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Report
2011 한국신학도서관협의회 하계 세미나
OCLC Online Computer Library Center
협동 장서개발을 위한 도전과 과제
서은경
한성대학교 지식정보학부
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Overview
 Cooperation
 “Cooperation is libraries takes much more than being
good citizens and behaving altruistically.” (Peggy Johnson, 2009)
 “Cooperation is as essential to a library as is water to a
fish or air to a mammal.”(Michael Gorman, 1986)
 Collaboration
 “Where two or more people, or organisations, work
together to realise shared goals” (Wikipedia, 2011).
 Cooperation  Coordination  Collaboration
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Overview
“Collaborative Collection
Development is the sharing of
responsibilities among two or more
libraries for the process of
acquiring materials, developing
collections, and managing the
growth and maintenance of
collections in a user-beneficial
and cost-beneficial way.” (Josheph J.
Branin, 1983)
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Collaborative
Collection Development(CCD)
 Why important?
 Constrained budgets
 Limited space to house collections
 Limited access to the world’s vast information
 What benefits?
 The potential for improving access
 Stretch limited resources
 Reducing unnecessary duplication
 The improvement in the working relationships among
cooperating libraries
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CCD
 How operating?
 Resource sharing
 Bibliographic Access
 Coordinative Collection Development & Management
Physical Access
Intellectual
Access
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Coordination
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Three components of CCD
 Physical Access
 A system for making requests and providing delivery of
information, through ILL process
 Interlibrary loan
 To handle returnables and nonreturnables
 Encompass a protocol for making requests and acceptable
method of delivery
 How to delivery effectively and speedily
 OCLC ILLiad Resource Sharing Management software
 Infotrieve’s Ariel software
 Through online directly + bypass the library
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Three Components of CCD
 Intellectual Access
 Knowing what is available from other sites through
holdings information
 Holdings information
 Printed or microform catalogs
 Bibliographic utilities
 Networked online catalogs
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Three components of CCD
 Coordinated Collection Development
 A coordinated scheme of purchasing and maintaining
collections in its ideal manifestation
 To build complementary collection on which the
cooperation libraries can draw
 Mutual notification of purchasing decision
 Assigned subject specialization in building collection
 Joint purchase
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Types of CCD
 Status Quo Approach
 No intentional coordinated collecting activities
 Presumes that libraries’ total collecting activities will build
reasonable depth in every area of interest
 Every title that anyone might want now and in the future
will be held somewhere.
 Serendipitous collection development and management
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Types of CCD
 Synergistic Approach
 Responsibility for collecting different publication,
according to some coordinated and collaborative plan
 Dividing the information universe into core and peripheral
materials and dividing the periphery among the members
 Coordinated collection development
 Written agreements, contracts, commitments, responsibilities
 Libraries always give priority to local needs and priorities
 Some degree of altruism and a true sense of the common good
 Use of a shared approval plan: the same approval plan vendor
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Types of CCD
 The Research Triangle University Libraries in North
Carolina
 The earliest : began in 1934
 Duke Univ., NC State Univ., Univ. of NC, NC Central Univ.
 Relatively successful(1973)
 76 % of titles were found on only one campus
 Only 7% were held by all universities
 Upper-level institutional support
 long history of realizing its goals
 Geographical proximity, bibliographic access to titles
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Types of CCD
 Farmington Plan
 To increase the nation’s total resources for research
 Launched in 1948 under the sponsorship of the ARL
 60 academic, special, research libraries
 To collect one copy of each new foreign publication for research
 Designed blanket order profiles by foreign dealers
 Less successful
 Not concerned with the financial situation
 Failed to recognize local priorities
 Depend on a high degree of altruism
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Types of CCD
 Cooperative Acquisition / Funding
 Cooperation for shared purchased with agreed locations
 A pool of shared monies
 To acquire lesser-used items
 To acquire expensive items
 Items are placed either in
 a central site
 the library with the highest anticipated local use
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Types of CCD
 CRL(Center for Research Libraries)
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Established in 1949 as Midwest Inter-library Center

Now, 230 US and Canadian academic and research libraries

To acquire, store, preserve materials that would be too costly
for a single institution

More than 4 million newspapers, journals, dissertations,
archives, government publication, microform sets, other
traditional and digital resources

Clear objectives and a long history of leveraging investments to
provide collection that no one library can afford on its own

www.crl.edu
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Types of CCD
 Shared Collection and Access Program
 Long-term cooperative funding program among libraries of
Univ. of California which was begun in 1976
 A central pool of funds to acquire resources and avoid
duplication
 Broaden and deepen UC library collection
 Too enhance access
 To develop comprehensive research collection
 Offer economies no available through traditional models
 Oregon digital Library Consortium
 A shared digital audiobook collection: Library2Go
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Types of CCD
 Coordinated Weeding and Retention
 To reduce the costs of maintaining collection by
distributing responsibilities and sharing costs
 Retaining materials in certain areas
 Retaining materials of certain types
 Last-copy retention
 Check first if the item is the last copy in consortium
 A degree of redundancy is desirable to protect against
catastrophic loss
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Types of CCD
 Coordinated Preservation Initiatives
 NEH (National Endowment for the Humanities) grants
 Develop a national collection of preserved documents
 Microfilming important agricultural publication
 US Newspapers Program
 The shared mass digitization projects
 Google Books Library Project
 Open Content Alliance
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Types of CCD
 Shared Storage
 Efforts to achieve space economies
 CRL : Opened in 1951 with the provision of a storage depository
 JASTOR (Journal Storage): Shared journal holdings
 LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe): a voluntary distributed
system to preserve electronic resources
 CIC(Committee of Institutional Cooperation): shared digital repository
 Colorado Digital Alliance
 Shared storage vs. collaborative storage
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OhioLINK (www.ohiolink.edu)
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OhioLINK
 Consortium
 Ohio Library and Information Network
 88 libraries in Ohio
 16 public/research universities, 23 community/technical colleges, 49
private colleges and the State Library of Ohio.
 History
 1987 – 1989: prepared planning and RFP for statewide electronic
system
 1990: develop the unique software system and selected Digital
Equipment Corporation for the computer hardware
 1992: six universities installed OhioLINK systems
 1996: offering services through the World Wide Web
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OhioLINK
 Providing access to
 OhioLINK Library Catalog
 more than 48 million library items statewide, encompassing a spectrum
of library material including law, medical and special collections
 12 million unique titles from its 89 member libraries, two public libraries
and the Center for Research Libraries.

Research Databases
 more than 150 electronic research databases, including a variety of fulltext resources.
 Electronic Book Center (EBC)
 62,000 e-books covers a wide variety of subjects
 including encyclopedias, dictionaries and other reference works
scholarly books; and computer and technology titles
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OhioLINK
 Electronic Journal Center (EJC)
 a collection of full-text research journals launched in 1998.
 more than 9,000 scholarly journal titles from 101 publishers across
More than 3.7 million articles are used each year from the EJC
 Digital Resource Commons (DRC)
 Provides a robust, statewide platform for finding and sharing the
instructional, research, historic and creative materials
 Digital Media Center (DMC)
 3,000 digital educational films, documentaries, foreign language videos
 Thousands of electronic images, including art; sounds; historical
documents, historic Ohio city maps; satellite images of Ohio
 Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center (ETD)
 Free online database of over 26,000 undergraduate honors theses,
masters’ theses, and doctoral dissertations
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OhioLINK
 Features
 Access OhioLINK from home
 remote access is available at www.ohiolink.edu.
 A campus ID number is required.
 Pick up OhioLINK Materials
 any participating member library
 Users choose the location and time
 How long?
 OhioLINK items are ready for pick up in 2-3 days.
 Check on the status of your requested items
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CRL(www.crl.edu)
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CRL(Center for Research Libraries)
 Consortium
 to acquire and preserve
 newspapers, journals, documents, archives,
 other traditional and digital resources from a global network of sources.
 Interlibrary loan and electronic delivery
 To access to these rich source materials
 To support major research projects, the production of scholarly
monographs and studies, dissertations, and graduate and advanced
undergraduate seminars.
 Membership
 librarians, specialists, and scholars at the member institution
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CRL
 Collection specialists at major U.S. and Canadian research institutions
such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, the Univ. of Chicago, the Univ. of
California, McGill University, and the Univ. of Toronto
 CRL is based in Chicago and governed by a Board of Directors drawn
from the research and higher education communities.
 Holdings
 Five million resources
 newspapers, journals, dissertations, archives, government publications,
and other traditional and digital resources
 Archives: Millions of pages of documents
 Dissertations :800,000 doctoral dissertations
 CRL continues to acquire about 5,000 titles per year from major
universities through demand purchase and deposit.
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CRL
 Government Documents
 Foreign government documents: more than 100 countries
 U. S. State Documents: more than a half million volumes of deposited
and purchased monographic and serial publications of the U. S. state
governments
 Monographs: More than 500,000 monographs in all formats & subjects
 Newspapers : More than 10,000 titles from most countries of the world
 Serials: 66,500 serials
 Deposits
 College and University Catalogs
 Primary & Secondary Textbooks, Curriculum Guides
 Railroad Publications, Foreign Central Bank Publications
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CRL
 Services
 Services for student and researchers
 Borrow books, articles, and other materials from CRL’s collection
 Get help finding what you need
 Use the reading room
 Request digitization of materials in CRL’s collection
 Services for CRL Libraries
 Request CRL to purchase a title (dissertation, newspaper, archives)
 Join cooperative purchases of expensive resources
 Join cooperative purchases of specialized e-resources
 Buy one-time access to e-resources for faculty or student use
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CRL
 Services for the CRL Community
 Auditing and certifying digital archives
 Developing and coordinating print archives
 Developing specialized global collections
 Area Microform Projects
 Global Resources Network Projects
 Archiving and Preservation
 a variety of cooperative preservation activities
 Digital Archives
 Research Findings, includes Preserving News in the Digital Environment
 Information about digital repositories such as HathiTrust, Portico, etc
 Print Archives
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CIC (www.cic.net)
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CIC (Committee on Institutional
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Cooperation)
 Consortium
 For more than half a century, these world-class research institutions
have advanced their academic missions
 Established by the presidents of the Big Ten Conference members
in 1958 including U of Chicago
 Governed and funded by the Provosts of the member universities,
CIC mandates are coordinated by a staff from UIUC headquarters
 CIC Member Universities
 Univ. of Chicago, Univ. of Illinois, Indiana Univ., Univ. of Iowa, Univ. of
Michigan, Michigan State Univ. Univ. of Minnesota, Northwestern Univ.
Ohio State Univ. Pennsylvania State Univ. Purdue Univ., Univ. of
Wisconsin-Madison
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CIC
 Collaborative Projects
 Library Collaborations
 optimizing student & faculty access to the combined resources
 maximizing cost, time, and space savings
 supporting a collaborative environment where library staff can work
 Technology Collaborations
 CIC universities have made it their priority to build IT capacity while
reducing costs.
 Purchasing and Licensing
 By joining forces, member universities are able to negotiate better
licensing terms
 To date, CIC has saved more than $19 million on commodity
purchases.
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CIC
 Leadership Development
 By leveraging resources and drawing upon the expertise within the
member institutions, CIC is able to offer professional development
opportunities that are highly relevant and effective.
 Sharing Access to Courses
 CIC institutions have a long tradition of sharing faculty expertise by
making specialized courses available to students from member
universities.
 CourseShare
 Study Abroad Collaborations
 Providing high quality study abroad opportunities and increasing
student access to those opportunities are top priorities for CIC
universities.
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CIC
 Purchasing and Licensing
 Combining, leveraging and expanding resources of member
universities is a central strategic focus of the CIC.
 CIC Purchasing Consortium(CICPC)
 Library Consortial Licensing
 Software Licensing Principles
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CARL (www.coalliance.org)
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CARL (Colorado Alliance of Research
Libraries)
 Consortium
 Public libraries, colleges, and universities who believe that by
working together every Alliance member will achieve greater results
than by working independently
 Mission
 Facilitate, develop and improve library services to students, faculty, and
the general public
 Share, leverage, and expand library resources
 Identify and resolve issues of information creation, collection, access,
storage, and distribution
 Reduce member library operating costs
 Provide additional services as needed by member libraries and the
communities they serve
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CARL
 Alliance Digital Repository (ADR)
 A preservation-oriented, consortial digital repository service
 To facilitate collective knowledge-building of digital curation strategies
 ADR Basic software platform
 Provides a base of digital content discovery, access, storage, and longterm management functionality and leverages a combination of Open
Source Software packages supported, in part, by a third-party vendor.
 Gold Rush
 An electronic serials management service
 developed by the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries
 to help libraries manage subscriptions to electronic resources
 To provide improved public access for their electronic journals and DBs
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CARL
 Prospector
 A unified catalog of forty academic, public and special libraries in
Colorado and Wyoming.
 access to over 30 million resources
 books, journals, DVDs, CDs, videos and other materials
 Members
 Auraria Library, Univ. of Colorado Denver, Metropolitian State College,
Community College of Denver Mesa State College, Tomlinson Library,
Colorado College, Tutt Library, Regis Univ., Regis Libraries, Univ. of Colo.
Denver Health Sciences, Health Sciences Library, Univ. of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado School of Mines , Aurther Lakes Library, Univ. of
Colorado Colorado Springs, Kraemer Family Library, Colorado State Univ.,
CSU Libraries, Univ. of Denver, Penrose Library, The Denver Public Library
Univ. of N.Colorado, UNC Libraries, Univ. of Wyoming, UW Libraries
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Attributes of Successful CCD
 Understanding of what they hold locally
 To identify the features of local collection
 What can be accessed
 What can be preserved
 To compare collections with their partners
 Collection profiles or collection maps
 Conspectus
 0: Out of Scope, 1: Minimal (Uneven, focused),
 2: Basic Information (Introductory, Advanced)
 3: Study or Instructional Support (Basic, Intermediate, Advanced)
 4: Research, 5: Comprehensive
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Attributes of Successful CCD
 Finding an acceptable balance
 Between local priorities and the priorities of the larger
group seeking to cooperate
 Managing these counterpoints effectively
 Local needs vs. needs of unknown, remote users
 Clear understanding
 Their institutional mission
 How to meet the community’s needs
 The benefit gained through collaboration
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Attributes of Successful CCD
 Having a high level of trust
 Among the institutions or the collection librarians
 For effective governance
 Establishing goals
 Governing structure (leaders & administrators)
 Having sufficient authority to make decision
 A reliable communication systems
 To share policy decision changes quickly and widely
 To fulfill their obligations
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Attributes of Successful CCD
 Fostering a willingness
 Enlightening self-interest of each institution
 To make sacrifices
 To believe benefits will accrue
 Recognizing the value of increased collaboration
 Fostering trust among all partners
 Considering a routine part of all work in the library
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Evaluating CCD
 Cost-benefit analysis
 For what
 Calculate and compare both present and future cost and
present and future benefits
 Measure the benefits per money spent
 Compare of resource sharing & commercial document delivery
 Compare of the owning and the subscribing
 Concerning aspects
 Library’s side including staffing costs with each task
 Benefits (saving money, eliminating tasks etc.)
 Equipment, its depreciation, infrastructure
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Evaluating CCD
 Checking performance
 Input data
 Staff #, hours of works, # of item purchased, # of total items
 Financial data
 Library / group expenditures, unit costs
 Use data
 Use of electronic, print, documents delivered
 User satisfaction data
 finding outcomes are equally positive without significant
gains or losses
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Evaluating CCD
 Checking index
 A strategic objectives
 Access to more unique resources  title count of the shared
universe of resources
 Expansion of digital collections through leveraged investment
 title count of e-resources or cost savings
 Increased availability in local shelf space through coordinated
storage  volumes withdrawn and local shelving space gained
 Reduce user effort and time  improvement in user perception
about effort and time
 Increased user satisfaction  improvement in user satisfaction
 Reduced library personnel costs  declining personnel costs
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Challenges to CCD
 Desire for Local Autonomy
 Ownership
 A persistent measure success
 Difficulties
 Overcoming their parochialism
 Thinking more broadly
 Resistance to what is perceived as losing control
 “CCD is at its most basic level a political, not a technical
issue.” (Branin, 1991)
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Challenges to CCD
 Professional Pride
 To build the most complete collection
 To pull against cooperation
 Difficulties
 To change the selection virtues of the past
 To focus on the quality of the local collection
 A sprit of independence
 Attitudes of faculty members: losing prestige
 Fostering confidence in the mutual benefits
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Challenges to CCD
 Unequal distribution of commitment, effort, and
money among partners
 Money : a major barrier to successful cooperation
 Financial commitments must be fair to all
 Sliding scale of membership fees
 Equitable distribution of local financial commitments
 Within the library’s own organization
 If internal organizational structure is not supportive, cooperation
is nearly impossible
 Technical service, reference service, preservation activities, ILL
operation all must support
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Challenges to CCD
 Lack of support
 Strong leadership and constant support are important
 The members of governing committees of CIC are the chief
academic officers from 12 member universities
 Strong institutional support
 Extend to all aspects of university activity
 Dissatisfaction with results of the cooperation
 The absence of significant and observable accomplishments
 Processing the quantification of the cost benefits
 Comparing regularly the benefits of cooperation
 Documenting the evidence of the benefits
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Challenges to CCD
 Failures in Intellectual and Physical Access
 Providing physical access to remote materials
 Mechanisms for affordable, timely, efficient, and effective
delivery of resources
 The ability to identify and locate resources
 Just-in-Time vs. Just-in-Case
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Issues in CCD
 Operative Issues
 Institutional Issues
 People Issues
 Legal and Administrative Issues
 Physical Access and Technology
 Issues in Collaboration
 A Sustained Model of Cooperative Collection Building
 Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence
 Return on Investment
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Issues in CCD
 Viewing New Light
 The Mission of Collaboration
 The Importance of “Focusness”
 Assessment of Sharing
 Economic Factors in Collaboration
 Collection Development and Collaboration in an Open
Access World
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References

Branin, Joseph J. “Cooperative Collection Development,” In Collection
Management: A New Treatise, ed. Charles B. Osburn and R. Atkinson,
81-110(Greenwich, Conn.: JAI Press, 1991).

Johnson, Peggy. Fundamentals of Collection Development and
Management. 2dn ed. Chicago: ALA, 2009. 407p.

Gorman, Michael. “Laying Siege to the ‘Fortress Library,” American
Libraries 17(5), 1986.

Pan, Denise & Fong, Yem. “Return on Investment for collaborative
Collection Development: Cost-Benefit Evaluation of consortia
Purchasing.” Collaborative Librarianship. 2(4), 2010: 183-192.

Rathe, Batte, Chaudhuri, Jayati & Highby, Wendy. “Open Access
Advocay: Think Globally, act Locally.” Collaborative Librarianship.
2(3), 2010: 162-168.
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협동 장서개발을 위한 도전과 과제
OCLC Online Computer Library Center
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