What was the impact of World War II? PowerPoint presentation 1

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What was the impact of World War II?
Lesson 1, Presentation
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1
What was the impact of World War II
on London?
2
Lambeth Palace, London: the remains of the chapel after bomb damage, 1950’s
© Royal Institute of British Architects
The German air raids of World War II caused immense damage to the
cities of Britain, such as Liverpool, Southampton, Birmingham and most
notably London, resulting in many lost lives.
Question 1: Particular cities were targeted for bombing, can you think
why?
3
Masonry from bomb-damaged buildings, City of London, 1940’s
© Royal Institute of British Architects
4
The dome of St Paul's Cathedral seen through
the ruins of St Mary-le-Bow, 1940’s
© Royal Institute of British Architects
St Mary-le-Bow was designed by
Sir Christopher Wren. In 1941 it
was destroyed during the Blitz but
was rebuilt and re-consecrated in
1964.
Question 2: This bomb-damaged
church has lost many of its
features. From the photograph can
you identify what has been lost?
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Reconstruction of the Houses of
Parliament, Westminster, London,
following war damage, 1947
© Royal Institute of British Architects
On the nights of 10 and 11
May 1941 incendiary
bombs destroyed the
Commons Chamber of the
Houses of Parliament.
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Surviving buildings and ruins after bombing
raids during WWII, Barbican, 1940’s
© Royal Institute of British Architects
After the war the Cripplegate area
was redeveloped to create the
Barbican, a residential and arts
complex. Only the Church of St.
Giles Cripplegate from the
photograph survives today.
Question 3: Why keep surviving
buildings like this church when
reconstructing cities?
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A glimpse of the Golden Lane Estate through a
bomb damaged building, 1957
© Royal Institute of British Architects
The Golden Lane Estate is
adjacent to the Barbican, and built
in the 1950’s. The area had been
severely damaged by bombing
during the war.
Question 4: In the 1950s it was
still common to see bombdamaged sites and buildings. On
these sites would you rebuild the
same buildings or create
something new? Explain why.
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London Underground tunnel shelter, with a doctor's
examination room and sick bay, 1942
© Royal Institute of British Architects
During the war the tube tunnels of
London Underground were converted
into bomb shelters. Some were
equipped with medical facilities.
Question 5: Why do you think people
took shelter in underground stations?
What other facilities do you think
people would need there?
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What was the impact of World War II on
Hackney?
10
Map of areas cleared due to war damage in
1945, Hackney
Hackney Archives
Ref. HE104
1 - Hackney Town Hall,
Mare Street
2 - Victoria Park
3 - Mapledene Road
During WWII London was
heavily bombed, but the
damage was not evenly spread;
Hackney suffered more than
most.
Question 6:
The map shows the area (in
red) damaged during the war. Is
there a pattern to the damage?
Do you think random or targeted
bombing have the same effect
on local people? Explain why.
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1 - Hackney Town Hall, Mare
Street
2 - Victoria Park
Map of clearance and redevelopment areas
in 1950, Hackney
Hackney Archives
Ref. HE105
3 - Mapledene Road
After the damage of WWII many
cities were surveyed and areas
were identified that needed
redeveloping. The boundaries of
Hackney are shown in red.
Question 7: The map shows (in
blue and orange) the areas that
were damaged during the war
and to be redeveloped. What
impact do you think this plan will
have? Who will it affect and who
will be involved?
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Map of Mapledene
Road, Hackney, from
1934
Hackney Archives,
Ref. Ordnance Survey
map, 1934, Sheet V11 17
13
A
Bomb damage to 103 Mapledene Road, Hackney, following an attack by the German Air Force
with high explosive bombs on 21/22 October 1940.
Hackney Archives
Ref. WD313
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B
Bomb damage to 117-121 Mapledene Road, Hackney, following an attack by the German Air Force
with high explosive bombs on 09/10 October 1940.
Hackney Archives
Ref. WD209
15
C
Bomb damage to 127-129 Mapledene Road, Hackney, showing damage to rear of houses and gardens,
following an attack by the German Air Force with high explosive bombs on 09/10 October 1940.
Hackney Archives
Ref. WD210
Question 8: Can you see what has happened to the air raid shelters in the
gardens? What impact could events like this have on safety and morale?
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D
Bomb damage to 30 Gayhurst Road, Hackney, following an attack by the German Air Force with high
explosive bombs on 15/16 October 1940.
Hackney Archives
Ref. WD296
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How did WWII affect people’s homes?
•
In Hackney, as elsewhere in Britain, during bombing raids many people left
their homes to stay in bomb shelters. Many used domestic shelters that
were built in their gardens, others used public shelters such as London
Underground stations.
•
On their return home after an air raid, many would not have known if their
homes would still be standing.
•
Question 9: What would you imagine people coming out of their shelters
would be thinking and hoping? How do you think people would have
prepared in case their homes were destroyed?
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E
Bomb damage to 60-64 Lansdowne Drive, following an attack by the German Air Force with high
explosive bombs on 15/16 October 1940.
Hackney Archives
Ref. WD316
Question 10: Carefully observe this photograph. Now sketch what you
can see, especially anything that interests you.
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Maps and photographs
(Hackney Archives)
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