Difficult Airway Management Airway management is really easy…. Except when it isn’t DEFFINATION Difficult Intubation is: Failure to intubate with conventional laryngoscopy after an optimal/best attempt with: • Reasonable experienced laryngoscopist • No significant resistive muscle tone • Use of optimal sniffing position • Use of external laryngeal manipulation • Change of laryngoscope balde type a single time, and • Change of laryngoscope balde length a single time PREVALENCE Failed tracheal intubation 0.05 – 0.35 % Failed tracheal intubation with inadequate mask ventilation 0.01 – 0.03 % This is in OR when: • Plan in advance • Can’t get airway .. awaken patient .. Regroup • go for coffee If only they looked this good… But our options are different More Difficult Situation: What makes it difficult in emergency situation Training/requirements Non-controlled settings Limited pre-procedural evaluation Hypoxia, hypotension, agitation, dynamic medical conditions Numerous logistical & implementation issues MOST OF OUR PATIENTS ARE ALREADY “DIFFICULT AIRWAYS” BY “OR” STANDARDS. The American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) has noted: “there is strong agreement among consultants that preparatory efforts enhance success and minimize risk” And “The literature provides strong evidence that specific strategies facilitate the management of the difficult airway” Thus identifying a potentially difficult airway is essential to preparation and developing a strategy. How to identify a difficult airway? We will not talk about • The basic anatomy of the Airway • BLS airway maneuvers and Endotracheal Intubation by Oral and Nasal means • The concept and procedure of RSI Airway Evaluation Past Medical History Decreased cervical mobility Anatomic upper airway abnormalities History of Previous Problems in surgery Airway Evaluation Predictors of difficult mask ventilation “BONES”: (two or more) Beard Obesity with BMI > 26 No teeth Elderly > 55 Snorers Airway Evaluation Dr. Binnions LEMON Law: An easy way to remember multiple tests • Look externally • Evaluate 3-3-2 rule • Mallampati • Obstructions • Neck mobility Airway Evaluation LEMON Law - Look externally Obesity or very small. Short Muscular neck Large breasts Prominent Upper Incisors (Buck Teeth) Receding Jaw (Dentures) Burns Facial Trauma S/S of Anaphylaxis Stridor Airway Evaluation LEMON Law - Evaluate 3-3-2 rule Mouth opening ≥ 3 fingers Tip of the chin to the hyoid bone ≥ 3 fingers Hyoid bone to the top of the thyroid cartilage ≥ 2 fingers Airway Evaluation LEMON Law – Mallampati (difficult direct laryngoscopy Cormack & Lehane grading) Airway Evaluation LEMON Law - Obstructions Blood Vomitus Teeth Tumers Epiglotitis Airway Evaluation LEMON Law - Neck mobility Prior condition Surgery Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis Others What alternative tools do we have? Airway Rescue Tools Airway Rescue Tools • Bag valve mask • Combitube • LMA • Intubation LMA • Fiberoptic: rigid, flexible • Lightwand • Bougie • Transtracheal jet • Retrograde • Cricothyrotomy • Tracheostomy Nasopharyngeal & Oropharyngeal Airways COPA – Cuffed Oral-pharynageal Airway Laryngoscopes CL (Corazelli-London) Flexible Tip Laryngoscope Flexible Tip Laryngoscope Flexiblade Cricoid pressure vs External Laryngeal Manipulation BURP backwards upwards right pressure Bougie or Eschmann Stylette Lighted Stylette Lighted Stylette Combitube Airway Combitube Airway Pharyngeal-Tracheal Lumen Airway (PTL) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Laryngeal-Tracheal Airway Intubating LMA (iLMA) Intubating LMA (iLMA) Intubating LMA (iLMA) Intubating LMA (iLMA) Intubating LMA (iLMA) Retrograde Tracheal Intubation Retrograde Tracheal Intubation Flexible Fiberoptic Scope Flexible Fiberoptic Scope Rigid Fiberoptic Scope Rigid Fiberoptic Scope Bullard Wu Scope Rigid Fiberoptic Scope Upsher Levitan Scope Video Laryngoscope Glidescoe McGrath Video Laryngoscope Glidescope VIDEO Video Laryngoscope Video Laryngoscope LMA C-Trach Surgical Airway: Cricothyroidotomy Surgical Airway: Cricothyroidotomy Surgical Airway: Cricothyroidotomy Quicktrach Emergency Cricothyrotomy Tran-Tracheal Jet Ventilation (TTJV) TTJV Awake Intubation Expired CO2 Confirmation YELLOW = CO2 PURPLE = NO CO2 Difficult Airway Specific strategies: • Appreciate the importance of developing a primary and secondary approach • Identify fundemental prenciples, as adapted from ASA Difficult Airway Algorithm • Know when to consider an airway “failed” and what takes priority when an airway is failed Difficult Airway Before intubation • Do we have to intubate? • CPAP? • PPV with BVM or Demand Valve? • Nasal ETT? Difficult Airway Management • Prearranged Emergency airway trolley available? • Most senior staff • Emergency airway algorithm • Discussion with colleagues in advance. • Deliver supplemental O2 Difficult Airway Uunexpected Difficult Airway Proble • Unexpected difficult airway is mostly gone worse because mainly GA is already given including (NMB) • Equipment may not be in hand. • Senior and back up plan not available. Difficult Airway what are we going to do if we don’t get the tube? Plans “A”, “B” and “C” Know this answer before you tube. Plan A: Alternate • • • • Different Length of blade Different Type of Blade Different Position BURP Plan B: Blind Techniques BVM Bougi Videolaryngoscope LMA, iLMA Combitube Retrograde intubation? TTJV? Plan C: Can’t intubate, Can’t ventilate • Cricthyrotomy (needle or surgical) • Tracheostomy Difficult Airway 1 Manipulation of airway different blade, bugie 1 alternative 2 alternative 3 alternative 2 LMA, ILMA, Combitube Bougi, videolaryngoscope 3 Trantracheal Jet Ventilation? Retrograde intubation? 4 alternative 4 Cricothireotomy, Tracheostomy Airway Rescue Pearls of Airway Management • Be familiar with all airway rescue tools and techniques • Recognize the difficult airway • If you can’t intubate – Bag! • If at first you don’t succeed, change something • Don’t turn difficult airways into failed airways • Plan ahead, and communicate that plan • Get help early, often Mandibular Aplasia Thank you!