pptx - ASREN

Networked exascale
ASREN and the HPC community
can make it happen
Yves Poppe
A*STAR Computational Resource Centre
December 1-11th 2014
Muscat, Oman
Please, maximize my effective throughput
Connect HPC resources at Fusionopolis with the storage and
genomics pipeline in the Biopolis Matrix Building
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Tests started with Mellanox METRO-X early 2013 and were followed up
with trials using the Obsidian Strategics Longbow C400. Today the sites
are connected with 2x40gbps connections running native InfiniBand and
reaching approx. 98.4% of maximum theoretical possible throughput.
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The big picture: NSCC
Singapore’s National SuperComputer Centre
• Joint A*STAR, NUS, NTU, SUTD and NRF project; RFS Q3 2015
Calls for new 1-2+ PetaFLOP Supercomputer
Recurrent investment every 3 to 5 years
Pooling up and high tier compute resources at A*STAR and IHLs
Co-investment from primary stakeholders
• Science, Technology and Research Network (STAR-N)
– High bandwidth network to connect distributed compute resources
– Provides high speed access to users, both public and private, anywhere
– Supports transfer of large data sets both locally and internationally
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The quest to maximize effective throughput
TCP/IP’s curse: CPU overhead
Source: IBTA, the InfiniBand Trade Association
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InfiniBand’s magic potion: RDMA
Source: IBTA, the InfiniBand Trade Association
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The undeniable virtues of RDMA
47% system CPU overhead and idle time in a TCP/IP
environment versus 12% in an RDMA environment
In other words 88% CPU efficiency in the user space
with RDMA versus 53% with TCP/IP
Source: Mellanox
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HPC’s road to InfiniBand
• 1999: Intel, IBM, Sun, HP, Microsoft, Compaq and Dell agree on the
original InfiniBand standard to solve a looming problem of a PCI
(Peripheral Component Interconnect) bottleneck
• 2003: Virginia Tech builds an InfiniBand cluster ranked number
three on the SC Top500 at the time.
• IB becomes increasingly popular for cluster interconnects as it beats
Ethernet on both price and latency.
• November 2014: 225 of the Top 500 use InfiniBand, up 8.7% YoY.
• The Ethernet camp tries to counter with RoCE (RDMA over
Converged Ethernet) and now RoCEv2 for the data centre space..
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HPC’s choice: InfiniBand link layer
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The Ultimate InfiniBand Jailbreak
• HPC’s and Infiniband were suffocating within the Data Center walls.
• Range extenders like the Mellanox MetroX gave Infiniband and
consequently HPC’s and data centres themselves more breathing
room and ways to expand on metro level.
• Obsidian Strategics took the final step: It took Data Centre walls
away completely. InfiniBand connections can cross continents and
circle the globe.
• The ultimate step: BGFC makes InfiniBand routeable and opens the
possibility to permeate the globe giving rise to an Infininet.
Internet gave us classrooms without walls.
Infininet will give us supercomputing without walls
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…proved itself in a spectacular way
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Galaxy14 Network Topology SC14
100gbps linking A*STAR in Singapore to the A*STAR booth at SC14 in New Orleans via
Singaren, the Tata Communications transpacific cables TGN-IA and TGN-P to Seattle,
Century Link to New Orleans and Scinet on the SC14 conference grounds.
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A*STAR’s vision: Infinicortex
a Supercomputer of Supercomputers
Professor Tan Tin Wee and Dr. Marek Michalewicz proposed to
demonstrate something totally new, never done before,
Very High speed transcontinental transmission of native
Long Distance Infiniband between High Performance
Computing (HPC) centres continents apart and have
them operate as one, tackling the biggest computational
challenges and opening a possible avenue to exascale
supercomputing where the most vexing problem is
power and heat generation.
This is not cloud computing, this is not Grid
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The four elements that made this possible
• Very high speed transmission as made possible by ACA100
– Asia connects America at 100gbps, challenge issued by Yves Poppe,
then at Tata Communications, at APAN 37 in Bandung, Indonesia.
• InfiniBand over trans-pacific distances
– Made possible with Obsidian Strategics InfiniBand range extenders.
• Galaxy of Supercomputers
– Supercomputer interconnect topology and graph theory work by Y.Deng,
M.Michalewicz and L.Orlowski.
– InfiniBand subnetting using the BGFC protocol and the new Obsidian
Crossbow InfiniBand router.
• Application layer
– File transfer optimization based on the development of Dsync+ for
simple file transfers all the way to complex work flows with ADIOS
(Adaptable I/O System) developed by Dr. Scott Klasky and his team at
Oak Ridge National Laboratories.
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InfiniBand range extender and router
Longbow Device
Crossbow Device
Developed by Obsidian Strategics based in Edmonton, Canada
Crossbow plus Longbows give rise to Galaxy and open the
door to an Infininet
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Galaxy of Supercomputers
• Supercomputers located at different geolocations connected into a
Super-Graph or ‘Nodes of Super-Network’
• Supercomputers may have arbitrary interconnect topologies
• Galaxy is based on a topology with small diameter and lowest
possible link number.
• In terms of graph representation it is an embedding of graphs
representing Supercomputers’ topologies into a graph representing
the Galaxy topology.
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Making the vision a reality
Testing within Singapore completed using dark fibre between two A*CRC
sites and also with the National University of Singapore using Singaren’s
new SLIX over 80km. Convincing results led us to deploy two 40gbps
InfiniBand connections between our Biopolis and Fusionopolis sites.
InfiniBand over Ethernet testing with Tokyo Institute of Technology’s
Tsubame-KFC successfully completed using Singaren, APAN and JGN-X.
InfiniBand over IP testing completed with the NCI (National
Computational Infrastructure) at the Australian National Unversity in
Canberra using existing Singaren, APAN and AARnet infrastructure.
10gbps dedicated link between Singapore and the USA for layer 2 ‘native’
InfiniBand testing with ORNL and others starting end October.
Rather spectacular results of the 100gbps trial and demos between
Singapore and New Orleans at SC14
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Proving the point
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Extract from the presentation prepared by
Jakub Chrzeszczyk and Andrew Howard, NCI, Australia
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Long Distance InfiniBand:
a potential R&E networking game changer
So far, the global HPC needs were presented at TERENA, APAN and GLIF and
resonate with the visions of the global R&E networking community.
Adoption of native Infiniband as a commonly used layer 2 transmission
protocol would give NREN’s a rare opportunity to gain back the lead in
innovation and clearly differentiate themselves from commercial networks.
The HPC community is faced with a continuing exponential growth of data
generated and current NREN internetworking capacity is already insufficient
considering only the needs of genomics data interchange.
To reach exascale computing, a distributed approach is probably required if
only to cope with power requirements and disaster recovery
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The HPC community’s call to ASREN
Let us lead the world in building an Infinet!
Let us lead the world towards exascale computing
HPC’s need NREN’s and NREN’s need HPC’s
– The majority of global R&E traffic originates from the HPC community.
– Supercomputing is essential to the economic development in all advanced
industrial sectors as well as academic research and education.
– The HPC community constitutes by far the most demanding constituency
globally as they continue to push relentlessly the bandwidth and switching
capacity envelopes on all scales. This for the simple reason that the
incredible ‘big data’ growth with associated hunger for computing power,
storage and associated electrical power and cooling will continue unabated.
– Reaching the exaflop scale in supercomputing will very likely require a
distributed approach to be sustainable and include the Infinicortex concept.
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Circle the globe at 100gbps with ACE-100?
• Prof. Tan Tin Wee, Chairman of A*STAR Computational Resource
Centre, pointed out that with ANA-100 now a reality and ACA-100
coming, the only missing piece to circle the globe would be ACE100: Asia connects Europe.
• I had a vision of bits racing around the world, 100,000,000,000 of
them every second, 100gbps, as fast as light can travel through
fibre, transmitting a continuous stream of copies of Jules Vernes’
‘Around the world in eighty days’.
SC15: the Phileas Fogg challenge
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We hope to see you in Singapore at
Organised by A*STAR Computational Resource Centre (A*CRC),
An international conference on
supercomputing, exascale and beyond in Singapore and Asia
March 17-20, 2015, Singapore
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Thank You
Creativity requires the courage to let go of certainties.
Erich Fromm
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