6 Classes of Nutrients 6 Nutrients • • • • • • Carbohydrates Proteins Fats (Lipids) Vitamins Minerals Water These 6 nutrients you body NEEDS to function properly!!! Carbohydrates • What are they? – Starches & sugars found in foods • What is their function? – Body’s preferred source of energy • What if I don’t get enough? – Decreased energy • If I get too much? – Can be stored as fat Types of Carbohydrates • SIMPLE – Sugars – Provide quick energy – Sweet to the taste: honey, fruit, candy, etc. • COMPLEX – Starches/fibers – Provide long-lasting energy – Ex) potatoes, pasta, bread, etc. Carbohydrates in your diet … • Carbohydrates should account for 45-65% of your daily diet. • 1 gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories of energy. Proteins • What are they? – Nutrients which build & maintain body tissues • What is their function? – Build & maintain: muscle, skin, hair, nails, etc. • What if I don’t get enough? – Decrease in muscle & tissue maintenance • If I get too much? - Stored as fat Types of Protein • Complete – Contain all essential amino acids – Come from animal/soy products – Complete proteins are what your body wants! • Incomplete – Lack some amino acids – Can combine to make complete proteins Amino Acids are the building blocks of proteins! Proteins in your diet … • Proteins should account for 10-35% of your daily diet. • 1 gram of protein = 4 calories of energy. Fats (Lipids) • What are the main functions of fats? – – – - Provides energy Cushions organs Carries vitamins (A,D,E,K) Insulator Provides taste • What happens if I get too much fat? - Weight gain - Increased risk of heart disease Cholesterol • A lipid (fat) found in all animal tissues • Cholesterol makes vitamin D, cell membranes, and hormones • Types of cholesterol: – LDL = “bad” cholesterol – HDL = “good” cholesterol Types of Fats • Saturated – Fats coming from animal products – Solid at room temperature – Increase risk of heart disease • Unsaturated – Fats coming from plant products – Liquid at room temperature (oils) – Better for your heart than saturated fats Trans Fat = unsaturated fatty acids produced when vegetable oil is processed in to margarine and shortening … increase risk of heart disease. **Often in restaurant foods! Fats in your diet … • Fats should account for 25-35% of your daily diet. • 1 gram of fat = 9 calories of energy. Vitamins • What are they? – Compounds needed in small amounts to regulate body processes and allow growth • What is their function? – Help with digestion, absorption, & metabolism • Each vitamin is needed and provides a specific function Types of Vitamins • Water Soluble – Dissolve in water – Needed for energy release – Too many water soluble vitamins are excreted in urine Vitamins do NOT provide energy!!! • Fat Soluble – Dissolve in fat – Remain in the body for long periods of time – 4 fat-soluble vitamins: A,D,E,K – Too many can lead to a toxic build up – stored in fatty tissues, liver, & kidneys Minerals • What are they? – Inorganic compounds (things that come from the earth) that are needed in small amounts • What is their function? – Regulate body processes • Ex) bone formation • Each mineral is needed! • Minerals do NOT provide energy!!! Water • What are the main functions of water? – – – – – – – – Transports nutrients Carries away wastes Moistens eyes, mouth, nose; hydrates skin Forms main component of body fluids Acts as an insulator Protects against heat exhaustion Lubricates joints Helps with digestion Dehydration • Individuals should drink 8+ glasses of water/day to prevent dehydration • Signs of dehydration: – Thirst, dry mouth, flushed skin, fatigue, headache, impaired physical performance, increased body temp, dizziness, weakness, muscle spasms, delirium, poor blood circulation, failing kidney function, and possibly death Water • 60% of your body is water!!! • Your daily water intake must balance your body’s use • Caffeine actually dehydrates you – it increases the amount of water excreted in urine • Water does NOT provide energy!