File - UCLA North American Integration and Development

Report
From The Shadows to Empowerment
IMMIGRATION POLICY LESSONS FROM TRANSNATIONAL LOS ANGELES
PRESENTED TO:
THE WHITE HOUSE
WASHINGTON DC
FRIDAY DECEMBER 19, 2014
UCLA
CHICANO & CHICANA STUDIES: M122 | LABOR & WORKPLACE STUDIES: M122 | URBAN PLANNING:
1 M171
Table of Contents
PART 1
PART 3
LOS ANGELES - A GLOBAL CITY
CITY ID 2.0
( 3 – 10 )
( 28 – 40 )
PART 2
PART 4
DACA PROJECT
Transnational Solutions
( 11 – 27 )
( 41 – 44 )
2
Los Angeles – A Global City
“We define ourselves as a nation of immigrants.
That’s who we are — in our bones. The promise
we see in those who come here from every
corner of the globe, that’s always been one of
our greatest strengths. It keeps our workforce
young. It keeps our country on the cutting edge.
And it’s helped build the greatest economic
engine the world has ever known.”
President Barack Obama – January 29, 2013
Los Angeles Transnational Economic Overview
Global LA as a Global City – Leading Economic Power
-3.5 Immigrants
Largest Communities: Mexican, Filipino,
-Persian, Korean, Thai, Guatemalan, Armenian,
Vietnamese, Salvadoran
-GDP Contribution: $577.5 billion
-Value of Exports: $127 billion
-Tourism and Hospitality: $16.7 billion in revenue
LA is Also the Capital of Undocumented People Crisis
- Highest number of undocumented migrants
- 1 million +
- GDP Contribution
- Undocumented: $59 Billion
- Foreign-born: $176 Billion
Sources: White Paper and Data from Raul Hinojosa. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).
United States Department of State. 2012. Web.
- Remittances
- Mexico: $4.1 / $22 Billion
- El Salvador $1 / $4 Billion
4
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
Value Added & Jobs Supported in LA County
5
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
Transnational Vicious Cycle
•Average Income:
$29,700 (undoc.) v.
$54,600 (US born)
•Over 56% are living in
poverty
•Economic Dependence
on Remittances
•Labor Demand in US
Undocumented
MIgration
Lack of
opportunity and
Out Migration
Pressure
=>Undocumented
=>Lower Wages
=> Higher Demand
Los
Angeles
Mexico &
El Salvador
Inflation
and
Dutch Disease
•Cash Remittances
•Absence of
investment in
infrastructure
•Increase in crime
•Lack of job
development
•Inflation
High poverty/
Low financial
inclusion
Cash Remittances
•37-45% of unbanked are
undocumented
•Lack of savings and
investments
•33% carry health
insurance v. 81% of
native-born population
Sources: Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raul. From the
Shadows to the Mainstream: Estimating the
Economic Impact of Presidential Administrative
Action and Comprehensive Immigration
Reform. NAID. November 2014. Pastor,
Manuel, Marcelli, Enrico A. What’s at Stake for
the State: Undocumented Californians,
Immigration Reform, and our future together.
Center for the Study of Immigrant Integration.
May 2013. Fortuny, Karina, Randy Capps and
Jeffry S. Passel. The Characteristics of
Unauthorized Immigrants in California, Los
Angeles County, and the United States.
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute, 2013.
Web.
Pérez, Zenen Jaimes. Removing Barriers to
Higher Education for Undocumented Students.
Center for American Progress. December 2014.
Passel, Jeffrey, and D’Vera Cohn. Mexican
Immigrants: How Many Come? How Many
Leave? Pew Hispanic Center, July 2009.
6
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
Transnational GIS Mapping Data
MIGRATION, REMITTANCE AND MOBILE MICRO CORRIDORS BY ZIP CODES TO MUNICIPALITIES
7
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
Transnational Virtuous Cycle
•Opportunities in
both the sending
and receiving
country
Origin
Country
Legal Migration
Increasing
Employment
Opportunities
Migrant
Development
Savings Bond
•Mobile Applications
•Strengthen Home
Communities
•Development Bonds
•Economic Impact of
Immigration Reform
Programs
Immigrant
Empowerment
through DACA,
DAPA, and CIR
Los
Angeles
Financial Empowerment
through multiple
strategies including
City ID Cards
Remittances via
Mobile Banking
8
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
Economic Impact of Immigration Reform Programs
9
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
Transnational Virtuous Cycle
•Opportunities in
both the sending
and receiving
country
Origin
Country
Legal Migration
Increasing
Employment
Opportunities
Migrant
Development
Savings Bond
•Mobile Applications
•Strengthen Home
Communities
•Development Bonds
•Economic Impact of
Immigration Reform
Programs
Immigrant
Empowerment
through DACA,
DAPA, and CIR
Los
Angeles
Financial Empowerment
through multiple
strategies including
City ID Cards
Remittances via
Mobile Banking
10
LOS ANGELES – A GLOBAL CITY
UCLA DACA Project
Quantifying the Economic Benefits of DACA Recipients
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
• Introduced on June 15th 2012
• Temporary Relief from deportation
◆ Two year work permit
• As of March 2014
◆ 673,417 applied
◆ 553,197 were approved
1.1 Million Individuals may be eligible for DACA
12
DACA PROJECT
NURP
 Increase of Net opportunities
 2,400 recipients
59%
57%
45%
49%
33%
21%
13
DACA PROJECT
DACA Eligible – Non-Applicants
Source: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/sites/default/files/docstwo_years_and_counting_assessing_the_growing_power_of_daca_final.pdf
unitedwedream.org
DACA PROJECT
UCLA CHIRLA Analysis: Pre and Post DACA
Pre-DACA (2012)
•
•
Average Salary was $4,508/yr.
(1. Informal labor market. 2. No
proper documentation to work.)
176 people out of 308 surveyed
reported being unemployed
Post-DACA (2014)
•
•
Average salary post DACA:
$12,153/yr.
There were 122 new entries into
the workforce after the
implementation of DACA.
Average salaries went up 174%
15
DACA PROJECT
Preliminary Data from UCLA DACA Survey
Wages
Fringe Benefits
Tax Filings
Credit Card Utilization
Loan Utilization
16
DACA PROJECT
Mean Wages for Contiguous and New Labor Market
200.
AVE WAGE (PREDACA)
Mean Hourly Wage (USD)
150.
$7.19
AVE WAGE (POST DACA)
Mean Hourly Wage (Before)
113%
$15.29
Wage Growth
Mean Hourly Wage (After)
100.
$9.07
Mean Hourly Wage (Before)
80%
$16.32
Wage Growth
Mean Hourly Wage (After)
50.
0.
Respondents
17
DACA PROJECT
Mean
Wages
forContiguous
Contiguous
andLabor
NewMarket
LaborEntry
Market
Fringe
Benefits
and New
Pre/Post DACA
18
DACA PROJECT
Benefit Types for Contiguous & New Entry Respondents
19
DACA PROJECT
Tax Filing Before / After Taxes
20
DACA PROJECT
Credit Card Access and Utilization Before / After DACA
21
DACA PROJECT
Loan Utilization Before / After DACA
22
DACA PROJECT
New Presidential Action
●
November 2014
●
Expansion of DACA
○ 290,000 eligible
○ Barriers still exist (fee)
●
DAPA (Deferred Action for Parental
Accountability)
○ Executive order will extend deferral of
deportation to 4 million parents
23
DACA PROJECT
Who’s Being Left Out
Excludes the 80,000 parents of
DACA recipients
Generate increase of $1.4
billion in labor income
6.9 million excluded
• Recent immigrants
• Undocumented immigrants
without children
• Undocumented immigrants
without a HS diploma or
GED
Labor Income Gains
•
Source: Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raúl. From the Shadows to the mainstream: Estimating the Economic Impact of
Presidential Administrative Action and Comprehensive Immigration Reform. North American Integration and
24
DACA PROJECT
Next Steps
Cumulative Ten Year GDP Change by Reform Scenario
$1,511
$792
•DACA and DAPA are
partial solutions to a larger
immigration problem.
GDP (Billions)
•Addressing the untenable
circumstances of the 11
million undocumented
immigrants to ensure that
the investment made will
realize its full potential
$2,627
DACA
PROJECT
Source: Hinojosa-Ojeda, Raúl. From the Shadows to the mainstream: Estimating the Economic Impact of Presidential Administrative Action and Comprehensive Immigration Reform. North American
Integration
and
City ID 2.0
A Tool For Community Empowerment
City ID Concepts
What is a City ID?
•Much like a state ID, but only given to residents of that city regardless of
immigration status.
City 1.0
•New Haven (2007) & San Francisco (2009)
•Local organizations pushed for the card along with local government cooperation
•Catalyst: Murder of Manuel Santiago in 2006
•Flaws: Minimal Security, Lack of Financial Services, High Production Costs
City ID 2.0
•Oakland (2013) Richmond (2014)
•Introduction to solving core issue: Lack of Financial Services
•More secure and versatile
•Technological capacity allows to be potentially national expansion
CITY ID 2.0
Problem Solving and the City ID 2.0
•Versatile technological capacities allow for an expansion of this ID debit card to a
national level.
- Incorporates local city governments and community organizations
- Providing financial assistance for applications through the card,
community
organization support
•Providing an identity and financial services for those excluded from DAPA and
the unbanked.
- Community safety and development of economic growth in unbanked
communities
“ The technology versality of this card is amazing but the potential its has to
empower the community is endless”
28
CITY ID 2.0
Concept: DAPA ID Prepaid Debit Card
• Tamper Proof Signature panel and magnetic stripe
• Professional Photo Area
• Customer Service Number
• ID Heading in Special Unique Font
• MasterCard Signature Panel (Color Matched & Muted)
• Signature of ID Holder
• Color-Matched Magnetic Stripe
• ID Card Number
• Indent Printing of Last Four Digits of Account Number and
CVC2
• Printed in Invisible Fluorescent Ink, Creating
Invisible UV
• EMV Chip On Card - International Acceptance
• Fine line pattern formed by guilloche graphic
• Account Number (Max 4.32MM H/MIN 3.0MMH
• Professional thick card stock material
• Printed in Optically Variable Ink OVI
• Multicolored background: green / black
• Area for CVC2 (Color Matched & Muted)
• Embedded watermark of the city logo
• Rainbow Printed Guilloche Pattern with Line-Width
Modulation
• Name and Address of ID Holder
• MasterCard Identification Area (MIA) with Brand Mark
Above Global Hologram
• All Account Information Must Appear on Acceptance Side
FRONT
(SAMPLE)
• Seal Emboss For Print Only FPO
• Date of Birth
• UV ink readable only under a UV Lamp
• Physical ID Traits
BACK
(SAMPLE)
• Micro text appears within logo lines (<3pt)
Card Protections
• Bank Privacy Act (BPA) protects user information and city
• Know Your Customer (KYC) procedures insure security
• Anti-Money Laundering (AML) procedures eliminate fraud
29
CITY ID 2.0
DAPA Microloan Structure & Process
Applicant
Microloan
Applicant sign ups for the DHS
USCIS DAPA Program and also
applies for a microloan to pay for
DAPA program fees. Partnership
agreements (outside organizations
have expressed interest) assist in
the process and provide 0%
interest loan. Only for DAPA
Application ONLY.
SF Global
(Proposed)
Approval
Process
Post-Approval
DHS USCIS receives application
for the DAPA program. Microloan
is transferred to the DHS USCIS
and if approved, applicant receives
ID Debit Card and Mobile App
download instructions.
DHS USCIS
DAPA Program
30
CITY ID 2.0
ID Debit Card Viewer & ID Verification System
31
CITY ID 2.0
Convert Vicious to Virtuous Cycle DAPA/DACA
Legal
Migration
Increasing
Employment
Opportunities
Immigrant
Empowerment
through DACA,
DAPA, and CIR
Home
Country
Migrant
Development
Savings Bond
Financial
Empowerment
through multiple
strategies including
City ID Cards
• New Presidential Order
– Expansion of DACA
– DAPA (Deferred Action for
Parental Accountability)
• Executive order will extend
deferral of deportation to 3.7
million parents
• Average Salaries went up
174% Post- DACA
Los
• DAPA excludes the 500,000-1,000,000
Angeles parents of DACA recipients
• Comprehensive Immigration Reform
could create stronger economic impact
– Legalization of Future Flows and
Fixing the Long Term Need for
Immigrants
Remittances
via Mobile
Banking
32
CITY ID 2.0
Agenda for Cities to Address DAPA Application
Legal
Migration

Immigrant
Empowerment
through DACA,
DAPA, and CIR
Increasing
Employment
Opportunities
Home
Country
Los
Angeles
Migrant
Development
Savings Bond
Financial
Empowerment
through multiple
strategies including
City ID Cards


Partnerships between local city
governments and community
based organizations
 Accessibility to official
verification of identity
 New identity can be used for
residency requirements in
future legalization programs
like DAPA.
Provide micro-loans for people
who express financial hardship
due to application fee
Easily facilitate global
development through an offered
remittance service
Remittances
via Mobile
Banking
33
CITY ID 2.0
Transnational Migrant Savings Bond
Legal
Migration
Home
Country
Increasing
Employment
Opportunitie
s
Immigrant
Empowerment
through DACA,
DAPA, and CIR
Migrant
Developmen
t Savings
Bond
Financial
Empowerment
through multiple
strategies
including
City ID Cards
Remittances via
Mobile Banking
•
•
Los
Angeles
•
•
Incorporate this new technology for
financial inclusion across borders.
• New ability to do mobile-debit to
mobile debit
Distributed prepaid debit cards in the US
– Migrants able to send through
mobile technology (app)
– Lower Fees
Receiving Remittances
– Families w/ own issued debit card
– Debit card linked to savings
account
Exchanges
– Meets Consumer Financial
Protection Bureau guidelines
– Banking the Unbanked on Both
Sending and Receiving Regions
CITY ID 2.0
Remittance and Migrant Savings Bond
Multilateral Development Funds
US Bank
El Salvador
Bank
Migrant Savings Bond
Development fund to provide low-cost microloans for
productive
projects abroad
Banking of Remittances
Leverage a variety of other local resources
Microfinance institutions to create employment opportunities
Create Sustainable opportunities and community developments
Microloans
Legal Migration
Migrant
Savings
Bond
Increasing
Employment
Opportunities
Home
Country
Remittances
Productive
Projects
Immigrant
Empowerment
through DACA,
DAPA, and CIR
Los
Angeles
Migrant
Development
Savings Bond
Financial
Empowerment
through multiple
strategies including
City ID Cards
Remittances via
Mobile Banking
CITY ID 2.0
DAPA Microloan Structure & Process
36
CITY ID 2.0
Diaspora Supported Productive Projects
• Indigenous women process and
commercialize nopales
• Savings maintained in rural
microfinance organization
• Oriented to most vulnerable
populations
• Convert traditional agricultural activity
into economic development strategy
• Develop trade partnerships with
diaspora communities in US
37
CITY ID 2.0
Final Recommendation
Immigrant
Empowerment
Productive
Investments
=> Less Migration
Receiving To Micro
Finance
“Bono” Savings
Accounts
Financial
Empowerment
•Key Points
•Mobile and debit technology will enhance financial
mechanisms for diaspora and their families
•Leveraging remittances for transnational
development through savings bond
•Have a transnational focus regarding comprehensive
immigration reform
•Legal solution to immigration
•Address root causes of migration
•Promote financial inclusion, savings, and wealth
across transnational dimension
Mobile
Remittances
Transfers
38
CITY ID 2.0
ID-Debit Card and Mobile App Platform
*Proposed Concept. Due Diligence Currently Being Performed
CITY ID PLATFORM
A City ID Card Platform Can Help to Organize
And Submit Applications For DAPA And DACA via
Mobile and Web And Through In-Person Agents
with 3rd Party Partnerships Such as With NGOs
and Law Firms
The Current ID Debit Card Is Protected By:
Bank Privacy Act (BPA) Laws
Know Your Customer (KYC)
Regulations
Anti-Money Laundering (AML) Laws
The Bank Privacy Act Protects The Applicant
Identification Data and KYC Regulations Helps
Collect Important Information
Applicant Data Protection Is Enhanced By
Highly Secure Cloud Platforms That Protect
ID-Debit Card and CAN
Mobile App
Platform
CONCEPT: PLATFORM
FACILITATE
DAPA*
PLATFORM
CAN
FACILIATE
*Proposed Concept. Due Diligence
Currently Being
Performed
A DAPA Applicant Can Register Through The
City ID Card Platform Intake Module. The Intake
Modules Databases Important Information Such As
Proof of Identity, Official Documents, Proofs of
Residency and Biometrics.
Databases Are Prepared for API Integration
Into Any System (Ex: SalesForce or Google)
Web & Mobile Apps Automates Form Filling
Procedures For Applicant of DAPA – Instant
Automated Form-Fill
Official Agents (In-Person Assistance) Collect
Applicant Documents, Personal Information,
Biometrics and Submits Application on Behalf of
Applicant for DAPA – Securely Upload Sensitive
DACA/DAPA Application
ID-Debit Card and Mobile App Platform
PLATFORM CAN BE INSTALLED AT NGOs
*Proposed Concept. Due Diligence Currently Being Performed
The City ID Debit City ID Card Solution Connects to a
Back-End Identification Information Module For ID Instant
Information Sharing.
Instant Information Sharing Facilitates Automated FormFilling Through API Integrations For Easy Filing of Complex
Forms (Ex: Microsoft Access, Adobe Acrobat PDF,
SalesForce, Google or VPS)
DAPA Applicants Can Use NGOs like for Filing Forms for
Work Permit, Social Security, And Future Employment Status
Verification with ID Card System Using The City ID Card
Platform Intake Module.
THANK YOU!
FROM UCLA CHICANO & CHICANA STUDIES: M122 | LABOR & WORKPLACE STUDIES: M122 | URBAN PLANNING: M171
Felicia Escobar and Kevin Bailey, White House
Chicana/o Studies Department
The Dean of Social Sciences
Florida Avenue Grill
Fwd.US
Carlos Slim Foundation
El Instituto de Mexicanos en el Exterior
Helen Shapiro, UCDC Center
42

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