove was crackling, which made her face rather
red.
Crackling让人联想起木炭烧旺时的噼啪声;若用burning就没有这种效果
了。
(2)一到雨天,附近的居民就得踏着泥泞买菜。
Whenever it rains, the residents in the neighbourhood have to splash
through the mire to buy vegetables.
(3)“牛吃庄稼了!”车上的人叫嚷。牛倌慌忙从马背上跳下,气呼
呼地把那钻空子的贪吃的牦子,狠狠地抽了一鞭。(周立波《暴风骤
雨》)
“Look! Your bull’s eating the crop!” someone on the cart exclaimed,
whereupon the boy quickly jumped off his horse, rushed forward, and
gave the cunning, greedy bullock a good whack.
译文中的gave… a good whack仿佛让人听到了鞭子的“啪啪”声,若
译成whipped, 则没有此种效果。
翻译实践
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一、口译下列词组:
1 补偿贸易 compensation trade
2 转口贸易 entrepot trade
3 易货贸易 barter
4 现货交易 spot transaction
5 赊帐贸易 credit transaction (交易)
6 违禁贸易 illicit trade
7 非关税壁垒 non-tariff barrier
8 贸易禁运 commercial (trade) embargo (禁运)
9 贸易摩擦 trade friction
10. 进口配额 import quota
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二、翻译下列句子,注意形象词语的处理:
1 他把我打入闷葫芦里了。
What he told me threw me into bewilderment.
2 才有了一点进步,他就翘兔子尾巴了。
With some progress, he became cocky.
3 黑暗中一个黑影唬得她魂飞魄散。
She was half dead with fright when she spotted a black figure in the
dark.
4 他拜倒在了她的石榴裙下。
He worshipped her on his knees.
5 第一个肌肤微丰,身材合中,思凝新荔,鼻腻鹅脂……
The first was somewhat plump and of medium height. Her cheeks
were the texture of newly ripened lichees, her nose as sleek (圆滑
的)as goose fat.
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三、翻译下列句子,注意拟声词的译法:
1 鸟鸣和着溪水的流水声,在春风里轻轻地回荡。
The bird-song and the babbling of the streams danced lightly on the
spring breeze.
2 屋里院外静悄悄的,光听见认定鼾声和马嚼草料的声音,此外就是
一两声鹅叫。
All was quiet in the house except for some people snoring(打鼾), the
horses chewing mash, and the geese cackling at intervals.
3 有只猫头鹰在岭头的枯树上狰狞地叫着。
An owl was hooting on the old tree standing on the top of the ridge.
4 众皆大笑了,子瑜羞惭无地。
All the other guests were roaring with laughter, except Ziyu, who was
so embarrassed that he wished the earth would swallow him up.
5 只听见人用半哑的嗓门说道:“我没意见。”
Someone grunted(发出哼哼声): “ I have nothing to say.
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VII. Summary (总结)
1.如何处理多义词:
(1)根据上下文辨析词义的褒贬、虚实、广狭
2.如何处理歧义词:(1)对于古今含义不同从词语,要弄清其不同的含
义;(2)注意古汉语的一些形同义不同的词语;
(3)深入了解汉语一物多称词;
(4)认真分析汉语的俗语、称谓的内涵,不能照字面直译。
3.如何翻译汉语的双关词:
(1)在英语中找到一个相应的双关语
(2)采取类似的或其他形式的双关
(3)借助其他修辞手段翻译,以求达到双关效果
(4)直译法
(5)意译法
(6)添加注解;
4. 同义词的处理:
(1)仔细辨析词义;
(2)注意感情色彩的差异;
(3)注意习惯搭配;
(4)仔细区别问题意义;
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5. 抽象词语的英译:
(1)将汉语抽象词语译成其英语对应词
(2)表范畴的抽象词无需译出
6.形象性词语的英译:
(1)如果两种语言中,同义形象表达相同的含义,在这种情况下,照
字面翻译课保留原文的形象。
(2)形象相同而喻义不同,则意译。
(3)为了保留原有的形象,又不影响目的语读者的理解,可采用直译+
注释
7. 拟声词的英译:
(1)音译法 汉语拟声词在英语中如没有对应词,可采用音译法。
(2)补充法用于以下几种情况:
a. 1.汉语中非生物的声音常笼统地用“……声”或“……响”来描述,
不附加拟声词。英语中,各种非生物的声音一般都有专词表达。英译时,
为增加语言的具体性,可以借助于这些专门词汇。
b. 现代汉语中,飞禽走兽等动物的叫声往往简单地用“……叫”或
“……鸣”表示,英语却一般用专门的拟声词来表达。
c. 表示人的哭、笑或说时,汉语常常不用拟声词,而英语用拟声词的情
况却很多。汉译时,为准确表达原意和译文的修辞效果,可酌情补充英
语拟声词。
d. 有时汉语中的动词虽不是拟声词,但它表示的动作必然带来某种声响,
为使译文更具有感染力,译者可酌情选用适当的拟声词来传达汉语动词
的意义。
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I.the Presentation of the Main Contents:
一、数词与量词的英译处理
1.数词的英译
(一)数词有时只具有象征作用,即不表示确切的量,只表示大小、轻
重、程度等的概念。这类数字构成的短语常用作副词或形容词,英译时
不必照实译出,也不可拘泥于汉语的形式,而应按英语的习惯用法来译。
(二) 汉语中一些政治词汇常与数字连用,英译时一般可以直译。
2. 量词的英译
汉语的量词也可以译成英语中表示度量衡的名词或其他表示量的名词。
这种情况下,应特别注意英语的习惯用法和搭配。
3. 倍数的英译
二、虚词“的”, “得” “着”,“了”, “过”, “把”的英译; 汉语语气词的
英译;时间副词的英译;语气副词的英译;连词的英译
三、文言虚词 “之”,“而”,“以”,“夫”,“者”,“其”,
“于”,“所”,“也”,“矣”的英译。
第四节 数词与量词的英译处理
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一、数词的英译
数词英译的难点在于以下几方面:数词带有形容词性或副词性,表示约略或夸张;
数词与政治术语连用;倍数。下面予以分别说明:
(一)数词有时只具有象征作用,即不表示确切的量,只表示大小、轻重、程度
等的概念。这类数字构成的短语常用作副词或形容词,英译时不必照实译出,也
不可拘泥于汉语的形式,而应按英语的习惯用法来译。例如:
(1)万一打碎了眼镜,我这一千二百度的近视眼如何走路呢。(杨沫《青春之
歌》)
If my glasses got broken, I shan’t be able to walk very far with these nearsighted eyes of mine.
“一千二百度”说明尽是程度之高,无需按字面直译。
(2)三径就荒,松菊犹存。(陶潜《归去来辞》)
Deserted though the garden-paths/ The pine stands, the chrysanthemums
bloom. (Tr. Fang Zhong)
(3)泪添九曲黄河溢,恨压三峰华岳低。(王实甫《西厢记》)
My tears would more than fill the winding waters of the Yellow River;/ And the
load of my grief would weigh down three peaks of the Hua Mountain.
“三”、“九”在古汉语中只言其多,不必照实译成three paths和nine windings.
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(4)浓妆淡抹之后,风摆荷叶,摇曳生姿,而犹能昂首阔步一去二三里者,
实在少见。(梁实秋《雅舍小品》)
After being properly made up, while gingerly picking their way around,
as if they are being blown about by the gentlest of breeze like lotus
leaves, ladies who can still do a mile or so on foot would be rare. (Tr.
Shi Zhaoying)
上例中的“一去二三里”是作者从儿童描红诗“一去二三里,烟村四五
家,亭台六七座,八九十只花”中信手拈来的并非实数,译作a mile or
so,恰到好处。
(5)有些国营商店的售货员态度冷若冰霜,拒人千里之外。
Shop assistants in some state-run shops are frosty in manner, repelling
customers from a distance.
(6)孔子曰:“三人行,则必有我师。”(韩愈《师说》)
Confucius said, “Out of my two fellow travelers, one must be qualified
to be my teacher.”(Tr. Xie Baikui)
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试比较下列例句的译文:
(1)三回五次,留得宋江,就山寨里吃了一日酒。(施耐庵《水浒
传》)
译文I: Three times and five times, they did try to stay Sung Chiang and
so he feasted for a day in the lair. (Tr. Pear Buck)
译文II: Being repeatedly urged to stay, Song Jiang spent the day in the
lair feasting with them.
(2)那大王已有七八分醉了。
译文I: Now the robber chief was already seven or eight parts drunken.
译文II: The bandit chief was almost drunk.
(3) 千山鸟飞绝,万径人踪灭。
译文I: A hundred mountains and no bird.
A thousand paths without a footprint.
译文II: The birds have flown from every hill.
Along each empty path no footprint seen.
译文III: Myriad mountains-not a bird flying.
Endless roads-not a trace of men.
哪种译文好,哪种译文不可取,为什么?
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(二)汉语中一些政治词汇常与数字连用,英译时一般可以直译。对英
美读者不太熟悉的概念或事件,应加注。比较简短的词汇也可以省译数
字,补出其实际内容。
1.直译的实例
(1)一个中心,两个基本点
one central task and two basic points
(2) 四项基本原则
the four cardinal principles
(3) 和平共处五项原则
the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence
(4)坚持一个中国的立场
to stick to one-China position
(5)三大法宝
the three big wonder-working weapons
(6)教学、科研、生产的“三结合”
“3-in-1combination” involving teaching, research and production
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2.直译加注的实例:
(1)四害
four pests (rats, bedbugs, flies and mosquitoes)
(2)四有
four haves (have ideals, morality, culture and disciplines)
(3)三资企业
three investment enterprise ( Sino-foreign joint ventures, Sino-foreign joint
management enterprises, exclusively foreign-funded enterprises)
(4)三热爱
triple-love (love for the Party, the country and socialism)
(5)三个面向
three directions to face ( the direction of the world, future and modernization)
3.意译的实例
(1)双百方针
the policy of “let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought
contend”
(2)三乱
indiscriminate fines, charges and assessments
(3) 第一、二、三产业
the primary industry, the secondary industry and tertiary industry
(4)工业三废
industrial waste gas, waste water and waste solid matters.
(5)直接三通
three direct links between Taiwan and the mainland: direct cross-Strait trade,
air and shipping, and postal services
口头翻译
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口头翻译下列短语:
三八妇女节 International Working Women’s Day
三大作风 the Party’s three important styles of work (integrating theory
with practice, forging close links with the masses and practicing selfcriticism)
三纲五常 the three cardinal guides (ruler guides subjects, father
guides son, and husband guides wife) and the five constant virtues
(benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom and fidelity
三座大山the three big mountains (imperialism, feudalism and
bureaucrat-capitalism)
八小时工作制 eight-hour work day
一言堂 papa-knows-all style
一不怕苦,二不怕死 fear neither hardship nor death
一长制 the system of one-man leadership
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二、量词的英译
英语中没有量词,汉语量词英译时,通常可以不必译出,如“八十个席
位”eighty seats, “一套鲁迅全集” a complete Lu Xun等。
有时,汉语量词可译成英语的形容词、动词或感叹词等。例如:
(1)砰!枪响了一声。
Bang! Went the gun.
(2) 他满脑子的点子。
He is brimful of ideas.
(3)她“扑哧”一声笑了。
She burst out laughing.
(4)再来一个!
Encore!
这种情况译无定规,译者需要根据上下文以英语的习惯用法的酌情处理。
汉语的量词也可以译成英语中表示度量衡的名词或其他表示量的名词。
这种情况下,应特别注意英语的习惯用法和搭配。例如:
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十英里的距离 a distance of ten miles
一门炮
a piece of artillery
一匙汤
a spoonful of soup
一阵雷声 a clap of thunder
一群蚂蚁 a colony of ants
一套《列宁选集》a set of The Complete Works of Lenin
三、倍数
倍数的翻译也是汉语数词英译的重要内容。下面是汉语中一些常见的倍
数与百分比表达法及其翻译。
(一)A是B的n倍
这种表达法可译成(1)A is n times that of B; (2)A is n times as Adj. As
B; (3) A increase (rises/grows) by times over B; (4) A is n times more
than B。也可以用动词double, twice, twofold, triple, quadruple等表示。
请看实例:
(1)该港的吞吐量两年间翻了两番。
The handling capacity of the harbor has doubled in two years.
(2)这种及其的耗油量是那种新机器的九倍。
The fuel oil this type of machine uses is nine times that of the new type.
(3)新校的占地面积是老校的三倍。
The New Campus covers 3 times as large an area as the Old Campus.
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(二) A增加n倍; A比B多n倍
可译成: (1) A is n+1 times as adj. As B; (2) A increase ( rises, goes up, grows,
be 等) by n times.
(1)氧原子几乎比氢原子重15倍。
The oxygen atom is nearly 16 times as heavy as the hydrogen atom.
(2)今年上半年汽车进口12.5万辆,比去年同期增长1.75倍。
In the first half of this year, the import of motor vehicles reached 125,000,
increasing 1.75 times compared with the same period of last year.
(3)珠穆朗玛峰高29028英尺,约比富士山高1.5倍。
Mt.Qolmolungma (Everest) is 29028 feet high, about 2.5times as high as
Mt.Fuji.
(三)表示百分比增加
(1)据中国海关统计,去年外商投资企业的产品出口值达78.1亿美元,今年上
半年又比去年同期增长58.4%。
According to Chinese Customs statistic, exports of foreign- funded ventures
totaled US$7.81 billion last year and registered an increase of 58.4 percent in
the first half of this year over the same period of last year.
(2) 过去三年中,该省的杂交水稻亩产量增加了百分之五十。
Over the past three years, the province has raised its per mu yield of hybrid
rice by one half.
(3)今年头三个月,协议外资金额和实际使用外资金额分别比去年同期增长了
300.3%和179.8%。
In the first three months of this year, total contracted foreign capital and total
paid-in capital have shot up by 300.3 percent and 179.8 percent respectively.
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(四)表示百分比减少
表示或降低的英语表达法有reduce by, fall by (to) ,go down by 等。例如:
(1)采用新技术使生产成本A一下降低了25%。
The adoption of the new technique reduced (lowered) the cost of
production by one quarter.(25%)
(2)今年上半年对外新签借款协议金额32.4亿美元,比去年同期增长14%;
实际使用贷款金额31.3亿美元,比去年同期下降2.9%。
Signed foreign loans in the first half of this year amounted to US$ 3.24
billion, which represents a 14 percent increase over the corresponding
period of last year. Of the total, US$ 3.13 billion has been put into use,
down by 2.9 percent over the same period of last year.
(3)作为出口主体的国有企业今年出口278.3美元,比去年减少了3.4%。
As the major force of China’s export, China’s state-owned enterprises
exported US$27.83 billion worth of goods, a reduction of 3.4 percent,
compared with last year.
翻译实践
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一、口译下列词组:
外汇管制 foreign exchange control
外汇储备 foreign exchange reserve (exchange cover)
银根紧缩政策 tight money policy
硬通货 hard currency
国库债券 treasure bonds
发行公债 issue of bonds
活期存款 current (demand) deposit
定期存款 fixed deposit
零存整取 cumulative deposit
留学贷款 education abroad loan
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二、翻译下列句子,注意画线部分的处理:
他不该对此事说三道四。
You should not have said anything about the matter.
他把工作分为三六九等。
He regards different jobs as indication of rank and grade.
她三句话不离本行。
She talks shop all the while.
祝你百尺竿头,更进一步。
Wish you still greater progress.
此乃千载难逢的好机会,你一定要抓住。
You must seize this opportunity. It is a chance of lifetime.
那时她正值二八妙龄。
She was at that time at her sweet seventeen.
地质勘探队员们历尽千辛万苦,找到了不少新矿藏。
After innumerable hardships, the prospecting team discovered a lot of
new ores.
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别三心二意了,就这么办吧。
Don’t shilly-shally (犹豫不决), Go right ahead.
9. 据报,今年1月到6月份,大连市的工业生产值达到58亿人民币,比去
年同期增长15.8%,占年预算的35.8%。销售实现收入为49亿元,比去
年同期提高6.9%;头六个月出口创汇5.3亿美元,比去年同期增长15.2
%,占年计划的37.9%。
It’s reported that, during the January-June period, the gross value of
industrial output of Dalian, a costal city in Liaoning Province, topped
5.8 billion yuan, chalking up 15.8 per cent from the same period of last
year while occupying 35.8 percent of the annual budget. Incomes
realized from sales reached 4.9 billion yuan, 7.9 per cent higher than
that of the previous year. Exchange earnings through export hit US$
530 million during the first six months, up 15.2 per cent from that of last
year, accounting for 37.9 per cent of the annual year.
10.据海口海关统计,海南省外资企业今年头七个月生产并向日本出口
的商品总额为418万美元,为去年同期出口额的23倍。
According to Haikou Customs, products made by foreign-funded
enterprises and exported to Japan reached $4.18 million in the first
seven months of this year in Hainan province, about 23 times the
amount in the corresponding period of last year.
第五节 虚词的英译处理
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汉英语言中都有实词与虚词之分。实词表示人物、事件、动作、数量、
性质等概念,有实在意义。虚词无实义,只表示结构关系或在句中起辅
助作用,为功能词。
一、“的”的英译
首先,请比较下面四个句子中“的”的作用:
她的父亲是个研究员。
格格的是我的,印花的是你的。
我会告诉她的。
我打的稿子,她上的色。
第一句中, “的”是定语的标志;第二句中,“的”标志“的”字结构;
第三句中,“的”表示肯定语气;第四句中,“的”位于谓语动词之后,
强调动作的施事者。功能既然不同,英译时当然需区别对待。请看译文:
Her father is a reach fellow.
The checkered is mine; the printed is yours.
I sure will tell her.
I made the sketch; she filled in the colours.
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第一句中的“的”译成了形容词性物主代词her ;第二句中的“的”译成
名词性物主代词mine, yours 以及the +形容词的形式;第三句中的“的”
表达的肯定语气有sure 表达出来;第四句中的“的”强调施事者,因此
译文I和she都作了主语。
这说没能够,在英译“的”字时,应首先弄清它的功能。一般说来,定
语标志“的”及定语可译成英语的名词、代词、介词短语、分词、动词
不定式、副词、形容词、从句等;“的”字结构可译作名词、代词、名
词加从句、名词加分词、谓语动词加状语、代词加名词、形容词加名词、
从句等;表示肯定语气的“的”,可由英语中表示强调的手法译出;而
强调的“的”则多采用融合法,将其意融于全句中。请看;例句:
正确的就是正确的,绝不能说成是错误的。
Whatever is right is right. It can by no means be said to be wrong.
(2)凡是存在的未必全是合理的。
Whatever is not all right.
(3)他说他的,你干你的。
Let him say what he likes; you get on with your work.
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试译下列句子:
1. 酣眠不可少,小睡也别有风味的。月光是隔了树照过来的,高处丛生
的灌木,落下参差斑驳的黑影,峭愣愣如鬼一般。
A profound sleep is indispensable, yet a snatched doze also savour of
its own. The moonlight is streaming down through the foliage, casting
bushy shadows on the ground from high above, dark and checked, like
an army of ghosts.
2. 这时候最热闹的,要数树上的蝉声与水里的蛙声;但热闹是他们的,
我什么也没有。
The most lively creatures, here, for the moment, must be the cicadas in
the trees and the frogs in the pond. But the liveliness is theirs, I have
nothing.
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二、“得”的英译
结构助词“得”有三种基本用法:(1)在动词前表示许可,如“不得
胡说”;(2)在动词和补语之间,表示可能、能够,如“看得见”(3)
位于动词或形容词后,连接补语,表示程度或结果。
(一)“得”表示许可的英译
表示许可时,多以“不得”的形式出现。一般可译作英语情态动词,也
可按照英语习惯用法来译。例如:
这笔钱非经批准不得动用。
This fund may not be drawn on without permission.
(2)非公不得入内。
No admittance except on business.
(3)不得触摸展品。
Hands off the exhibits.
(二)“得”表示可能、能够的英译
汉译英时,可利用can (could), be able to, be capable of, 也可借助带后
缀-able 或-ible表示可能的形容词。请看例句:
(1)这次踢主场,咱们可输不得。
This time we are home team, and e can’t afford to lose the game.
(2)这事他做得出。
He is capable of doing such a thing.
(3)他这人是老虎屁股摸不得。He is like a tiger whose backside no one
dares to touch.
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(三)“得”表示程度、结果的英译
表示程度、结果的“得”英译时方法比较多。现举例如下:
(1)她笑得肚子疼。
She laughed till her sides split.(till+状语从句)
(2)例子多得不胜枚举。
Instances are too numerous to list.(too…to)
(3)我们动身早,赶得上八点半那趟车。(enough to)
We started early enough to catch the half past eight train.
(4)事情已经闹得不可收拾了。(too…to)
Things have gone too far to be set right.
有时,也可视上下文灵活处理:
(5)他把那个在办公室打杂的骂得狗血喷头。
He poured out a flood of invectives against the office boy.
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三、“着”、“了”、“过”的英译
“着”、“了”、“过”为时态助词。由于汉语时态标定主要依仗词汇
手段,而英语基本上借助动词形态变化,汉语时态助词英译时主要靠转
换成动词的时态来完成。
(一)“着”的英译
“着”表示持续,一般与英语进行体(现在、过去、未来)对应。例如:
(1)明天这个时候我在图书馆前边等着你。
Tomorrow this time I’ll be waiting for you in front of the library.
(2)她听着音乐睡着了。
She felt asleep while listening to music.
“着“还有其他用法,附加在“站”、“坐”等表示物体状态、姿态的动
词后,或附加在某些短暂性动词后,英译时,常与一般时对应,附加在
连动式第一个动词后,表示伴随,可译成英语不定式、介词短语、现在
分词等。例如:
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(1)他竖着耳朵听外面有何动静。
He pricked up his ear, trying to tell what was outside.
(2)那个小姑娘含着眼泪走开了。
The little girl went away with tears in her eyes.
(3)他闭着眼装睡。
He closed his eyes, pretending to be sleep.
(二)“了”的英译
结构助词“了”的基本意义式表示动作或状态的完成,多与过去时或完
成体对应。例如:
(1)我给你拨了三次电话都没通。
I dialed three times but failed to get through to you.
(2)水位已上升到了警戒水位。
The water level has risen to the warning stage.
此外,“了”附加在形容词后表示既成事实,英译时,可用比较级转换。
例如:
(1)长大后,他出息了好多。
He became more agreeable when he grew up.
(2)保值储蓄推出后,该储蓄所储户的存款热情高了好多。
With the introduction of inflation-proof savings service, people are more
willing to deposit their money in the saving bank.
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(三)“过”的英译
“过”表示一度或曾经发生的行为或状态,表明主语的一种经验,多与
英语现在完成体对应。例如:
(1)他到过号称人间天堂的苏杭,也去过山水佳天下的桂林。
He has been to Suzhou and Hangzhou, the renowned places called
“paradise on earth”; he has also visited Guilin, a city noted the world
over for its picturesque rivers and mountains.
(2)他经历过的世事太多了,不可能不痛感于斯。
He has seen only too much of life to feel it keenly.
也可以根据上下文或英语规范处理。例如:
(1)桃花已开过了。
The peach blossoms are over.
(2)我抽过烟,又戒掉了。
I smoked but kicked the habit later.
还应指出,在对汉语时态助词进行英译时,由于话语连贯、原语语势、
译语语感及行文的需要,甚至译者风格的因素,时体变通现象也是时常
发生的。例如:
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(1)他这是什么意思嘛?我简直被他弄得莫名其妙了。
What did he mean by this? I’ve no idea what he is driving at.
(2)子渊受教于孔子,深得孔子的器重,他的哲学观和伦理观也完全继承了孔子。
(Having been ) Educated and regarded highly by Confucius, Yan Yuan owes
much to his master’s philosophical and moral heritage.
四、“把”的英译
“把”是一个特殊介词,利用它可以将宾语提到谓语之前构成汉语特有的“把”
字句。介词“把”英译时,应根据“把”字句的意义与结构处理。
(一)表示“处置”的“把”字句
当“把”的宾语是后面动词的受事时,“把”字句含有“处置”的意思。这时,
可用英语中“动词+宾语+补语(状语)”的句型来译。请看译例:
(1)我昨天找人把抽油烟机擦了。
I had the range hood cleaned yesterday.
(2)他们还没把保税仓库的设计做好。
They haven’t got the design of the bonded warehouse ready.
(二)表示“致使”的“把”字句
“把”的宾语后面接“忙、累、其气、急”等词再加上补语时,整个句子有“致
使”的意思。英译时常采用英语中表示“致使”的动词。例如:
(1)让他插手,准把这事搞砸了。
His meddling will sure ruin the matter.
(2)那位“香港小姐”的风采把大家迷倒了。
The elegant demeanor of the Miss Hong Kong enchanted all present.
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(三)表示“把A当B的“把”字句的英译
这一结构可用英语中regard, take, treat, consider等来译。例如:
(1)人人都把他当神童。
Everybody thinks him a prodigy.
(2)莫把敌人当朋友。
Don’t mistake a foe for a friend.
(3)不要把书上的一切都奉为金科玉律。
Don’t accept all you’ve read from books as infallible as law.
(4)我们应把军队看做长城,把军人当作亲人。
We should regard the PLA as invincible as the Great wall and the PLA
men as our brothers.
(四)“把”字句是汉语特有的结构之一。英译时,除以上方法外,很
多情况下要按照英语规范进行灵活处理,有时甚至要译成被动句。例如:
(1)他总是把方便留给别人,把困难留给自己。
He always takes difficulties on himself and leaves what is easy to
others.
(2)一个大浪几乎把船打翻。
A huge wave almost overturned the boat.
(3)请把信转交给王小姐好吗?
Would you please forward the letter to Miss Wang?
(4)她把头一扬,二话没说就走了。
She tossed her head and left without a word.
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五、表示强调的汉语语气词进行英译时,除采用表示强调的英语词汇外,
还可以利用倒装或强调句式等句法手段。例如:
(1)我们公司已经政企分开了呢。
In our company the functions and responsibility of administration just
have been separated from those of management.
(2)他可不就是白手起家的么。
Indeed, he simply built up from nothing.
(3)你既当上了局长,可得廉洁奉公啊!
Now you are the head of the bureau, mind you be honest in performing
official duties.
(4)他们不仅抢劫了你的钱财,还把东西都砸了呢。
Not only did they rob you, they smashed everything, too.
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六、时间状语副词的英译
汉语主要以词汇手段表示时态,即时态助词和时间副词;英语主要靠动
词形态变化表示时态。因此,很多情况下,汉语时间副词可转换成英语
的时态。例如:
(1)这几年我们一直强调科技在农业发展中的作用。
For years we have been stressing the important role of science and
technology in the development of agriculture.
(2)已经有两位中国女选手取得了100米蝶泳的决赛权。
Two Chinese women swimmers have already entered the 100-metre
butterfly stroke finals.
(3)升旗仪式就要开始了。
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The flag-raising ceremony is about to start.
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七、表示强调的语气副词的英译
这类词有“可、倒、竟、偏、也、决不、究竟、只好、难道”等。汉译
时,除译成表示强调的词汇外,还可借助疑问句、感叹句、倒装句或把
强调部分置于主语或表语的位置上等手段。
(1)你可来了!
So you are here at last.
(2)原来竟是她父亲。
It is her father after all. (It is no other than her father.)
(3)我们决不容许他人干涉我们的内政。
In no way will we have others interfere in our domestic affairs.
(4)你听到的正是贝多芬的《月光》奏鸣曲。
What you are listening to is Ludwig van Beethoven’s piano sonata
entitled Moonlight.
(5)他偏偏两天把活干完了。
To everyone’s surprise, he finished the work in two days.
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八、连词的英译
英语中表示转折、条件、假设、因果、并列更关系的手段非常多,如副
词、介词(短语)、分词(短语)、复合结构、从句等。汉语连词英译
的情况比较复杂。这里介绍几种比较特殊的情况:
(一)译为关系从句
英语关系从句可表示转折、条件、假设等关系。关系从句的适当运用可
使译文更自然、流畅。
(1)由于实力差别悬殊,正常比赛中中国队自始至终信心十足,而日
本队则显得斗志不高。
There is a considerable gap in actual strength between the Chinese
team and the Japanese team. Accordingly, the former was confident of
winning all the time, which the latter seldom was.
(2)我们现在多么尊敬约翰逊教授了,可从前却总嘲笑他。
How much we respect Professor Johnson now, whom we used to laugh
at so much.
(3)无论谁去,我都没意见。
Whoever goes, I shall have no objection.
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(二)译为 “and ”
连词and在英语中使用频率极高,可以表示结果、条件、目的、转折、
让步、对比、顺承、补充等关系。汉语中的许多连词都可译成and 。
(1)他会世界语,而且说得很好。
He speaks Esperanto and that very well.
(2)罗伯特内向,而戴维率直。
Robert is an introvert and David, an extrovert.
(三)译为 “what if”虚拟语气或其他句型。
(1)就算她是个母老虎,还能把你吃了?
What if she is tiger-like?
(2)如果他在勤奋点儿,就会完成任务的。
A more diligent man would have fulfilled the task.
(四)增加英语连词
汉英语语言句法结构不同,汉译英时,常常需要增加连接词语
(connectives),以使译文连贯流畅,附和英语规范。例如:
(1)我们还在运筹中,对手已抢先一步了。
While all our plans were still in the blue-print stage, our competitors got
the jump on us.
(2)树梢上隐隐约约的是一带远山,只有些大意罢了。
Over the trees appear some distant mountains, but merely in a sketchy
silhouette.
翻译实践
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一、请口译下列短语:
主要经济指标 leading economic indicators
国内生产总值 GDP (Gross Domestic Product)
人均国民生产总值 per capita GNP (Gross National Product)
工农业生产总值 gross industrial and agricultural output value
经营指标 business indicators
消费价格指数 CPI (Consumer Price Index)
批发物价指数 wholesale price index
股票价格指数 stock price index
风险基金 risk funds
10.招商会 business-inviting fair
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二、翻译下列句子,注意虚词的英译:
1. 他才不在乎吃的呢。He cares the least as to what to eat.
2. 这是人家送的,不是买的。 It’s a present, not a purchase.
3. 钥匙在墙上挂着,谁用自己拿吧。The key is /is hung on the hook on
the wall. Take it whenever you need it.
4. 一盘清蒸鲤鱼在这家饭店才十五块钱呀。A dish of “ steamed carp”
costs only 15 yuan in this restaurant.
5. 与世乒赛相比,这位选手的反手抽球技术成熟得多了。 Compared
with his performance in the World Table Tennis Championship, the
player is more skillful in backhand smash.
6. 你给了我希望,也给了我生命。Give me hope and you give me life.
7. 你来得正是时候。You’ve come in the nick of time.
8. 为什么他偏要那样做?Why should he do it in that way?
9. 究竟为什么你这么说呢?Why was it that you said so?
10.他却反咬一口。On the other hand he makes a counter charge.
第六节 文言虚词的英译处理
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文言虚词数目虽不大,但因其表意性强,兼类现象突出,且与现代汉语
差别较大,英译时往往给译者带来较大困难。本节拟将最常用文言虚词
的用法作一小结,并举例说明英译方法。首先将下段文字译成英语:
知己知彼,百战不殆;不知彼而知己,一胜一负;不知彼不知己,每战
必殆。(《孙子兵法》)
You can fight a hundred battles without defeat if you know the enemy
as well as yourself. /You will win one battle and lose one battle if you
know yourself but are in the dark about the enemy. /You will lose every
battle if you are in the dark about both the enemy and yourself.
上文隐含的连词补出如下:
(若)知彼(又)知己,(则)(虽)百战(而)不殆;(若)不知彼
而知己,(则)(将)一胜(及)一负;(若)不知彼(又)不知己,
(则)每战(将)必殆。
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一、之
“之”在文言文中可用作代词、助词、兼词和动词等。
(一)代词
“之”作代词,既可作人称代词,也可作指示代词。英译时,应按其意,
用代词、名词(短语)、从句转换。
(1)吾得兄事之。
I will treat him as respectfully as I treat my elder brother.
(2) 子曰:“道之不行也,我知之矣;知者过之,愚者不及也。”(《中
庸》)
Said Confucius, “The doctrine of the mean has not been practiced, the
reason for which as I see is that the wise goes beyond the norm of the
mean, and the benighted fails to reach the standard of the mean.
第一个“之”为结构助词,无实义,不译;第二个“之”代“道之不行”
的原因,译作从句;第三个“之”代“道”,译作名词。
(3)徽太子言,臣愿谒之。(《史记》)
Even Your Highness hasn’t mentioned it to me, I myself would propose
to you.
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(二)助词
用在定语和中心词之间,表示领属或修饰关系,相当于现代汉语的
“的”。英译时,可根据上下文酌情处理。
用在主谓之间,取消句子独立性,只有语法意义,可以不译。
(1)秦之间言曰:“秦之所恶,独畏马服君赵奢之子赵括为将耳。”
(《史记》)
Then the spy sent by Qin spread a rumor, saying: “Qin has only one
thing to worry about. They are afraid that Zhao Kuo, the son of Zhao
She, might come out to command the army.”
第一个“之”表示领属关系,译成过去分词短语,第二个“之”无实义;
第三个“之”表示领属,以同位语译出。
(2)甚矣,汝之不惠。(《列子》)
How unwise you are!
(3)专诸之刺王僚也,彗星袭月。
When Zhuan Zhu was to assassinate Wang Liao, the tail of a comet
swept across the moon.
“之”用在第一分句之间,与“也”构成“之……也”格式,表示“……
的时候”。英译时,可译成时间副词或转于从句。
(4)公将鼓之。(《左传》)
Duke Zhuang was to beat the drum.
“之”为语气助词,用来加强语气和凑足一个音节,无意,不需译出。
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(三)兼词
代词兼介词,相当于“之于”。例如:
黔无驴,有好事者船载以入,至,则可用,放之山下。
Guizhou was a place where donkeys were not bred. A man full of fancy
ideas shipped one there, but when it arrived he found it was not of
much use. Therefore, he took it to the mountain area left it there.
(四)动词
“之”作动词,相当于现代汉语的“倒”、“往”。
(1)项伯乃夜驰之沛公军。(《史记》)
On hearing this, Xiang Bo rode over the dark to the camp of the
Governor of Pei.
译文中以表示方向和目的的to译出。
(2)然后驱而之善,故民之从之也轻。(《孟子》)
“之善”意为“走上善的道路”;第二个“之”为结构助词;第三个
“之”指代“贤明君主”。因此可译为:
Then when he intrusts his people to take the virtuous road, they will
naturally obey and follow.
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二、而
“而”在文言中可作连词、代词、语气助词、动词。
(一)连词
“而”作连词,可表示并列、偏正、顺承、转折等关系,可译作英语连
词、不定式、从句、介词短语等。
(1)秦兴兵而伐,大克之。(《史记》)
Qin then dispatched its troops to attack both and won an overwhelming
victory.
“而“连接两个谓语动词,表示目的,译文中以不定式译出。
(2)北山愚公者,年且九十,面山而居。(《列子》)
The Foolish Old Man of the North Mountain, nearly ninety years of age,
lived behind these mountains.
(3)人而无知,与木何异?(范缜《神灭论》)
If a man is senseless, then, what is the difference between him and a
log?
“而”表示假设,译文中用了if从句。
(4)虎求百兽而食之,得狐。(《战国策》)
A tiger caught a fox while looking for any beast that might come his
way and fall a prey to him.
“而”表示顺承,译文作了灵活处理,将其意融于全句中。
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(5)不仁而得国者,有之矣;不仁而得天下者,未之有也。(《孟
子》)
There are examples that an unbenevolent person can seize the power
of a sate, but there has been no example that an unbenevolent person
rules an empire.
“而”表示转折,译作英语转折连词but。(6)老妇恃辇而行(《战国
策》)
I move about in a carriage.
“而”表示方式,英译未介词短语。
(二)人称代词
“而”作人称代词, 同“尔”,相当于现代汉语的“你”、“你的”。
(1)而翁归,自与汝复算耳!(蒲松龄《聊斋志异》)
When your father is back, see he won’t make you pay for this!
(2)而忘越人之杀尔父乎?
Have you forgotten that your father was killed by people from the State
of Yue?
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(三)语气助词
语气词“而”与“吧”、“啦”相当。与“已”连用,意为“罢了”,
有时表示强调。
(1)今之从政者殆而!(《中庸》)
Nowadays, those engaged in politics harbor no good intention.
(2)巢入城,劳问而已,阖里宴然。(《资治通鉴》)
After entering the city, Huang Chao did nothing but console and
appease the people. Therefore, the city was peaceful as it had been
(四)动词
“而”作动词,意为“能,如,像”。
不逢汤武与桓穆兮,世孰云而知之?
Had they not met King Tang, King Wu, Duke Huan and Duke Mu and
been put in important position, who would have known their ability and
talent?
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(五)“而”还可以黏附在时间副词后,构成“既而,已而”,表示“不久,
一会儿”。
(1)既儿敌行益迩。(徐珂《清稗类钞》)
Presently, the enemy soldiers were coming closer and closer.
(2)已而简子至。(马中锡《中山狼传》)
Jian Zi arrived in no time.
三、以
“以”在古汉语中经常充当介词、副词、连词、名词。
介词
“以”作介词,可以表示方式、原因、目的、方向等。其汉译英的方法
也是多样的,可译成不定式、分词、介词短语,甚至动词。例如:
(1)以虞待不虞者胜。(《孙子兵法•谋攻》)
He will win who, prepared himself, waits to take the enemy unprepared.
“以”表示动作为所凭借的条件。
先以书遗操,诈云欲降。(《资治通鉴》)
Huang Gai first sent a letter to Cao Cao, claiming that he was to come
over to the latter’s side.
“以”相当于“把”。
(3)余船以次俱进。(《资治通鉴》)
The rest of the ships moved forward one by one.
“以”表示方式行为,作“依照”解。
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(4)赵王岂以一壁之故欺秦邪?)《史记》)
King of Zhao wouldn’t break his promise to you just for a piece of jade.
“以”表示原因,作“因为”解。
(5)宫之奇以其族行。
Gong Zhiqi led his family out of the State of Yu.
“以”作“率领”解。
(6)乃令苻离人葛婴将兵徇蕲以东。(《史记》)
He then appointed Ge Ying, a native of Fuli county, to command a
troop and attack areas east of Qi.
“以”与方位词连用,表示界限。
(7)众叛亲离,难以济矣。
Opposed by the masses and deserted by his followers, he could hardly
achieve success.
(8)乐以天下,忧以天下,然而不王者,未之有也。(《孟子》)
And if the people under heaven share happiness and worries with him,
there is no such case in which they don’t summit to his authority.
“以”同“与”,译作with.
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(9)是以后世无传焉。
Therefore, it hasn’t been passed on to the later generations.
“以”与“是”,“故”,“此”构成介词结构“是以”、“以此”、
“以故”,表示“因此”。
(10)天阴远来,何以教之?(虞世南《北堂书钞》)
You have come from afar in such bad weather. What advice would you
give me?
“何以”即“以何”,“何”提前,表示强调。
(二)副词
副词“以”表示时间,同“已”。英译时,可考虑用时态转换。
项王见秦宫皆以烧残破。(《史记》)
Xiang Yu saw that the palaces of Qin had all been ruined by fire.
(三)连词
连词“以”可表示动作先后、方式、目的等。译时应酌情处理。例如:
(1)范增数目项王,举所佩玉,以示者三。(《史记》)
Fan Zeng from time to time eyed Xiang Yu and three times lifted up the
jade pendant which he wore, signaling Yu to break once for all with the
governor.
(2)余与四人拥火以入。(王安石《游褒禅山记》)
Four companions and I entered, torches in hands.
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(3)楚人伐宋以救赵。(《左传》)
To come to Zhao’s reinforcement, the State of Chu sent an armed force
to attack the State of Song.
(4) 限以远,则至者少。(王安石《游褒禅山记》)
This place is so precipitous and out of the way that few people will
come for a visit.
(四) 名词
“以”作名词,相当于现代汉语的“缘故”例如:
何其久也?必有以也?(《诗经》)
Why so long? There must be reason for that.
古汉语中, “以为”、“以……为”既可作“认为”解,也可作
“把……当做……”解。例如:
(1)虎不知兽畏己而走也,以为畏狐也。(《战国策》)
Not realizing it was he that was the cause of the beasts’ panic-stricken
flight, the tiger thought they were afraid of the fox.
(2)子以我为不信,吾为子先行,子随我后,观百兽之见我敢不走乎?
(《战国策》)
If you don’t believe me, just let me lead the way and you follow close
behind. Then we’ll see if they all flee or not at the sight of me.
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四、夫
“夫”在文言文中常作指示代词、语气助词、人称代词或名词。
(一)指示代词
相当于“这个”、“那个”。可译成英语中的冠词、名词、代词等。例
如:
是叶公非好龙也,好夫似龙而非龙者也。(刘向《新序》)
It was not that Lord Ye really loved dragons, what he did love was
something in the shape of a dragon-all but a real one.
(二)人称代词
“夫”作人称代词,意为“他”、“他们”。
子木曰:“夫独无族姻乎?(《左传》)
Zi Mu asked, “Have they no relatives and clansmen?”
(三)语气助词
“夫“作语气助词,位于句首时作发语词,无义,可不译;位于句尾时,
表示强调,英译时,可考虑英语中表示强调的词汇或句法手段。例如:
(1)夫大国难测也,惧伏焉。(《左传》)
In the face of a powerful state like Qin, it is rather difficult to see
through its tactics. I was therefore afraid that might have an ambush
ready for us there.
(2)孟子曰:“术不可不慎。”信夫。(方苞《狱中杂记》)
Mencius said: “One cannot be over-prudent in choosing one’s
profession” Precisely.
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(四)名词
“夫”作名词,指成年男子。例如:
遂率子孙荷担者三夫……(《列子》)
The old man, helped by three of his sons and grandsons who could carry
things, began…
五、者
“者“也时常见文言虚词,可作代词、语气助词。
(1)言之者无罪,闻之者足戒。(《诗经》)
The speaker is not to be blamed and the listener should be warned by the
words.
(2) 二者不可兼得,舍鱼而取熊掌也。 (《孟子》)
If I can take only one of the two, I would prefer a bear’s paw to fish.
(3)今有人日攘其邻之鸡者。(《孟子》)
There is a person who steals one chicken from his neighbors every day.
上例中,为突出中心词,利用“者“将定语”日攘其邻之鸡“后置,英文中译成
定语从句。
(二)语气助词
(1)陈胜者,阳城人也。(《史记》)
Chen Sheng was a native of Yangcheng.
“者”位于判断句主语后,起突出主语作用,可以不译。
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(2)强秦之所以不敢加兵于赵者,徒以吾两人在也。(《史记》)
The only reason why the powerful Qin dared not to invade the State of
Zhao is that we two are both in the service of Zhao at court.
“者”位于因果复句的第一分句后,表示“……的原因”。
(3)不者,若属皆且为所虏。(《史记》)
Otherwise, all of you will one day become his prisoners.
“者”位于假设复句的第一个分句后,表示“如果”。
(4)燕太子丹者,故尝质于赵。(《史记》)
Prince Dan of the State Yan once served as a hostage in the State of
Zhao.
“者”在叙述句主语后,表示停顿、无实义。
(5)然往来视之,觉无异能者。
While keeping at a distance, he paced to and fro and watched, only to
find that it had no special powers.
“者”意为“……似的”、“……的样子,不需译出。
(6)谁为大王为此计者?(《史记》)
Who proposed the idea to Your Highness?
“者“表示译文语气。
(7)老臣今者殊不能食。(《战国策》)
I don’t like anything to eat.或I don’t have much appetite these days.
“者“在时间名词后,起调整音节的作用,无实义,不需译出。
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六、其
“其”在文言文中的作用很广,可充当代词、副词、连词、语气助词、
结构助词。
(一)代词
“其”既可以作人称代词,也可作指示代词。
(1)今者项庄拔剑舞,其意常在沛公也。(《史记》)
Now Xiang Zhuang is doing a sword dance. It’s obvious that he’s trying
to make an attempt on Governor Pei’s life.
(2)愿大王宽其罪,使的毕其辞。(宋玉《对楚往问》)
I hope Your Majesty could forgive me and allow me to finish my words.
(3) 少时,一狼径去,其一犬坐于前。
After a while, one wolf left and the other sat before the butcher like a
dog.
“其”此处意为“其中之一。
(二)副词
“其“作时间副词,表示“将”、“将要”。例如:
其始播百谷。(《诗经》)
The season is coming for sowing seeds.
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(三) 连词
作连词时,“其”表示假设或选择。例如:
(1)其济,君之灵。
If we succeed, it’s due to your blessings.
(2)天与?其人与?
Is it inborn or man-made?
(四)语气助词
(1) 欲加之罪,其无辞乎?(《左传》)
If you’re to condemn him, you can easily trump up a charge.
“其”与“乎”呼应,表示反诘,英译时只需译出其强调语气即可。
(2)圣人之所以为圣,愚人之所以为愚,其皆处于此乎?(韩愈《师
说》)
This probably is the reason why some people become sages and some
much labeled fools.
“其”表示测度语气,义同“大概”。
(3)曾不能毁山之一毛,其如土石何?(《列子》)
You cannot even remove one grass on the mountain let alone so much
earth and so many rocks.
“其”表疑问,有加强语气的作用。译文中以let alone译出。
(4)吾其还也。
I’d rather go back.
“其”此处表示希望,作“还是”解,英译时宜作灵活处理。
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(五)助词
“其”作助词,只有语法意义,可以省译。
(1)既其出,则或咎其欲出者。(王安石《游褒禅山记》)
Out of the cave, some began to blame those who had urged to be out.
(2)我来自东,零雨其蒙。
I came from the east where it was drizzling.
七、于
“于”在文言文中通常作介词,表示时间、地点、对象、比较、被动、
方面等。英译时应根据上下文酌情处理。例如:
(1)欲信大义于天下。(《三国志》)
He intended to promote righteousness and justice among the people
across the nation.
“于”表示地点,作“在”解。
(2)三年于此矣。
It has been three years.
“于”表示时间,作“到目前”解。
(3) 赵氏求救于齐。(《战国策》)
The State of Zhao turned to the State of Qi for help.
“于”表示对象,作“向”解。
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(4)周于利者凶年不能杀,周于德者邪世不能乱。(《孟子》)
A wealthy man will never be hard pressed in the years of famine. A virtuous
man will never be puzzled even in years of turmoil.
“于”作“在……方面”,译文中作了灵活处理,译作形容词。
(5)子墨子闻之,起于鲁,行十日十夜而至于郢。(《墨子》)
On hearing this, Mo Tsu set off from the State of Lu and arrived in Ying ten
days later.
“于”作“自”、“从”、“到”解;“之”,代词,指公输盘为楚造云梯攻宋
一事。
(6)然后知生于忧患,而死于安乐也。(《孟子》)
Thus we may understand the truth that worry and hardship secure survival
while comfort and happiness incur destruction.
“于”此处表示原因,作“由于”解,英译时译作“致使”意德词。
(7)人固有一死,或重于泰山,或轻于鸿毛。(司马迁《报任少卿书》)
Every man must die. But one’s death might be weightier than Mt.Tai or lighter
than a goose feather.
“于”此处相当于“比”。汉译英时可译作比较级,也可借助表示比较的连词。
(8)兵破于陈涉,地夺于刘氏。(《汉书》)
His troops were defeated by Chen She and his land seized by Liu Bang.
(9)于是项伯复夜去,至军中。(《史记》)
Therefore, Xiang Zhuang went back to Xiang Yu’s camp in the dark.
“于是”意为“因此”。
(10)吴起于是闻魏文侯贤明,欲事之。
Wu Qi had heard by this time that Marquis Hou was able and virtuous, so he
intended to be at his service.
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八、所
“所”在文言文中作代词,通常与其他词连用,英译需要灵活处理。
(1)可汉问所欲。(《木兰诗》)
Khan asked Mulan what she would like to have as a reward for her
valour.
“所”与动词连用,构成名词性词组,指代人、物或处所。
(2)粟者,民之所种。
Grains are produced by the peasants.
“所”在此处相当于……的东西“。
(3)吾知所以拒子矣,吾不言。(《墨子》)
I know how to deal with you , but I won’t tell you.
“所”、“以”连用,表示行为实现的方法等。
(4)是吾剑之所从坠。(《吕氏春秋》)
This is where I have dropped my sword.
“所”与“从”连用,表示处所。
(5)从弟子女十人所。(《史记》)
About ten female disciples followed him.
“所”在数词后,表示数量不确,同“大约”
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九、也
“也”为语气助词,可居句中,也可居句末。
(1)兵者,国之大事也。(《孙子兵法》)
Military action is of vital importance to the State.
“者……也”表示判断,可拥英语系动词be转换。
(2)兵者,诡道也。(《孙子兵法》)
All warfare is based on deception.
此处译成be based on,以求意义明确。
(3)小子识之,苛政猛于虎!(《礼记》)
Keep in you mind-tyranny is indeed fiercer than a tiger.
“也”位于叙述句尾,加强语气,译作indeed。
(4)友也者,友其德也,不可以挟也。(《孟子》)
You make a friend with someone because he has good integrity; do not
have any sense of taking advantages of him in your mind.
此处,“也”含有命令或禁止语气。
(5)大丈夫当如此也!(《史记》)
A real man should be like this.
“也”在此表示感叹。
(6)丘也幸,苟有过,人必知之。(《论语》)
I’m very lucky, for if I made some mistakes others would know it.
“也”表示提顿,无实义。
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十、矣
“矣”作语气助词,表示陈述、推测、感叹、疑问、判断、强调等,有
时也表示将来。汉译英时应酌情处理。
(1)今日病矣,予助苗矣!(《孟子》)
I’m exhausted today because I have given the shoots some help for
them to grow.
“矣”表示既成事实或状态,相当于“了”。“病”作“疲倦”解。
(2)先夺其爱,则听矣。(《孙子兵法》)
If you begin by seizing something which your opponent holds dear,
then he will be amenable to your will.
“矣”表示推测某种条件下可能差生某种后果,作“了”解。
(3)天下苦秦久矣!(《史记》)
Too long the people have suffered from the rule of Qin.
“矣”表示感叹,译文中将 “too long”置于句首以传达感叹语气。
(4)夫市之无虎明矣,然而三人言而成虎。(《战国策》)
It’s now as clear as daylight that no tiger dare go to the open market,
but since three men have said the same thing, the presence of a tiger
becomes established.
“矣”用于句中表示判断。
翻译实践
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一、口译下列词组:
实行价格体系双轨制 to practice dual-track price system
价格补贴 price subsides
市价、现价 current price
议价 negotiated price
内部调拨价 internal transfer price
实际价格 real price
商标所有权 ownership of trade mark
最佳专业化 optimum specialization
农业技术联产责任制 system of output-related responsibility in
agrotechnical service
10.从温饱型向小康型过渡 to proceed from being adequately fed and
clad to being fairly comfortable
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二、将下列古文译成英语,特别注意文言虚词的处理:
是故百战百胜,非善之善者也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。
Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme
excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s
resistance without fighting.
羿请不死之药于西王母,弈妻常娥偷之奔月,托身于月,是为蟾蜍,而
为月精。
Yi got some elixir from the Queen of the West, but his wife Chang’e
stole it and flew away with it to the moon. Therefore she lived on the
moon in the form of a toad, and was called the Moon Spirit.
3.鲁人身善织屦,妻善织缟,而欲徒于越。或谓之曰:“子必穷矣。”
鲁人曰:“何也?”曰:“屦为履之也,而越人跣行;缟为冠之也,而
越人被发。以子之所长,游于不用之国,欲使无穷,其可得乎?”
A native the state of Lu was good at making hempen sandals and his
wife at weaving silk taffeta; and they intended to move to the State of
Yueh. Someone told them that they would become poor if they should
do so. The native of Lu asked him, “Why do you think so?” The other
said, “ You know sandals are made for feet, but the people of Yueh are
barefooted. The silk taffeta if for the head, but the people of Yue are
bareheaded. Now you go to a country where your special skill is not
wanted. How can it be that you will not become poor?”
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I.the Presentation of the Main Contents:
一.连动式与兼语式的英译
1. 连动式的英译:并列式连动式的译法;从属式连动式的译法;链式连
动式的译法
2. 兼语式的英译:SVOC句型的译法;利用英语中表示“致使”、“促
成”意义的动词翻译兼语式谓语;“表扬”、“称赞”、“埋怨”、
“责怪”、“批评”等动词的英译
二、定语性词组和状语性词组的英译:散动式定语词组的英译;散动式
状语词组的英译;
三、习语与对偶句的翻译方法:直译,借用,意译,直译兼意译
第七节 连动式与兼语式的英译处理
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所谓“连动式”,就是一种两个或两个以上的动词共一个主语的结构,
其中动词可以带宾语、补语,但不带连词。所谓“兼语式”,是一种前
一个动词的宾语兼作后一个动词的主语的结构。
一、连动式的英译
(一)并列连动式的译法
并列式连动式中的几个动词表示动词间先后关系或同时关系。表示两个
动作的同时或几乎同时关系时,常将其中比较次要的译作英语中的现分
词(作伴随情况状语);表示两个动作先后关系时,常译成两个英语动
词,并用and连接。举例如下:
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(1)寻章摘句,世之腐儒也,何能兴邦立事?
Those who are lost in selecting passages and choosing phrases are
pedants. How can such men make their state strong and do great
deeds?
(2)他的朋友阻止道:“不可性急。”
His friend checked him and said, “Hold your horse.”
(3)我悄悄地披上了大衫,带上门出去了。
Shrugging on an overcoat, I made my way out, closing the door behind
me.
应当注意的是,汉语中有些词组看似并列式,其实不然。如“来龙去
脉”、“考虑来考虑去”中,“来”、“去”的动词意义早已虚化,只
作修饰语,英译时需按实际意义分别译成:cause and effect, turn over
and over again in one’s mind(或weigh over)。此外,汉语中的一些并列
式只是一种离合复迭结构,如“披头散发”(wear one’s hair loose)和
“穿针引线”(act as a go-between)等。英译时也不应拘泥于处理连
动式的一般方法。
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(二)从属式连动式的译法
从属式连动式中的几个动词有主次之分,主要动词与次要动词之间有条
件、方式、对象、目的、因果等关系。英译时,一般将主要动词译成英
语的谓语动词,将其他动词译作不定式、分词、介词(短语)等。例如:
(1)那晚天黑得伸手不见五指。
The night was so dark that you could hardly see your hand in front of
your face.
(2)让我帮你填报关表吧。
“帮”是主,“填”是次,表示结果。
Let me help you to fill the customs declaration form.
(3)我们必须以高度的历史感和时代紧迫感,继续几种力量进行经济
建设,进一步发展和壮大自己。
With a high sense of responsibility for the nation and the people and
awareness of urgency, we will concentrate on economic construction in
the hope of further strengthening and developing the nation.
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(4)她1933年到上海定居,在那里,她的创作进入了一个新的高潮期。
“定居”为主,“到上海”为次,表示处所。
She settled in Shanghai in 1933, where her literary creation entered
another period of flourishing.
(5)技术嫁接给企业注入了新的活力。
“注入”是主,“给”是次,后者是前者的对象。
Technical transformation instilled new vitality into the enterprise.
(6)事实证明,不建立现代企业制度,以重塑市场主体,使企业成为
完全独立的商品生产者和经营者,企业经营机制不可能发生根本改变,
社会主义市场经济的发展就会遇到重重困难。
Reality has spoken well for it that without a modern economic system
in which market will play a central role and which regards enterprises
as economic entities enjoying sole independence in what to produce
and how to operate, no fundamental transition could be expected in the
manageable mechanism of enterprises, moreover, the development of
socialist market would encounter one difficulty after another.
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(三)链式连动式的译法
链式连动式由两个以上有逻辑关系的主谓结构并列而成,是比较复杂的
并列式或从属式连动式。链式连动式表示动作先后关系时,译文中可用
and表达;链式连动式表示从属关系时,应仔细辨别各动词之间的关系,
找出主要动词;并根据英语习惯进行翻译。例如:
这个犯罪团伙,持枪劫车,杀人越货,真是罪大莫及。
“持枪劫车”与“杀人越货”为并列关系。在“持枪劫车”中,“劫车”
是主,“持枪”表方式;“杀人越货”中“越货”是主,“杀人”是手
段。可译为:
This band of criminal gunmen hijacked trucks, killed drivers and looted
the goods. Even death cannot atone for their offense.
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二、兼语式的英语
汉语兼语式复杂谓语的英译主要有以下几种情况:
(一)根据英语的SVOC(主语+谓语+补语)句型把汉语兼语式的第二
个动词译作英语的宾语补足语(不定式、介词短语、形容词、介词、副
词、分词或名词来充当)。例如:
(1)近几年中国政府一直鼓励外商参与重点经济建设项目和现有企业
的技术改造。
In recent years, China has been encouraging foreign businessmen to
actively participate in China’s key economic construction projects and
the technological transformation of some existing enterprises.
(2)当局要求灾区群众开展生产自救,重建家园。
The authorities urged the people in the flood-stricken areas to
overcome the adversity through greater production and to rebuild their
own homes.
(3)国际社会呼吁交战双方早日达成停火协议。
The international community appealed to the warring sides for an
earliest possible cease-fire agreement.
(4)空姐应使自己时刻保持镇静、热情。
A stewardess should try to stay calm and courteous at all time.
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(二)利用英语中表示“致使”、“促成”意义的动词,翻译汉语兼语
式谓语。
(1)经济的腾飞使中国在国际事物中发挥着越来越重要的作用。
The booming economy enables China to play a more and more
important role in the world affairs.
(2)她优美的歌声令听众如痴如醉。
The singer’s beautiful voice enraptured the audience.
(3)这些项目具有技术起点高、经济效益好、市场潜力大、发展后劲
足等特点,能够使投资者获得可观的效益。
With a solid technical basis, sound economic efficiency, great market
potential and bright prospective, these projects will secure good
economic results for the investors.
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(三)兼语式的第一个动词为“表扬”、“称赞”、“埋怨”。“责怪”“批评”
等时,往往可将第二个动词译成英语中表示原因的状语性短语。例如:
(1)那位评论家指责该书作者有剽窃行为。
The critic criticized the author of the book for plagiarism.
(2)联合国粮农组织的高级官员在世界粮食大会上盛赞中国致力于解决十二亿
人口的温饱问题。
At the world Food Conference, senior officials from the United Nations Food
and Agriculture Organization highly praised China for its endeavors in solving
the problem of feeding and clothing its 1.2 billion population.
(四)注意辨别兼语式。许多表层结构恨像兼语式的结构,其实并不是兼语式。
误判会导致误译。例如:
(1)我讨厌人们整天进进出出这里。
I don’t want people coming in and out all day.
(2)他不喜欢人家批评他。
He hates criticism.
(五)很多情况下,兼语式四英译需根据上下文和英语习惯灵活处理。例如:
(1)我劝你还是投案自首,以求宽大处理。
You’d better surrender yourself to the police in the hope of being accorded
lenient treatment.
(2)当局禁止该影片上映。
The film came under the ban of censor.
翻译实践
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一、口译下列短语:
股份制 share holding system; joint-stock system
租赁制 rental system
意向书 letter of intent
保证书 letter of guarantee
劳动合同 labor contract
财政包干制度 the contract responsibility system of finance
国家二级企业 state second-level enterprise
进出口许可证制度 import and export license system
扭转企业亏损 to eliminate enterprise losses
10.连锁商店经营 chain-store operation
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二、将下列句子译成英语,注意画线的词语:
1. 农民们敲锣打鼓庆祝新春佳节。
The farmers beat drums and strike gongs to celebrate the Spring
Festival.
2. 那辆面的撞倒一个小女孩后逃离了现场。
After knocking the little girl down, the driver of the taxi flied away from
the spot.
3. 你最好打个电话跟他约个时间见面谈谈。
You’d better fix an appointment with him over the phone to meet for a
talk.
4. 抓着衣角扇了几下,站起来回家去了。
He unfastened the jacket, gripped its lower hem and swung it back and
forth a few times to fan himself. Then he stood up and started for home.
5. 大夫开了个药方给他调元补气。
The doctor wrote out a prescription for him to fortify his constitution and
regain his strength.
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三、翻译下列各句,注意兼语式的英译:
1. 该国政府敦促国际社向逃到该国的难民提供人道主义救援。
The government urged the world community to provide humanitarian
relief aid to the refugees who fled to its country.
2. 安理会决定向该地区派维和不对制止冲突升级。
The Security Council decided to send a peace-keeping force to prevent
the escalation of conflicts in that area.
3. 国际奥委会选定这个城市为下届奥运会的会址。
The International Olympic Committee has selected this city as the site
for the coming Olympic Games.
4. 他们认为她是全国人大代表的合适人选。
They regard her as the right candidate for a deputy to the National
People’s Congress.
5. 该书融学术性、知识性、趣味性为一体,并有插图照片,可供广大戏
曲、影视、美术、文学、社会学和民俗学工作者参考。
Informative, interesting, and of scholarly profundity, the book contains
quite a few illustrations and is worth of perusal by theater experts,
movie and TV specialists, artists, literary circles, aestheticians,
sociologists and folklorists.
第八节 定语性词组和状语性词组的英译处理
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一、散动式定语词组
散动式词组作定语时,定语和中心词之间主要有谓状、主谓、动宾、主
系表、复指五种关系。但作为定语标志的“的”字并非出现在所有这些
关系中。弄清者一点,对翻译颇有益处。
(一)谓状关系
中心词表示定语词组中动词的地点、条件、目的、方式、原因等,此时
定语标志“的”可以省略。英译时,可以借助定于从句、介词+从句、
不定式、分词、介词+动名词进行转换。例如:
(1)以上就是我们同意继续进行两岸对话的条件。
The aforesaid are conditions under which we will agree to continue
talks between both sides of the Strait.
(2)济南轻骑集团扭亏转盈的做法值得推广。
Jinan Qingqi Motorcycle Group’s tactics by which to change its
situation from incurring credits to making profits is worth popularizing
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(二)主谓关系
定语和中心词呈主谓关系时,可采用定于从句、分词短语等来翻译。例
如:
(1)据统计每天前来游览敦煌壁画的游客数以千计。
As is shown by statistics, every day tourists coming to visit the
Duhuang murals amount to thousands.
(2)统计数字还表明转而从事专业性工作的妇女人数有了相当大的增
加。
Statistics also show a considerable rise in the number of women
turning to more professional lines of work.
(三)动宾关系
此中情况,多用介词短语、分词短语或定语从句进行翻译。例如:
(1)企业要建立风险资金以补偿因管理不善而造成的亏损。
Risk funds will be set up to compensate for losses incurred because of
poor management.
(2)中国科学技术大学的一位博士生创建了一个公司,旨在开发能使
电子信函讲话的软件。
A Ph.D candidate at the University of Science and Technology of China
has set up a company aimed at developing a software that can make
e-mails speak.
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(3)长期忽视妇女教育造成了大批文盲妇女。这对国家发展所起的消
极影响已经在生育率难以控制的现象中明显地表现出来了。
The long-standing neglect of women’s education has resulted in a large
proportion of female illiteracy. Its negative effect on the nation’s
development is most strikingly seen in the country’s barely controllable
birth rate.
(四)主系表关系
英语中没有这样性质的定语,而是使用复合形容词或介词词组以及分词
短语、定于从句来转换。例如:
(1)这些是蒸汽结成的冰花。
These are ice flowers formed by vapor.
(2)这就是故事中后来成了著名天文学家的那个孩子。
This is the young man in the story who was to become a great
astronomer years later.
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(五)复指关系
所谓复指,即定语与中心词指的是同一事件或人物的关系。英译时,可
转换成不定式短语、动名词短语、连词引导的短语或句子等。
(1)连两公婆吵架的小事,也要街道办事处去解决。
They even went to the neighborhood affairs office for solutions to trivial
matters such as quarrels between husband and wife.
在这里, “两公婆吵架”就是“小事”,译文中用了介词such as.
(2)为什么人的问题,是一个根本的问题,原则的问题。
To serve for whom is a cardinal problem, a matter of principle.
以上所述是连动式定语词组英译的一般方法,翻译实践中,须视不同情
况、灵活处理。例如:
(1)喜欢爵士乐的青年人很多,喜欢摇滚乐的人更多。
More young people love jazz, still more like rock’n’roll.
(2)物价飞涨的事实说明非洲人民饱受战争之苦。
The skyrocketing prices are indicative of the untold bitterness of the
African people in the dept of war.
(3)高等学校教师中具有高级职称的教师人数已占专职教师总数的32
%。
The number of professors and associate professors accounts for 32%
of the full-time faculty members in institutions of higher education.
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二、散动式状语词组
(一)静句中散动式状语词组
静句中散动式状语词组可以表示被动,也可以与谓语动词构成因果等关
系。
1.表示被动时
散动式表示被动时,可以译成英语“主语+be+形容词+不定式”句型中
的不定式,若动词后带有标志“起来”时,可用英语不既无动词表达。
例如:
(1)皮肤不那么容易受到细菌感染。
Skin is not liable to be affected by bacteria.
(2)生铁容易折断。
Cast iron is apt to break.
这纸写起来很脆。
The paper is flimsy to write on.
(4)这花闻起来挺香。
The flower smells sweet.
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2.表示因果关系时
散动式与谓语动词构成因果关系时,可以译成英语动词不定式或介词短
语或从句。例如:
(1)我看到你健康、快活而富有,心里很高兴。
I’m very pleased to see you happy/healthy and wealthy.
(2) 她听到丈夫被在野党刺杀的消息,痛不欲生。
She is overwhelmed with sorrow at the news that her husband was
assassinated by the opposition party.
(3)听说他没拿到自由体操的金牌,我们很失望。
We’re rather disappointed that he failed to win the gold medal of floor
exercise.
(二)动句中的散动式状语词组
此类散动式状语词组带有标志“就”、“也”、“便”、“才”、
“再”、“还”、“好”等,表示方式、目的、条件、假设、原因等关
系,英译时,可以利用介词短语、不定式、分词、连词等转换。例如:
(1)他们扛起铁锨和锄头就下地了。
They left for the fields, shouldering spades and hoes.
原语中散动式表示方式。
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(3)这些细菌,放到显微镜下,就可以被肉眼看到。
These germs, put under a microscope, could be seen with unaided
eyes.
原语中散动式表示条件。
(4)他看见下棋就馋得慌。
His fingers itch at the sight of a game of chess.
原语只能够散动式表示原因
翻译实践
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一、请口译下列短语:
搞活国有企业 to invigorate (鼓舞) state-owned enterprise
扩大企业自主权 to enlarge (expand) the decision-making power of
enterprises
企业内部制度改革 institutional reform in enterprises
改善经营管理 to improve management and administration
优化劳动组合 to optimize labor organization
自主经营 to make one’s own managerial decision
自负盈亏制 the system of responsibility for one’s profits and losses
利税分流 to separate profits and taxes
强化指标管理 to tighten management of quotas for…
10.紧缩支出 to curtail financial outlays; retrenchment (节省)of
expenditure
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二、将下列句子译成英文,注意散动式定语词组的翻译:
1. 他的敬业精神值得大家学习。
We should all model ourselves on his devotion to his work.
2. 为希望工程捐款的海外华侨数目极多。
There area a large number of overseas Chinese who have donated to
Project Hope.
3. 四川是首先实行社会保险改革的省份之一。
Sichuan is one of the first provinces to introduce a social insurance
/security reform.
4. 这种病菌造成的感染可以引起各式的包括只气管炎在内的呼吸道疾病。
Infections with such an agent produce a spectrum of respiratory
diseases including bronchopneumonia.
5. 假冒伪劣商品充斥市场的事实说明我们的商品流通体制中还存在许多
漏洞。
The fact that the markets are flooded with fake goods or goods of
inferior quality indicates that there are still quite a number of loopholes
to be plugged in our existing commodity circulation system.
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三、将下列句子译成英语,注意散动式状语词组的处理:
1. 这要吃起来很苦,但很有效。
The medicine tastes bitter but it’s quite effective.
2. 那个隐士住的地方很难找。
It’s difficult to find the place the hermit lives in.
3. 管理得好些的话,这些白菜可能长得更大些。
Given better attention, the cabbages could have grown bigger.
4. 他一听这话就火了。
He flared up at the words.
5. 把肉放到冰箱里,免得坏了。
Put the meat in the refrigerator lest it should go bad.
第九节 习语与对偶语句的英译处理
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一、习语英语
习语中,成语多以四字组成,具有言简意赅、形象生动、表现力强等特点;俗语
和言语是群众中广为流行的语句,通俗易懂,形象简练,且有定式,歇后语由前
后两部分构成,前一部分多为比喻,后一部分说明喻义。
一般说来,汉语习语可采用直译法、借用法、意译法、直译兼意译法、直译加注
法、省略法等。
(一)直译法
直译是在不违背译文语言规范以及不引起译文读者错误理解的情况下,在译文中
保留原文习语的形象、修辞手段和民族特色。
1.成语直译的例子:
(1) 明枪易躲,暗箭难防。
It is easy to dodge a spear thrust in the open, but it is difficult to guard against
an arrow from a hiding place.其中,“明枪”、和“暗箭”分别译为a spear
thrust in the open 和an arrow from a hiding place,形象显明且喻义明确。
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2)旁边一人鼓掌大笑曰:“此事易如反掌,何必多议!”(罗贯中
《三国演义》)
Then one of those about him suddenly clapped his hands, crying, “It’s
as easy as turning over one’s hand! Why so much talk!” (Tr. C.H.
Brewitt-Taylor)
(3)于是金荣忍气吞声,不多一会儿,也自睡去了。(曹雪芹《红楼
梦》)
Chin Jung had to swallow his anger and hold his tongue, and very
soon he turned in. (Tr. Yang Xianyi &Gladys Yang)
(4) 但世人一见了功名,便舍得性命去求它,乃至到手后,味同嚼蜡。
(吴敬梓《儒林外史》)
Men will risk their lives in search for rank and fame, yet once they have
them within their grasp, the taste is no better than chewed tallow.
英语习语 as dry as sawdust意思与“味同嚼蜡”相同,但后者直译不违
背英语规范,因此可以完全不用借用法。
(5)他这一去如石沉大海,再无消息。
He left like a stone dropped into the sea and has never been heard of.
口头翻译
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蓬头垢面 with disheveled hair and dirty face
求同存异 to seek common grounds while reserving differences
扑朔迷离 complicated and confusing
朴实无华 simple and unadorned
遣词造句 choice of words and building of sentences
能者多劳 The abler one is, the more one should do.
画饼充饥 to draw cakes to allay hunger
顺水推舟 to push the boat with current
扭亏为盈 to make up deficits and increase surpluses
10.宁为玉碎,不为瓦全 rather be a shattered vessel of jade than an
unbroken piece of pottery
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2.俗语、谚语直译的例子:
(1)古人说得好:有钱能使鬼推磨,现在只要由钞票,保险你路路
通……(周而复《上海的早晨》)
There’s a lot of truth in the old saying: “If you have money, you can
even make the devil turn your mill.” Today, so long as you’ve got money,
you can be sure every door will be open to you…
直译保留了原文“鬼”、“推磨”的形象,同时与因故习语Money
makes the mare go的句型相似,译文读者不难理解。
(2)中国人有句老话:“不入虎穴,焉得虎子。”这句话对于人们的
实践是真理,对于认识论也是真理。
There is an old Chinese saying, “How can one catch tiger cubs without
entering the tiger’s lair?” This saying holds true for one’s practice and
also holds true for the theory of knowledge.
“不入虎穴,焉得虎子”,若以Nothing ventured, nothing gained来译,
一则平淡无味,二则有悖于原文的风格。
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(3)土帮土成墙,穷帮穷成王。
Earth sticks to earth and makes a wall, poor men stick to poor men and
together overthrow a kingdom.
(4) 十年树木,百年树人。
It takes ten years to grow trees but a hundred years to rear people.
(5 ) 路遥知马力,日久见人心。
A long road tests a horse’s strength and a long task proves a man’s
heart.
请试译下列俗语和谚语:
人多力量大,柴多火焰高。
More people produce greater strength, more logs makes a bigger fire.
若要人不知,除非己莫为。
The only way to stop people from knowing is not to do it.
画虎画皮难画骨。
In drawing a tiger, you show its skin, but not its bones.
良药苦口利于病,忠言逆耳利于行。
Frank advice is like herbal medicine; hard to take, but ultimately
beneficial.
衙门自古朝南开,有理无钱莫进来。
Court doors may open, but not to the poor.
到什么山唱什么歌。
Sing different songs on different mountains.
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人为财死,鸟为食亡。
Men die for wealth; birds die for food.
烈马须用粗缰。
A boisterous horse must have a rough bridle.
久病成医。
Prolonged illness makes a doctor of a patient.
10.饱汉不知饿汉饥。
The well-fed don’t know how the starved suffer.
3.歇后语直译的例子:
(1)他心头有如十五个吊桶打水,七上八下。
In his heart, it is like fifteen buckets being hurriedly lowered into a well
for water-eight going down while seven are coming up.
(2)卖人参的听了,“哑巴见妈说不出的苦。”(吴敬梓《儒林外
史》)
When the ginseng-seller heard this, he was like a dumb man dreaming
of his mother; he couldn’t voice his distress.
(3)再派人去,那不是瞎子打灯笼白费一支蜡吗?
Sending someone else is like a blind man carrying a candle. A waste of
wax!
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请口译下列歇后语:
老虎吃天——无从下口。
A tiger wanting to eat the sky—not knowing where to eat
黄鼠狼给鸡拜年——不怀好意。
A weasel wishing Happy New Year to a chicken—harboring no good
intentions
泥菩萨过河——自身难保。
The clay idol fording the river—it’s as much as it can do to preserve
itself from disaster
千里送鹅毛——礼轻情意重。
To send the feather of a swan one thousand li— the gift in itself may be
insignificant, but the good-will is deep
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(二)借用法
汉英语言与文化的共通之处,使得汉译英重借用同义英语习语成为可能。
借用同义习语有以下几种情况:
1.汉英习语含义相同、形象一致时,汉译英时借用英语习语。例如:
(1)只有大胆地破釜沉舟地跟他们拼,或许有翻身的一天!(曹禺
《日出》)
All you can do is to burn your boats and fight them in the hope that one
day you’ll come out on top.
“破釜沉舟”与to burn one’ boat 不仅形象一致,含义相同,而且历史背
景也极相似。
(2)你该趁热打铁,把刚学的几首诗背过。
You should strike while the iron is hot, just try to memorize the poems
that have been newly taught to you.
(3)“……这实在是叫做‘天有不测风云’,她的男人是坚实人,谁
知道年纪轻轻,就会断送在伤寒上……”(鲁迅《祝福》)
“It was really a bolt from the blue. Her husband was so strong,
nobody could have expected that he would die of typhoid fever…”
(4)甭担心,船到桥头自然直。
Don’t worry. You will cross the bridge when you come to it.
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2.汉英习语形象不一致但内涵相同时,也可借用不具浓厚民族色彩他同义英语
习语。例如:
(1) 突飞猛进 by leaps and bounds
(2)活蹦乱跳 alive and kicking
(3) 患难与共 to share weal and woe
(4) 少年老成 to have an old head on young shoulders
(5)无稽之谈 cock-and-bull story
(6) 近墨者黑 He that lies down with dogs must rise with fleas.
3.有些汉语习语直译后冗长拖沓,词不达意或因词害义。未来避免这些弊病,
可借用比喻形象与之大相径庭的同义英语习语来译。例如:
(1)你不能因噎废食,从此出门只靠步行了呀!
You should not cut off your nose to spite your face and forever travel on foot
hereafter.
“因噎废食”可直译成to stop eating for fear of choking.但cut off your nose to
spite your face一目了然。
(2)那家合资企业由于经营不善,已到了山穷水尽的地步。
Due to poor management, the joint venture is now at the end of its tether.
(3)天晓得,这批矽钢片, 本来就是次货,铁耗怎么能不大?又要马儿好,又
要马儿不吃草。真是……(夏衍《考验》)How the hell can iron wastage be
low when that shipment of silicon steel is dud stuff in the first place! You can’t
eat your cake and have it! It’s too much of a good thing…
该例引自剧本,译文中借用同义英语习语,用词经济,行文自然,通俗易懂。
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4)难怪他数学那么好,他父母都是数学教授。“龙生龙。凤生凤,老
鼠生儿打地洞”嘛。
No wonder he is good at math—his parents are both professors of
maths. “Like father, like son,” indeed.
4.由于生活习惯和思维方式等不同, 许多汉英习语虽有相同或相似的
形象或比喻,但含义却不同。翻译时,不能简单对应,必须多加推敲和
区别。
例如:同舟共济“和to be in the same boat比喻相同,含义也相近,但
色彩不同。前者含积极意义,后者含消极意义。“亡羊补牢”和to lock
the stable door after the horse is stolen比喻相同,喻义却相反。前者意
为“犹未为晚”,后者意为“为时已晚”。“贩卖陈皮到广州”和to
carry coals to New castle也不能互译,因为各具浓厚的地方色彩。
总之,译者必须掌握丰富的英语习语,充分了解其用法与内涵,善于鉴
别汉英同义习语的异同,还要考虑到上下文、文体等因素,切忌对号入
座。
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请用借用法翻译下列习语:
挥金如土 to spend money like water
水中捞月 to fish I the air
一贫如洗 as poor as a church mouse
贪得无厌 greedy as a wolf
随波逐流 to swim with the tide(current)
家丑不可外扬 It’s an ill bird that fouls its own nest
抛砖引玉 to throw a sprat to catch a whale
画蛇添足 to gild the lily
半斤八两 six of one and half a dozen of the other
10.脱胎换骨 to turn a new leaf
11.小题大做 to make mountains out of molehills
12.上梁不正下梁歪 Fish begins to stink at the head.
13.指鹿为马 to talk black into white
14.金蝉脱壳 to throw somebody off the scent
15.新官上任三把火 New brooms sweep clean
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(三)意译
当直译或借用法行不通时,可采用意译法。
1.成语的意译
成语意译的情况犹:某些成语源出历史事件或寓言故事,但沿用已久,
失去了原来的故事性;某些成语的形象变得不再新鲜生动,在使用时人
们很少想起它们的形象而只用其喻义;某些成语是约定俗成的,其字面
意义或不合逻辑或无法解释,不能按字面直译;某些成语直译后冗长晦
涩或不合英语规范。例如:
(1)我的公司要自负盈亏,你不好好工作,我就不能让你在这儿滥竽
充数!
My company must be solely responsible for its profits and losses. If you
are slack in your work, I cannot have you here just to make up the
number.
(2)今年高考他又名落孙山了。
This year he failed again in the entrance examination for college
students.
讲话人只是借用“名落孙山“一词,并非介绍孙山及其邻人之子考举人
的故事,所以照直译成英文无益于读者,还是意译为好。
(3)后又助着薛蟠图些银钱肉酒,一任薛蟠横行霸道,他不但不去管
约,反“助纣为虐”讨好儿。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
In return for money and good meals from Hsueh Pan, he had not
checked his disgraceful behaviors but actually abetted him in order to
curry favor. (Tr. Yang Xianyi &Glady Yang)
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(4)着两个队旗鼓相当,比赛中比分交替上升。
The two teams are well-matched, and the score seesawed all the time.
成语“旗鼓相当”中“旗”“鼓”的形象已极淡薄,英译时无需保留。
请意译下列成语:
攀龙附凤 to play up to people of power and influence
毛遂自荐 to volunteer one’s service
一诺千金 a promise that will be kept
两袖清风 to remain uncorrupted
门庭若市 a much visited house
马革裹尸 to die on the battlefield
聚讼纷纭 opinions differ widely
守株待兔 to trust to chance and strokes of luck
恶贯满盈 to face retribution for a life of crime
10.尔虞我诈 mutual mistrust with both parties playing tricks
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2. 谚语的意译
直译不符合英语规范,或借用同义谚语又与文体要求向左时,可以意译。
例如:
(1)你受的苦与她遭的罪相比,只能算“小巫见大巫”。
The hardship you’ve experienced is simply nothing compared with the
bitter sufferings she’s gone through.
若直译成like a small sorcerer in the presence of a great one—feel
dwarfed, 势必造成行文不畅。再如:
(2)独木不成林嘛。
One person cannot accomplish much.
3.歇后语的意译
歇后语一般分前后两部分,前一部分打比喻,后一部分表述本意,此类
现象甚至少见于英语,往往采用意译。
(1)对期货交易,我是擀面杖吹火——一窍不通。
I don’t know the first thing about futures.
(2)我就来它个骑着毛驴看唱本——走着瞧,看他怎么跟我解释。
Let me wait and see what he would say about the matter.
(3)咱们骑着毛驴看唱本,走着瞧吧!
We’ll see who’s right.
同一歇后语再例(2)、(3)中译文不同, 是由其上下文决定的。
(4)我着任你也知道,说话向来是“袖筒里入棒槌——直入直出!
You know me—I speak frankly and to the point.
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(四)直译兼意译
在很多情况下,汉语习语只能部分直译,部分意译,这叫直译参半法。
这样做既可保留原文形象由能使译文畅达。
(1)张飞大叫:“此必董卓!追吕布有甚强处,不如先拿董贼,便是
斩草除根!”
“Certainly there is Tung Cho, “cried Chang Fei. “What is the use of
pursuing Lu Bu? Far better seize the chief rebel and so pluck up the
evil by the roots.”
“斩草”译为pluck up the evil为意译,“除根”译为by the roots为直译。
(2)王冕一路上风餐露宿,九十里大站,七十里小站,一径来到济南
府地方。(吴敬梓《儒林外史》)
Braving the wind and dew, Wang Mien travelled day after day past
posting stations large and small, till he came to the city of Tsinan.
“风餐露宿”译为braving the wind and dew,其中wind and dew为直译,
brave为意译,既保留了原文的形象,又符合英语习惯。
(3)个人自扫门前雪,不管他人瓦上霜。
Sweep the snow from your own front door; leave the frost on the other
man’s roof to thaw.
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(4)一个碗不响,两个碗叮当。
One bowl is quiet; two bowls make a row.
(5)“嫫母有所美,西施有所丑。”不知道满足的人,实在是自取灭
亡呀。(郭沫若《屈原》)
There is beauty in the ugliest woman, and ugliness in the greatest
beauty. Only those who can never be satisfied simply ruin themselves.
(6)彩霞……道:“没良心的!狗咬吕洞宾,不知好歹。”Tsaihsia…said “you ungrateful thing! Like the dog that bit Lv Tung-pin—you
bite the hand that feeds you.”
(7)他的如意算盘是兔子的尾巴——长不了。
His wishful thinking is but the tail of a rabbit—won’t last long.
试用直译兼意译法翻译下列习语:
杀人如麻 to kill people like flies
山盟海誓 to make a solemn pledge of love
神出鬼没 to appear and disappear mysteriously
顺藤摸瓜 to track down somebody or something by following clues
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天罗地网 nets above and snares below
桑榆暮景 the evening of one’s life
如雷贯耳 to reverberate (反响) like thunder
不打不相识 from an exchange of blows friendship grows
瘫子掉在井里捞起也是坐 Even if a paralytic falls into a well,
he can be no worse off than before.
10.凤姐道:“我那里管的上这些事来!见识又浅,嘴又笨,
心又直,人家拿个棒槌,我就拿着认作针了。”
“ I’m not much of a manager really,” said Xifeng. “I haven’t
got the knowledge, and I’m too poor at expressing myself
and too simple-minded—always inclined to ‘take a ramrod
for a needle’, as they say.
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(五)省略法
汉语习语英译需要省略的情况有以下几种:
1.汉语习语中存在着很大数量的并列结构式的四字词组其中一种叫四
字对偶词组,一种叫四字重叠词组。四字对偶词组的前后两部分意译相
同或相近。英译时往往只需译出一部分或只译其意义即可。例如:
(1)薛蟠连忙打躬作揖赔不是。……(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
Hsuch Pan bowed in apology…
(2) 我厂生产的鞋子款式新颖,规格齐全,以工艺精良、经久耐用深受广
大消费者的好评。
Apart from being fashionable in style and rich in variety, shoes
produced by our factory also find favor in consumers’ eyes for the
exquisite workmanship and extraordinary durability.
需要指出的是,有些并列结构的前后两部分病不完全相同,此时,译者
应将两部分全部译出,以求意译精确。如:“违法乱纪”中,“法”和
“纪”啊概念病不完全一样,所以应译为offence against law and
discipline。有时为取得一定的修辞效果,也需将两部分全部译出,如
“冷嘲热讽”(burning satire and freezing irony)“和风细雨”(like
a gentle breeze and a mild rain)。
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2.四字重叠词组是一种追求音韵美的重叠结构,例如“鬼鬼祟祟”
(sneak around)、“慌里慌张”(be flustered)等。英语中没有类似的
形式,汉译英时可以不考虑重叠的部分。
(1)那宝玉才合上眼,便恍恍惚惚地睡去,犹似秦氏在前,悠悠荡荡,
跟着秦氏到了一处。但见朱栏玉砌,绿树清溪,真是人迹不逢,飞尘罕
到。曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
Pao-yu fell asleep as soon as he closed his eyes and dreamed that Koching was before him. Absent-mindedly he followed her a long way to
some crimson balustrades and white marble steps among green trees
and clear streams, in a place seldom trodden by the foot of man,
unreached by swirling dust. (Tr. Yang Xianyi &Gladys Yang)
“恍恍惚惚”融于了上下文中;“悠悠荡荡”只译出“悠荡”之意。
(2)在长期的革命历程中,各民主党派与中国共产党同呼吸共命运。
In the protracted process of the Chinese revolution, the various
democratic parties shared a common fate with the Chinese Communist
Party.
“同呼吸”与“共命运”意思相同,因此只译出“共命运”既可。
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(3)“我本来要……来投……”阿Q糊里糊涂地想了一通,这才断断续
续地说。(鲁迅《阿Q正传》)“The fact is I wanted…to
come…”muttered Ah Q disjointedly, after a moment’s confused
thinking“糊里糊涂”和“断断续续”分别按“糊涂”和“断续”译为
confused和disjointedly。.
3.有时出于上下文或行文上的考虑,也须省略。例如:
(1)……一日倘或“乐极生悲”,若应了“树倒猢狲散”的俗语……
(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
If one day it happens that at the height of good fortune the “tree falls
and the monkeys scatter” as the old saying has it. (Tr. Yang Xianyi
&Gladys Yang)
“树倒猢狲散”即“生悲”只译作at the height of good fortune(乐极),从
而使得译文流畅自然。
(2)九溪十八涧则以“曲曲环环路,叮叮咚咚泉”著称。
The place called Nine Creeks and Eighteen Gullies is well-known for its
twisting paths and murmuring streams.
“曲曲环环”和“叮叮咚咚”所产生的音韵美令人叫绝。相比之下,英译
文倒有点逊色。
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试译下列习语,注意省略法的运用:
1. stealthily 2. 必恭必敬 reverently 3. 躲躲闪闪 evasively
4. 踉踉跄跄 to stagger 5. 狼吞虎咽 to wolf something down
6. 同心同德 with one mind 7. 清规戒律 taboos (regulations)
8. 油头粉面 heavily made up 9. 惊心动魄 soul-stirring 10. 少安毋躁 to
wait for a while
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二、 对偶语句的英译
对偶是一种修辞手段。
对偶常见于汉语诗词,讲究数字相等,词性一致,平仄相对,押韵对称,
颇具意义美、结构美、音韵美。例如:
众鸟高飞尽。孤云独去闲。
相看两不厌,只有敬亭山。(李白《独坐敬亭山》)
其中,前两句对仗公正,堪称典范。请比较下面的两种译文:
译文I: Flocks of birds fly high and vanish;
A single cloud, alone, calmly drifts on.
Never tired of looking at each other—
Only the Ching-ting Mountain and me. (Tr. Luo Yuzheng)
译文II: All birds have flown away, so high;
A lonely cloud drifts on, so free.
We are not tired, the Peak and I,
Nor I of him, nor he of me.(Tr. Xu Yuanchong)
对联是典型的对偶语句。对联翻译的基本要求仍是尽可能地在译文中再
现原文的意美、形美、音美。下面是一些译例:
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(1)横眉冷对千夫指,俯首甘为孺子牛。
Fierce—browed, I coolly defy a thousand fingers;
Head-bowed, like a willing ox I serve the children.
(2)墙上芦苇,头重脚轻根底浅;
山间竹笋,嘴尖皮厚腹中空。
The reed growing on the wall-top heavy, thin-stemmed and shallow of
root;
The bamboo shoot in the hills-sharp-tongued, thick-skinned and hollow
inside
(3)风声雨声读书声声声入耳
家事国事天下事事事关心
译文I: We should listen with open ears to the sound of wind and rain
and the reading voice as well;
We must not only concern ourselves with personal affairs but the
sound of th state and the world.
译文II: The sound of the wind, the sound of the rain, the sound of the
study of books-all these sounds enter the ear;
The affairs of family, the affairs of state, the affairs of all under
heaven-all these affairs concern my mind.(Tr. Authur H.Smith)
译文I成功地再现了原文的思想内容,而原有的对称美和节奏美却荡然无
存。译文II再音、形、义的表达上明显优于译文I,但依然缺少原文的诗
情画意,给人以貌合神离之感,像the sound of the study of books 有佶
屈聱牙之嫌。
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对偶语句英译时,应再达意的基础上,力求获得与原文相近的艺术效果。
虽然难以再现原文平仄相对的特征,但可以尽量保存原文对称结构、词
性一致等特点。例如:
(1)世事洞明皆学问,人情练达即文章。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
A grasp of mundane affairs is genuine knowledge;
Understanding of worldly wisdom is true learning.
(2)假作真时真亦假,无为有处有还无。(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
When false is taken for true, true becomes false;
If non-being turns into being, being becomes non-being. (Tr. Yang
Xianyi & Gladys Yang)
(3)富贵人间梦,功名水上鸥。
Riches and fame are but dreams among men;
Merit and renown are but gulls floating on the water.
(4)四面荷花三面柳,一城山色半城湖。
A lake surrounded by lovely lotuses on its four sides and flowing
willows on its three;
A city embraced by picturesque mountains and enchanting lakes.
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一、试译下列短语:
1. 解放生产力 to liberate (unshackle) the productive force
2. 经济模式 economic model
3. strategy for economic development
4. 第四届广州国际汽车交易会 The Fourth Guangzhou International
Auto Fair
5. 减少进口配额 to reduce import quotas
6. 高新技术产业化 the use of high technology in all types of industrial
production
7. 发挥市场调节作用 to give play to the regulatory role of the market
8. 实现宏观控制 to exercise macro-control
9. 改革经济环境 to improve economic environment
10.整顿经济秩序 to rectify economic environment
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二、翻译下列句子,注意汉语习语的译法:
1. 你这话说得对极了,真是一针见血。
You’re quite right, and you’ve hit the nail right on the head.
2. 它竟然还担心哪天会得了脑膜炎,真是杞人忧天。
She even worries about contracting meningitis someday. This is indeed
unnecessary anxiety.
3. 姊妹们一朝相见,悲喜交加。自不待言。
We need not dwell on the mingled delight and sorrow of these two
sisters meeting again after so many years.
4. 他好交友,门前总是车水马龙。
He is quite sociable and his courtyard is always thronged with visitors.
5. 美国政府以尊重人权为借口干涉中国内政,这是给自己涂脂抹粉罢了。
The U.S. prettifies its interference in China’s internal affairs as its
respect and concern for human rights.
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6. 这人胆小,干啥也是脚踩两只船。
This man is a coward, a fence-sitter.
7. 平儿咬牙道:“没良心的,过了河儿就拆桥。”
“You beast!” Ping-eh cried through clenched teeth. “As soon as the
river’s crossed you pull down the bridge.
8. 你这个人!打破沙锅问到底,有什么好问的!
So many questions about such a little thing. You are the limit.
9. 我们所做的是前人栽树后人乘凉的事。
What we’ve done will benefit the future generations.
10.我希望我们所有的同志不要翘尾巴,而要夹紧尾巴,戒骄戒躁,永
远保持谦虚进取的精神。
I hope all our comrades will tuck their tails between their legs rather
than stick them up, guard against conceit and rashness, always remain
modest and keep forging ahead.
第十节 词语基本译法综述
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一、认真辨析词义
词无定义。一个词或短语的真正意义 是在实际应用中表现出来的,既受上下文
或语境的制约,又受文体的影响。所以,不囿于词的字面意义,而要读出字里行
间的含义(read between, beyond and behind lines), 这是正确翻译词语的第一
步。例如:
(1)在大多数解放晚的省份中……
译文I… most provinces which were liberated later,…
译文II: As for the other provinces liberated later, which constitute the majority…
原文中,“大多数”是各限定词(determiner),与“省份”间的关系是限定与被限
定的关系。而译文I未能表达处这种关系,容易使人误解为most of the provinces
were liberated later.译文II用了非限定性定于从句,则清楚反映了定语与中心词
之间的关系,避免可能产生的误解。
(2)我母亲笑着替他辩解道:“他说话挺会绕弯子。”
Hearing this, my mother smiled and defended him, saying, “He’s ingenious
enough to keep you guessing.”
这里“说话会绕弯子”为褒义,若译为talk in a round about way 或know how to
beat about the bush, 则与原文的赞许口气不符。
(3)请神容易送神难。
It is easier to call upon an evil spirit than send it away.
英语中,god与devil的概念一褒一贬,十分明确。汉语中“神”和“鬼”有时却
没有太大区别,常换用或并用,上例中的“神”就含有贬义,不能译成god。
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二、适当选词用词
真正理解了原文的意义之后,就要在英语中选择适当的词来传达原意。
选词用词时应力求准确、得体的词语(proper words in proper places)。
一般说来,选词时应注意以下几个方面:
(一)词义轻重
词义轻重指用词的分量。请看实例:
(1)这就是大名鼎鼎的历史学家范先生。
英语中, the historian的分量比较重,无需再用noted, famous, wellknown, great等词。
(2)质胜文则野,文胜质则史。文质彬彬,然后君子。
When history overbalances refinement, crudeness results. When
refinement overbalances honesty, there is superficiality. Only when
refinement and honesty are duly balanced will Great Man emerge.
(3)他一副文质彬彬的样子。
He is gentle and courteous.
由上例看出,“文质彬彬”一词的词义经历了由重到轻的变化。汉译时,
应注意词义轻重的演变。
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(二)语体级别
词语的使用往往带有一定的语体色彩。据马丁•朱斯(Martin Joos)的
“五只钟”之说(Five Clocks),语体可分为亲昵(intimate)、随便
(casual)、商洽(consultative)、正式(formal)和冷淡(frozen)五种。
翻译时,应注意辨析和体现其特点。例如:
(1)该惯犯向警察投掷了一颗催泪弹,借机携款潜逃。
Immediately after throwing a tear-gas grenade at the policemen, the
recidivist absconded with the money.
(2)那个老手朝警察扔了一颗催泪弹,就掖起搞来的东西溜了。
The old one chucked a tear bomb at the cops and then did a bunk with
the loot.
第一句使用了一些正式用于甚至专业术语,如throwing, policemen,
recidivist, absconded等。第二句则用来一些俚语,如chucked, bunk,
loot等。
(三)人物身份
不同的人说不同的话,同一个人再不同的场合说的话掖有可能不同,翻
译时应避免千人一腔的现象,即要让人物在译文中说符合他(她)自己
身份的话语。请看实例:
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忽见东府几个人慌慌张张跑来,说:“老爷宾天了!”众人听了,吓了
一跳。忙都说:“好好的并无疾病,怎么就没了!”(曹雪芹《红楼
梦》)
译文I: When some servants from the Eastern Mansion came rushing
up frantically, “The old master’s ascended to heaven!” they announced.
Everybody was consternated.
“ He wasn’t even ill, how could he pass away so suddenly?” They
exclaimed. (Tr. Yng Xianyi &Gladys Yang)
译文II: A group of servants from the Ningpo mansion came rushing up
in a sate of great agitation. “ Sir Jing is dead.”
“Dead?” Everyone hearing them was incredulous. “But he hadn’t been
ill. How can he have died so suddenly?”
在曹雪芹的时代,对地位比自己高的人,是不可以直言其死的,所以,
原文中用了“宾天”和“没了”两词。译文I中他们分别被译成
ascended to heaven和pass away,反映了说话人卑微的奴仆地位。译文II
将两词毫无区别地简单译成die(dead),就没有体现出说话者的身份。
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(四)语境
语境指说话或写作的时间、地点以及说话人或写作者身边正在进行的活动。同一
语言形式,视其出现的场景不同,可以有不同的意思。例如:
一路辛苦了。
Did you have a happy journey?
这是去车站、码头或机场迎接客人时常说的话,也是一种问候的形式,翻译时不
可照字面硬译。
此外,译者还应注意到英语变体间词义的不同,尤其是英国英语和美国英语间的
不同,口译人员应特别注意。例如:
(1)她有喜了。
She’s in the family way. (Br. E)
She’s in a family way. (Am. E)
(2)他这次考试又吃鸭蛋了。
He again made a duck egg this time.(Br. E)
He again made a goose egg this time.(Am. E)
(3)你这套一副看上去很朴素。
This dress of yours looks homely.(Br. E)
This dress of yours is quite simple and natural in style .(Am. E)
homely一词在英国英语中为“朴素的”意思,在美国英语中则表示“不好看
的”。
(4)请来份苏打饼干。
Soda crackers, please.(Am. E)
Soda biscuits, please.(Br. E)
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三、尽量保留民族特色
中国传统文化词汇、改革开放中出现的新词汇以及比喻性词语实例:
(一)传统文化中的词汇
1.直译
大观园 Grand View Garden
龙舟 dragon boat
肝火 fire in the liver
诊脉 to feel the patient’s pulse
2.音译
(1)衙门
yamen
(2)磕头
kowtow
(3)人参
ginseng
(4)秧歌
yangko
3.阐释法
京韵大鼓 story-telling in Bejing dialect with drum accompaniment
民乐
traditional instrumental music
楷体字 characters in the orthographic script
箬笠
hat of plaited by bamboo leaves
空城计 “undefended city”, a stratagem of putting up a bluff
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(二)改革开放中出现的词汇
1.直译
经济技术开发区 economic and technological development zone
立体种植
stereo farming
火炬计划
Torch Programme
“菜篮子”工程 “vegetable basket” programme
2.阐释法
(1)大周末 two-day weekend
(2)效益工资 efficiency-related salary
(3)三角债 debt chain
(4)工贸结合 integration of industry and trade
(5)个体劳动者 self-employed laborer
(6)超前消费 unduly high levels of spending
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四、词类转换与词语增减
(一)词类转换
词类转换指翻译过程中,根据译语规范,把原语中某些词类的词转化成
为另一种词类的词。由于汉英两种语言在句法、语序、表现法、词类等
方面存在很大差异,词类转换在汉译英中成了常见而重要的手段。
比较而言,汉语中,动态词是你用较多‘英语中,静态词使用较多。汉
译英时,汉语动词常常转换成英语名词、介词词组、非谓语动词形式。
此外,由于表达习惯不同,汉语中的动词也可以转换成英语中的名词和
形容词。例如:
(1)蒙在他身世上的面纱正在揭开。
Veil is lifting on his life.
(2)诚招天下客。
Honesty secures a plenty of custom.
(3)本时间表可随时更改,不另行通知。
The schedule is subject to change without further notice.
(4)文学类型不同,语言也不同。
The language varies with different genres of writing.
以上例句说明,翻译重在实现深层含义的契合。
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(二)增词
增词是指在译文中增加原文虽无其字但有其义的词,以使译文明白无误。
增词可分为语义性增词、语法性增词、修辞性增词等。
1.语义性增词
语义性增词指为使语义明确,根据意义上的需要在译文中增加原文中没
有的词。例如:
(1)应加快帮助老区人民脱贫致富的步伐。
We should step up our efforts to help the people in the old liberated
areas to shake off poverty.
“老区”具有特定的历史含义,不能只译成old areas。
(2)特区政府拥有较大的经济管理权限。
Governments in special economic zones are given greater power
to administer their local economy.
“经济”指特区辖内的经济,译文中补出local一词,使原意更加明确。
(3)人和动物不同。
Man is different from other animals.
从人类进化史来看,人也是动物,所以,译文增加了other一词。
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2.语法性增词
由于汉英词法、句法不同,汉译英时,往往要补充代词、介词、连词、
冠词、动词等。例如:
(1)信步至一山环水漩,茂林修竹之处,隐隐有座庙宇,门巷倾
颓……(曹雪芹《红楼梦》)
He came to luxuriant woods and bamboo groves set among hills and
interlaced by streams, with a temple half hidden among the foliage.
The entrance was in ruins,…(增介词)
(2)信言不美,美言不信。
True words are not fine-sounding;
Fine-sounding words are not true.(增动词)
(3)孟子曰:“鱼,我所欲也;熊掌,亦我所欲也。二者不可兼得,
舍鱼而取熊掌也。”
Mencius says, “Fish is what I desire, and so are bear-paws. If I cannot
have them both, I would choose the latter and forsake the former.” (增
连词)
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3.修辞性增词
修辞性增词大都出于行文上的考虑,所增加的词多为不改变原意的语气
词、强调性副词或其他修辞上需要的词汇,以使意义明确,或使人物性
格鲜明。例如:
(1)大家庆幸着自己逃脱了死于小虫之厄运。
Everybody rejoiced at their good fortune in escaping a near disaster
caused by such minute and seemingly insignificant ants.
Their good fortune是原文中没有的,译者将其补入,不违背原文意思,
与后面增加的such minute and seemingly insignificant 形成对比,具有
幽默的修辞效果。
(2)旧社会的一个内阁总理可以去当县长,为什么我们的一个部长倒
不能去当县长?
If a prime minister in old China could serve as county magistrate, why
on earth can’t our ministers do likewise?
若取掉if和on earth,不但语气平淡,且行文不顺。
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(三)省略
省略,即将原文中某些无实质意义的词略而不译,常见以下几种情
况:
1.省略概括性的词和范畴词
高梁、玉米、黄豆,这些都已经收完了。
The sorghum, the maize and the soybeans have all been harvested.
2.省略近义词(组)
汉语很讲求对偶,这种同义重复用的适当可以产生很好的修辞效果,但
用之过多,则成赘词。英译时冗余的排比对偶应省略不译。例如:
老龙道:“莫说拿!莫说拿!那块铁,挽着些儿就会死,磕着些儿就
亡。”
“Out of the question!” said the Dragon King. “The slightest touch of
that iron is deadly.”
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3.省略内容空洞的词语
所谓内容空洞的词语,是指一些词语或说法,无论在作者头脑中还是读
者心目中,所表示的意思远比其字面上所表示的意义小。如果保留在译
文中,会让译文读者费解,或觉得不可信。
今年生产计划的顺利完成,是全体职工共同努力的结果,是加强本行业
横向联系的同心协力的结果,也是市局机关大抓宏观管理和全局安排、
运筹的结果。
The production plan was carried through duo to the common effort of
the workers and staff, the cooperation between the factories in
partnership and the effective management of the government
departments concerned.
原文是一段程式化文字,照字面翻译势必使语言产生空泛之感。
翻译实践
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请口译下列短语:
1. 以经济建设为中心 to make economic development for our central
task; take economic construction as the central task
2. 建设小康社会 to build a well-off society
3. 期货合同 futures contract
4. 资产评估 asset appraised
5. 具有法人地位 to have the status of the legal (judicial) entity (person)
6. 假冒伪劣商品 counterfeit and shoddy commodities
7. 骨干企业 backbone (key) enterprises
8. 招标 invitation for bid
9. 清除市场准入障碍 to clear up market entry barriers
10.责、权、利相结合的管理机制 managerial mechanism combining
responsibilities, power and interests
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二、翻译下段文字
晚上的夜游活动堪称压轴节目。夜幕降临,乐山上空礼炮轰鸣,彩灯光
芒四溢。河面各只彩船上无数五颜六色的霓虹灯、日光灯齐放光华,闪
烁迷离,和水中倒影连成一片。漂灯点缀河面,似万点繁星坠落人间。
在奇光异彩交相辉映中众多的龙舟如银河流星,顺流而下,千姿百态,
令人叫绝。在探照灯的扫射下,河面激起变幻莫测的五彩霞光。一时间,
呈现出一幅光的天地、色的世界。
Evening activity brings another exciting moment to the festival. As night
falls, salutes are fired from the cannons thundering across the sky, and
countless bright lights flash alive on all the dragon boats up and down
the river. These myriad-lighted boats become a riot of colour which
blends most subtly with colours from the river’s reflected surface. As
the dragon boats row slowly and quietly downstream, searchlights
along the shore highlight the procession of sparkling beauty. For a
moment, before all fade to night, the spectators both afloat and ashore
share this picture of universal brightness and magical colour.
VIII. Consolidation:
参读书目:1.实用翻译教程 (冯庆华)第三章 词法翻译
2.汉英翻译基础教程 (冯庆华)第二章 词法翻译的一般技巧
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