THE NEW FRONTIER: Libraries seek new Technology Platforms for and End-user Discovery, Collection Management, and Preservation Marshall Breeding Director for Innovative Technology and Research Vanderbilt University Library Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides http://www.librarytechnology.org/ http://twitter.com/mbreeding 11 September 2011 IGeLU Abstract Marshall Breeding will provide his view of the changing landscape of library technologies. Academic, research, and public libraries experience great changes in the nature of their collections and in the expectation of their clientele. Increased involvement in electronic content and decreased emphasis on print collections press demand for tools that break away from traditional library management models and address a broader view of library collections. Libraries likewise face new imperatives to deliver end user interfaces consistent with that experienced elsewhere on the Web and that provide access to the entire span of library collections including print, local digital collections, and subscribed collections of articles, databases and e-books. Many libraries find themselves involved with content areas outside of traditional collections, including needs to manage or archive scientific data sets, and to deliver new types of services in support of research, teaching, or other strategic activities of their parent organizations. Traditional automation tools increasingly fail to meet expectations in this context. Breeding will discuss some of the issues and challenges involved for as new technologies emerge to address the changed realities of libraries today. Library Technology Guides International Perceptions Survey http://www.librarytechnology.org/perceptions2010.pl ARL Member Libraries http://www.librarytechnology.org/arl.pl Mergers and http://www.librarytechnology.org/automationhistory.pl Acquisitions Library Journal Automation Marketplace Published annually in April 1 issue Based on data provided by each vendor Focused primarily on North America Context market of global library automation ILS Sales Statistics: total System Name AGent VERSO 2001 2002 14 19 2003 2004 6 23 2005 2006 2007 2008 2010 15 54 47 Evergreen 24 18 6 18 Voyager 50 44 35 22 34 12 4 5 2 ALEPH 500 80 58 51 53 83 67 29 26 47 Vubis Smart 13 34 54 56 60 56 40 46 12 11 12 V-Smart Millennium 157 136 144 119 107 Koha (Classic/ZOOM) Library.Solution 79 70 73 Carl.X / Carl.Solution Polaris ILS 95 95 64 45 30 57 40 -- 58 41 34 35 32 30 1 3 10 0 0 0 12 21 20 37 39 54 32 56 33 Unicorn 117 207 124 134 91 71 121 108 -- Horizon 126 114 168 193 147 94 15 0 -- 37 60 67 35 25 27 30 39 18 Virtua Ex Libris – Personnel Data Year Develop Support Sales Admin Other Total 2010 174 223 53 38 16 504 2009 165 206 52 32 12 467 2008 161 198 55 34 19 467 2007 129 187 53 49 2006 127 160 42 46 18 393 2005 57 93 39 23 49 261 418 LJ Automation Marketplace Annual Industry report published in Library Journal: 2011: New Frontier: battle intensifies to win hearts, minds and tech dollars 2010: New Models, Core Systems 2009: Investing in the Future 2008: Opportunity out of turmoil 2007: An industry redefined 2006: Reshuffling the deck 2005: Gradual evolution 2004: Migration down, innovation up 2003: The competition heats up 2002: Capturing the migrating customer The New Frontier… new phase of competition following a period of research and development that aimed to provide alternatives to libraries, both in back-end automation and end user discovery. A variety of new solutions have emerged, often representing quite different conceptual models. In a continued trend, librarians seek solutions that immediately improve the experiences of their users, especially via discovery products. Key Context: Academic Libraries in Transition Shift from Print > Electronic E-journal transition largely complete E-books now in play (consultation > reading) Increasing emphasis on subscribed content, especially articles and databases Academic libraries seeing long-term declines in print circulation Need better tools for managing electronic resources Need better tools for access to complex multi-format collections Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections Demands for enterprise integration and interoperability Key Context: Technologies in transition XML / Web services / Service-oriented Architecture Beyond Web 2.0 Integration Local of social computing into core infrastructure computing shifting to cloud platforms Application Service Provider offerings standard New expectations for multi-tenant software-as-a-service Full spectrum of devices full-scale / net book / tablet / mobile Mobile the current focus, but is only one example of device and interface cycles Key Text: Changed expectations in metadata management Moving away from individual record-by-record creation Life cycle of metadata Manage metadata in bulk when possible E-book collections Highly shared metadata Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the way as needed E-journal knowledge bases, e.g. Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data Very little progress in linked data for operational systems AACR2 > RDA MARC > RDF? Status Quo Sustainable? ILS for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and campus Electronic Resource Management (non-integrated with ILS) OpenURL Link Resolver w/ knowledge base for access to full-text electronic articles Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Institutional Repositories (DSpace, Fedora, etc.) Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes Phase of realignment Strong need to realign library automation with current library realities Legacy library systems reinforce workflows no longer in step with library priorities. Need systems that allow libraries to allocate personnel in proper proportion to collection Separate automation platforms for print and electronic have not proven successful Academic Library Issues Greater concern with electronic resources Management: Need for consolidated approach that balances print, digital, and electronic workflows Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value of investments in electronic content Public Library Issues Enhance the experience of library patrons Management and access to physical resources Self-service through the Web portal: View current loans, perform holds, renewals, pay fines and fees Self-service in the physical library RFID-based self-issue and returns Helps the library deploy service personnel for highest impact National Library Issues Larger-scale collections Cultural Heritage responsibilities National services: bibliographic, resource sharing, automation, etc. National infrastructure: technology platforms shared at the widest level Digital preservation Libraries involved in creating digital libraries need processes and infrastructure for long-term preservation Open Archival Information Systems (OAIS) defines practices and protocols that need to be embodied in a digital preservation environment Trusted Digital Repositories: meet standards for preservation appropriate for unique and valuable collections Digital preservation currently implemented in national, large research, and other well-resourced libraries and archives. Some institutional projects, some cooperative Common to have disaster recovery; rare to implement true digital preservation A Cloudy Forecast for Libraries Systems Librarian Column, Sept 2011 “Service-oriented architectures and browser-based interfaces deployed through cloud-based infrastructure stand today as the key technologies preferred for new software development efforts” http://www.infotoday.com/cilmag/sep11/Breeding.shtml Cloud Computing Major trend in Information Technology Few organizations have core competence in large-scale computer infrastructure management Essentially outsourcing of server housing and management Usually based on a consumption-based business model Most new automation products delivered through some flavor of cloud computing Many flavors to suit business needs: public, private, hybrid Library Automation in the Cloud Almost all library automation vendors offer some form of cloud-based services Server management moves from library to Vendor Subscription-based business model Comprehensive annual subscription payment Offsets local server purchase and maintenance Offsets some local technology support Application Service Provider Vendor hosting of traditional ILS Technically Application Service Provider though marketed as SaaS Continued reliance on Graphical Clients deployed on each staff workstation that need to be updated and synched Vendor maintains individual instances for each library / site Software as a Service Multi Tennant SaaS is the modern approach One Software functionality delivered entirely through Web interfaces No copy of the code base serves multiple sites workstation clients Upgrades and fixes deployed universally Usually in small increments Data as a service SaaS provides opportunity for highly shared data models WorldCat: one globally shared copy that serves all libraries Primo Central: central index of articles maintained by Ex Libris shared by all libraries implementing Primo / Primo Central Global Knowledgebase of e-journal holdings shared among all customers of SFX General opportunity to move away from library-bylibrary metadata management to globally shared workflows Infrastructure as a Service Access to hardware provisioned from remote providers Examples: Amazon Elastic Compute (EC2) Cloud and Simple Storage Service (S3) Many library automation vendors use IaaS to deploy their offerings Rethinking library automation Fundamental assumption: Print + Electronic + Digital Traditional print-dominant ILS model not adequate for current and future library realities Libraries currently involved with a core ILS surrounded by additional modules to handle electronic content New discovery layer interfaces replacing or supplementing ILS OPACS Cloud technologies offer potential for new levels of efficiency and cooperation “It's Time to Break the Mold of the Original ILS” Computers in Libraries Nov/Dec 2007 Competing Models of Library Automation Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS Traditional Open Source ILS Evergreen, Koha New generation unified resource management Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris, BOOK-IT, DDELibra, Libra.se LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, TOTALS II Ex Libris Alma, Kuali OLE, OCLC Web-scale Management Services Cloud-based automation systems Ex Libris Alma OCLC Web-scale: Management Service Serials Solutions: Web-Scale Management Solution Comprehensive Resource Management No longer sensible to use different software platforms for managing different types of library materials -- ILS + ERM + OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model ++ Flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows Open Systems Achieving openness has risen as the key driver behind library technology strategies Libraries need to do more with their data Ability to improve customer experience and operational efficiencies Demand for Interoperability Open source – full access to internal program of the application Open API’s – expose programmatic interfaces to data and functionality Legacy LMS Model Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Interfaces Business Logic Data Stores Circulation BIB Cataloging Holding / Items Circ Transact Acquisitions User Serials Vendor Online Catalog $$$ Funds Policies Legacy ILS Model / API Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Interfaces Application Programming Interfaces Business ` Logic Data Stores Circulation BIB Cataloging Holding / Items Circ Transact Acquisitions User Serials Vendor Online Catalog $$$ Funds Policies Legacy ILS Model + protocol Interlibrary Loan System Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Protocols: SIP2 NCIP Z39.50 OAI-PMH Application Programming Interfaces Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials Online Catalog Self-Check BIB Holding / Items Circ Transact User Vendor $$$ Funds Policies Legacy ILS Model / External API External Systems & Services Public Interfaces: Staff Interfaces: Application Programming Interfaces / Web Services Circulation Cataloging Acquisitions Serials Online Catalog Flexible Interoperability Protocols: SIP2 NCIP Z39.50 OAI-PMH BIB Holding / Items Circ Transact User Vendor $$$ Funds Policies New Library Management Model Discovery Service Search: Self-Check / Automated Return Search Engine API Layer ` Consolidated index Library Management System Digital Coll ProQuest EBSCO … JSTOR Stock Management Other Resources Enterprise Resource Planning Learning Management Smart Cad / Payment systems Authentication Service Library Services Platform Possible new term for the successor to the ILS ILS now viewed as print-centric Next Generation systems must serve as platforms to connect external systems as well as to deliver internal functionality Delivered Functionality + library created extensions + interoperability New models of Library Collection Discovery From local discovery to Web-scale discovery Next-Gen Library Catalogs Marshall Breeding Neal-Schuman Publishers March 2010 Volume 1 of The Tech Set Online Catalog Search: Search Results ILS Data Disjointed approach to information and service delivery Silos Prevail Books: Library OPAC (ILS module) Articles: Aggregated content products, e-journal collections OpenURL linking services E-journal finding aids (Often managed by link resolver) Subject guides (e.g. Springshare LibGuides) Local digital collections ETDs, photos, rich media collections Metasearch engines All searched separately Federated Search ILS Data Digital Collections Search: ProQuest Search Results EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Real-time query and responses Next-gen Catalogs or Discovery Interface Single search box Query tools Did you mean Type-ahead Relevance ranked results Faceted navigation Enhanced visual displays Cover art Summaries, reviews, Recommendation services Discovery Interface search model Search: Local Index ILS Data Digital Collections ProQuest Search Results MetaSearch Engine EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Real-time query and responses Discovery Products Differentiation in Discovery Products increasingly specialized between public and academic libraries Public libraries: emphasis on engagement with physical collection Academic libraries: concern for discovery of heterogeneous material types, especially books + articles + digital objects Discovery from Local to Web-scale Initial products focused on technology AquaBrowser, Endeca, Primo, Encore, VuFind, LIBERO Uno, Civica Sorcer, Axiell Arena Mostly locally-installed software Current phase focused on pre-populated indexes that aim to deliver Web-scale discovery Primo Central (Ex Libris) Summon (Serials Solutions) WorldCat Local (OCLC) EBSCO Discovery Service (EBSCO) Encore with Article Integration Citations / Metadata > Full Text Citations or structured metadata provide key data to power search & retrieval and faceted navigation Indexing Full-text of content amplifies access Important to understand depth indexing Currency, dates covered, full-text or citation Many other factors Web-scale Index-based Discovery Search Results Consolidated Index Search: ILS Data Digital Collections ProQuest EBSCOhost … MLA Bibliography ABC-CLIO Pre-built harvesting and indexing Challenge for Relevancy Technically feasible to index hundreds of millions or billions of records through Lucene or SOLR Difficult to order records in ways that make sense Many fairly equivalent candidates returned for any given query Must rely on use-based and social factors to improve relevancy rankings Open Discovery Initiative Project underway to address issues related to information providers, discovery service providers, and libraries Protocols for transfer of content Transparency of what is transferred and indexed Rights or restrictions on how discovery services use content Initial meeting at ALA Annual Proposal under consideration by NISO “Proposed New Work Item: Standards and Best Practices for Library Discovery Services Based on Indexed Search” Decoupled from ILS Decoupled Discovery? Decoupled interfaces emerged from broken online catalogs Poor interfaces, inadequate scope Inefficient integration between automation and discovery platforms New wave of more tightly integrated suites: Ex Libris Alma > Primo OCLC Web-scale Management Services > WorldCat Local Serials Solutions Web-Scale Management Solution > Summon Still possible to decouple, but more effort, worse results Delivering library services to mobile devices Increased expectation for access to services through mobile Library services: Mobile web Apps Carefully select functionality appropriate for mobile Tablet computing Tablet computers have been around for a while, but the introduction of Apple’s iPad increases popularity High-quality device for content consumption Access to library services and content http://www.csmonitor.com/Science/2010/0524/A-rundown-of-the-best-iPad-astronomy-apps Questions and discussion Thanks!