File -

Vannevar Bush
March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974
Marist College Lifetime Learning
John F. McMullen
Adjunct Professor, Purchase College
BA, Iona College;
MSCS, MPA, Marist College
[email protected]
• Vannevar Bush -- Forgotten Father of Today's
Web Society, is a particular hero of mine -- a hero because
he not only was competent in advancing
technology under the limitations of his day, he
saw things as they would or should be.
• His contributions were, however, much more that
his visionary insight -
The Beginnings
• Graduated from Tufts College in 1913 with
both a Bachelor of Science and a Mastes of
• Took a job teaching at Tufts in 1914
• Received a Doctorate in Engineering jointly
from MIT and Harvard in !917 and returned to
Tufts where he stayed until 1919 when he
joined the Department of Electrical
Engineering at MIT
Moving On Up
• In 1922, Lawrence K. Marshall raised $25,000
to start the American Appliance Company and
Bush and Charles G. Smith became two of the
firm’s five directors – the firm is now know as
• In 1932, under MIT President Karl T. Compton.
Bush became MIT Vice President and Dean of
the School of Engineering.
Bush Goes To Washington
• May 1938 – becomes President of the Carnegie
Institute of Washingtom
• August 1938 – appointed, as Vice Chairman, to
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(“NACA”), the predecessor to NASA.
• 1940 – Bush approached President Franklin D
Roosevelt with a plan to form the “National
Refense Research Council” (“NDRC”). FDR
approved and Bush became Chairman.
WWII Approaches
• 1941 – FDR establishes the “Office of Scientific
Research and Development” (‘OSRD”) with
Bush as Chairman. NDRC becomes part of
OSRD with James B. Conant as its Chairman.
The Committee on Uranium was also placed
under OSRD
• 1941 – The Beginnings of the Manhattan
World War II
• As would occur once again during the Post-Sputnik Cold War period
with the Internet, government funding in the 1940s brought the
United States (and the world) into the “Computer Age”.
• Agreement between the United States of America and the trustees
of the University of Pennsylvania, dated June 5, 1943, called for six
months of "research and development of an electronic numerical
integrator and computer and delivery of a report thereon." This
initial contract committed $61,700 in U.S. Army Ordnance funds.
• Nine supplements to this contract extended the work to 1946,
increased the amount ultimately to a total of $486,804.22, assigned
technical supervision to the Ballistic Research Laboratories, and
called for the delivery of a working "pilot model," first to be
operable at the University of Pennsylvania and then to be delivered
to the Ballistic Research Laboratories at the Aberdeen Proving
John V. Atanasoff
• American physicist and inventor (October 4,
1903 – June 15, 1995)
• The 1973 decision of the patent suit
Honeywell v. Sperry Rand named him the
inventor of the first automatic electronic
digital computer. His special-purpose machine
has come to be called the Atanasoff–Berry
• Claim affirmed in court in 1978
J. Presper Eckert
• American electrical engineer and computer
pioneer (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995)
• With John Mauchly, he invented the first
general-purpose electronic digital computer
John Mauchly
• American physicist ((August 30, 1907 –
January 8, 1980)
• With J. Presper Eckert, designed ENIAC, the
first general purpose electronic digital
computer, as well as EDVAC, BINAC and
UNIVAC I, the first commercial computer
made in the United States.
• “Electrical Numerical Integrator And
Calculator" (ENIAC) – the world’s first electronic
computer --
• May 31, 1943, the military commission on the
new computer began with John Mauchly as the
chief consultant and John Presper Eckert as the
chief engineer -
• The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes,
along with 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors,
1,500 relays, 6,000 manual switches and 5
million soldered joints. It covered 1800 square
feet (167 square meters) of floor space,
weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of
electrical power.
• It took the team about one year to design the ENIAC and 18
months and 500,000 tax dollars to build it. By that time,
the war was over
• The completed machine was announced to the public the
evening of February 14, 1946 and formally dedicated the
next day
• It was formally accepted by the U.S. Army Ordnance Corps
in July 1946. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946
for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was
transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947.
There, on July 29, 1947, it was turned on and was in
continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955
• The ENIAC story from the Army
• The ENIAC story video –
• Jean Bartik, the last surviving member of the
group of women who programmed the Eniac, or
Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer,
which is credited as the first all-electronic digital
computer, dies at 86
• She lived in
Poughkeepsie at the time
of her death
John von Neumann I
• Hungarian American mathematician (The native form
of this personal name is Neumann János) who made
major contributions to a vast range of fields,[1]
including set theory, functional analysis, quantum
mechanics, ergodic theory, continuous geometry,
economics and game theory, computer science,
numerical analysis, hydrodynamics (of explosions), and
statistics, as well as many other mathematical fields.
He is generally regarded as one of the greatest
mathematicians in modern history ((December 28,
1903 – February 8, 1957) -
John von Neumann II
• A principal member of the Manhattan Project
and Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton
(as one of the few originally appointed)
• First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC – Concept
of the “Stored Program”
Back to Vannevar Bush
• Author of “As We May Think”, a 1945 article
in the Atlantic and the precursor to The World
Wide Web –
The article itself
• Bush’s “As We May Think” was written prior
to the advent of computer-based
• Telecommunications brought the power of
computers to users all over the world and
facilitated outsourcing, e-commerce, mcommerce, home shopping and bill paying,
social networking, etc.
• The Graphic Browser / World Wide Web
became the “killer app” that brought
computers into the home.
• First conceived by J.C.R. Licklider in August
1962 as the “Intergalactic Computer Network”
• In October 1963, Licklider was appointed head
of the Behavioral Sciences and Command and
Control programs at the Defense Department's
Advanced Research Projects Agency and, while
there, convinced Ivan Sutherland and Bob Taylor
that this computer network concept was very
important, meriting development, although he
left ARPA before anyone worked on his concept.
The Early Players I
•Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915
– June 26, 1990), known simply as J.C.R. or
"Lick" was an American computer scientist,
considered one of the most important figures in
computer science and general computing history.
He is particularly remembered as an Internet
pioneer, with an early vision of a world-wide
computer network long before it was built -
The Early Players II
• Robert William Taylor (born 1932), known
as Bob Taylor, is an Internet pioneer, who
led teams that made major contributions to
the personal computer, and other related
technologies. He was director of ARPA's
Information Processing Techniques Office
from 1965 through 1969, founder and later
manager of Xerox PARC's Computer Science
Laboratory from 1970 through 1983, and
founder and manager of Digital Equipment
Corporation's Systems Research Center until
The Early Players III
• Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938)[1] is
an American computer scientist and Internet
pioneer. He received the Turing Award from the
Association for Computing Machinery in 1988 for
the invention of Sketchpad, an early predecessor
to the sort of graphical user interface that has
become ubiquitous in personal computers. He is a
member of the National Academy of Engineering,
as well as the National Academy of Sciences
among many other major awards. -
Planning the ARPAnet
• By mid-1968, Bob Taylor prepared a complete plan for a
computer network, and, after ARPA’s approval, a Request for
Quotation (RFQ) was sent to 140 potential bidders -- Only 12
• ARPA considered only two contractors, and awarded the
contract to build the network to BBN Technologies on April 7,
• he BBN-proposed network closely followed Taylor’s ARPA
plan: a network composed of small computers called Interface
Message Processors (IMPs), that functioned as gateways
(today called routers) interconnecting local resources.
• (All from
Deploying ARPAnet
• The initial ARPANET, which went “live” at 10:30 p.m, on October 29,
1969, consisted of four IMPs:
• University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where Leonard
Kleinrock had established a Network Measurement Center, with an
SDS Sigma 7 being the first computer attached to it;
• The Stanford Research Institute's Augmentation Research Center,
where Douglas Engelbart had created the ground-breaking NLS
system, a very important early hypertext system (with the SDS 940
that ran NLS, named "Genie", being the first host attached);
• University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), with the Culler-Fried
Interactive Mathematics Centre's IBM 360/75, running OS/MVT
being the machine attached;
• The University of Utah's Computer Science Department, where Ivan
Sutherland had moved, running a DEC PDP-10 running TENEX.
Growth of the APRANet
• 1973 -- a transatlantic satellite link connected the Norwegian
Seismic Array (NORSAR) to the ARPANET, making Norway the
first country outside the US to be connected to the network. At
about the same time a terrestrial circuit added a London IMP
• 1975 -- ARPANET was declared "operational". The Defense
Communications Agency took control since ARPA was intended
to fund advanced research.
• 1983 -- ARPANET was split with U.S. military sites on their own
Military Network (MILNET) for unclassified defense department
• 1983 -- TCP/IP protocols replaced NCP as the ARPANET’s
principal protocol, and the ARPANET then became one subnet of
the early Internet.
The Internet Protocol Suite
• The set of communications protocols used for
the Internet and other similar networks,
commonly also known as TCP/IP named from
two of the most important protocols in it: the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the
Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first two
networking protocols defined in this standard.
• Developed primarily by Robert E. Kahn and
Vinton Cerf
More Key Players I
• Robert Elliot Kahn (born December 23, 1938) is an American
Internet pioneer, engineer and computer scientist, who, along with
Vinton G. Cerf, invented the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
and the Internet Protocol (IP), the fundamental communication
protocols at the heart of the Internet
• Vinton Gray "Vint" Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is an American
computer scientist, who is recognized as one of "the fathers of
the Internet", sharing this title with American computer scientist
Bob Kahn.[His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded,
repeatedly, with honorary degrees, and awards that include the
National Medal of Technology,[1] the Turing Award, the Presidential
Medal of Freedom,[8] and membership in the National Academy of
The Internet
• Definition – “The Internet Is A Network of
Networks Based On Standards and Client
/ Server Technology”
• The Internet is Infrastructure – NOT – what
we do on it.
• The Infrastructure of New York is the
streets, highways, tunnels, and bridges –
not the cars, motorcycles, buses, and
bicycles that use them
Network of Networks
• Marist College local area network
connected to NYSERNET which connects
to … which connects to …..
• No central authority is in charge
• The lack of central authority is a threat to
sovereignty – and governments resent this
• “First Amendment is a local ordinance”
• There is ONE standard for the Internet –
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol /
Internet Protocol)
• The Internet uses 12 digit numbers to identify
users; four quadrants with three digits in each - – each of the three digits
may range from 1 to 255 (with no leading
• The Internet utilizes packet switching (as
opposed to circuit switching)
Client / Server Technology
• Central Processing – “Main Frame” Model
• Decentralized Processing – Processing
split by location or function; all the data
must come together
• Client / Server Technology – the Postal
Service Model
Standards Again
• There is one standard for the Internet
(Infrastructure) – TCP/IP
• Each of the functions that we do on the
Internet has its own standard
– E-mail: X400, X500
– File Transfer: ftp
– World Wide Web: url, http, html
More Key Players II
• Raymond Samuel Tomlinson (born 1941,
Amsterdam, New York) is a programmer who
implemented an email system in 1971 on the
ARPANET. Email had been previously sent
on other networks such as AUTODIN and
PLATO. It was the first system able to send
mail between users on different hosts
connected to the ARPAnet. (Previously, mail
could be sent only to others who used the
same computer.) To achieve this, he used the
@ sign to separate the user from their
machine, which has been used in email
addresses ever since.
More Key Players III
• Ward Christensen, born in West Bend, Wisconsin, U.S., is the
founder of the CBBS bulletin board, the first bulletin board
system (BBS) ever brought online. He started development
during a blizzard in Chicago, Illinois, and officially established
CBBS four weeks later, on February 16, 1978. Christensen was
noted for building software tools for his needs. He wrote a
cassette-based operating system before floppies and hard
disks were common. When he lost track of the source code for
some programs he wrote ReSource, an iterative disassembler
for the Intel 8080, to help him regenerate the source code.
When he needed to send files to Randy Suess he wrote
Ted Nelson I
• Theodor Holm Nelson (born June 17, 1937) is
an American sociologist, philosopher, and
pioneer of information technology. He coined the
terms "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1963 and
published it in 1965. He also is credited with first
use of the words transclusion, virtuality,
intertwingularity and teledildonics. The main
thrust of his work has been to make computers
easily accessible to ordinary people.
Ted Nelson II
• Nelson’s motto – “A user interface should be so simple
that a beginner in an emergency can understand it within
ten seconds.”
• Nelson’s 4 Maxims -- “most people are fools, most
authority is malignant, God does not exist, and
everything is wrong”
• Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of
creating a computer network with a simple user
interface. The effort is documented in his 1974 book
Computer Lib / Dream Machines and the 1981 Literary
Machines. Much of his adult life has been devoted to
working on Xanadu and advocating it.
• Hypertext is “deep” rather than linear and supports Bush’s
vision of associative thinking as specified in “As We May
• Hypertext is text displayed on a computer or other
electronic device with references (hyperlinks) to other text
that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse
click or keypress sequence. Apart from running text,
hypertext may contain tables, images and other
presentational devices. Hypertext is the underlying concept
defining the structure of the World Wide Web, making it an
easy-to-use and flexible format to share information over the
Early HyperText Systems I
• NLS or the "oN-Line System", was a revolutionary computer
collaboration system designed by Douglas Engelbart and
implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research
Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during the
• The Mother of All Demos is a name given retrospectively to
Douglas Engelbart's December 9, 1968, demonstration of
experimental computer technologies that are now commonplace.
The live demonstration featured the introduction of the computer
mouse, video conferencing, teleconferencing, email, hypertext,
word processing, hypermedia, object addressing and dynamic file
linking, bootstrapping, and a collaborative real-time editor
Early HyperText Systems II
• Aspen Movie Map (1977)
• ENQUIRE (1980)
• Guide (1984)
• HyperCard (1987)
World Wide Web I
• The World Wide Web, developed at CERN by Tim BernersLee, brought the concept of Hypertext to the Internet.
• The World Wide Web was developed on a NeXT Computer.
• By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools
necessary for a working Web:[7] the first web browser
(which was a web editor as well); the first web server; and
the first web pages,[8] which described the project itself.
• On August 6, 1991, Berners-Lee posted a short summary
of the World Wide Web project on the alt.hypertext
newsgroup. --
• The initial interface for users throughout the world was a
text-based “Telnet” interface.
Tim Berners-Lee
• Sir Timothy John "Tim" Berners-Lee, OM,
KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA (born 8 June 1955[1]),
also known as "TimBL", is a British physicist,
computer scientist and MIT professor, credited
for his invention of the World Wide Web, making
the first proposal for it in March 1989.[2] On 25
December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau
and a young student at CERN, he implemented
the first successful communication between a
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and
server via the Internet.
Mosaic I
• The popularity of the World Wide Web did not
develop until Graphic Web Browsers came into
use. Mosaic, developed at the National Center
for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
beginning in late 1992, was the browser
responsible for the initial rapid spread of the
web’s use. While often described as the first
graphical web browser, Mosaic was preceded
by the lesser-known Erwise[5] and ViolaWWW -
Mosaic II
• The lead developer of Mosaic,
Marc Andreessen, upon his
graduation, with Jim Clark,
co-founded Mosaic
Communications Corporation
which was soon renamed
Netscape Communications Corporation.
• Netscape introduced the first commercial
browser, Netscape Navigator in November 1994
Marc Andreessen
• Marc Andreessen (born July 9, 1971) is an
American entrepreneur, investor, software
engineer and multi-millionaire best known as
co-author of Mosaic, the first widely-used
web browser, and co-founder of
Communications Corporation. He founded
and later sold the software company
Opsware to Hewlett-Packard. He is also a cofounder of Ning, a company which provides a
platform for social-networking websites. He
sits on[ the board
of directors of Facebook,
eBay, and HP, among others. Andreessen is
a frequent keynote speaker and guest at
Silicon Valley conferences.
Mosaic III
• Spyglass licensed the technology and
trademarks from NCSA for producing their
own web browser but never used any of the
NCSA Mosaic source code
• Microsoft licensed Spyglass Mosaic in 1995
for US $2 million, modified it, and renamed
it Internet Explorer.
Mosaic IV
• The Netscape Navigator web browser was
succeeded by Netscape Communicator
• Netscape Communicator's 4.x source code was the
base for the Netscape-developed Mozilla Application
Suite, which was later renamed SeaMonkey
• Netscape's Mozilla Suite also served as the base for
a browser-only spinoff called Mozilla Firefox and
Netscape versions 6 through 9.
• Web 1.0 – 1 Way – Institutions such as the
New York Times, Sears, Apple, Amazon,
e-Bay, etc. publish things for the user to
read and, possibly have limited interaction
(such as purchasing or commenting)
• Web 2.0 (really a misnomer because it is
not just the Web) – User-provided content
Web 2.0
Pictures – Flica, Picassa
Video -- YouTube
Social Networks – MySpace, Facebook, Ning (to build your
• 3DVR – Second Life, There, World of Warcraft
• Google Earth
• User Apps – Facebook, Google Open Social, iPhone SDK
“Internet Beauty”
• There is no required hardware –
Mainframe, Mini, Micro, Smartphones, etc.
• There is no required Operating System –
Windows, MacOS, UNIX
• There is no require applications software:
Outlook, Entourage, Firefox, Internet
Explorer, Flock, Chrome
• What must be adhered to is the Standard

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