NEI Modeling What do we have? What do we need? 2012.08.09 AtomDB workshop Hiroya Yamaguchi (CfA) Fe ion population in CIE (AtomDB v.2.0.2) Fe16+ Fe26+ Fe24+ Fe25+ Temperature (keV) APED/APEC state-of-the-art dataset for He- & H-like ions of Z<=30 (+ DR lines of Fe) X-ray-emitting plasma: T = 106-8 K (0.1-10 keV) most of atoms are ionized to be He- or H-like states in CIE Supernova Remnants = NEI !! E0102-72 metal-rich, almost neutral H-dominant (solar abundance) matter heavy elements are neutral Shock-heated electrons ionize heavy elements. t = ne t = 1012 (cm-3 s) t = 30000 (ne /1cm-3)-1 yr Supernova Remnants = NEI !! Fe ion population in NEI (AtomDB v.2.0.2) typical SNRs Fe16+ Fe24+ Fe26+ Fe25+ kTe = 20 keV ne t (cm-3 s) - Inner-shell process is essentially important for SNRs! - APEC can calculate ion population, but doesn’t output emission. SNRs’ spectra of Fe K-shell band Cr Fe Mn Ni neutral 3C397 (Type II) Ne-like He-like W49B N103B CasA 0519 0509 Tycho Kepler G344 3C397 G349 N132D RCW86 Kepler (Type Ia) G292 G350 G272 SN1006 Fe Kb 9 6.44 keV -> Fe XVII-XVIII (Palmeri+03) Innershell process - Innershell ionization/excitation - Fluorescence or Auger (Kaastra & Mewe 93) … SPEX, XSPEC NEI v.1 Innershell ionization of Be-like ions Li-like : 1s2s2 (2S) -> wK = 0 (for single-configuration wave function) in fact, K&M(1993) gave zero values for every Li-like ions. Configuration interaction (CI) effect cannot be ignored yCI = c1 1s2s2 (2S) + c2 1s2p2 (2S) ; c2 ~ 0.3 (Gorczyca+2006) (Gorczyca+06) wK ≠ 0 ! this work l Li-like K&M93 Fe Ka a energy (Mendoza+04) # of electrons Atomic data for emission above 5 keV Fe I-XVI XIX-XVI Cr, Mn Palmeri+03a Mendoza+04 l (Kb) x-sec (EII) phenomenological formula (Haque+06) x-sec (EIE) (IRON Project) Hasogle 08 (thesis) Palmeri +03b Palmeri+08a (not detected) Palmeri+12 Kris l (Ka) Ni I-XVIII Gorczyca+03;06 Kris Ar, Aa XVII-XIV (not detected) DR data for Fe e.g., Bautista & Badnell 07 Atomic data for emission below 5 keV Ar, Aa, l (Ka) for all ionization states Palmeri+08b, Kucas+12: Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca Palmeri+11: Al Palmeri+12: Na, Cl, Ti, Zn, etc.(Z <= 30) No longer need Kaastra & Mewe’s data Lighter elements are usually ionized to be He-like state. Si XII Fe L S XIV Ar XVI Ca XVIII Kepler Fe but a few exception… 0509-67.5: Kb from low-ionized Si (Warren & Hughes 04) Tycho: low-ionized Ca (Hwang+98) Also needed: Si thru Ca (Ne-like – Li-like) and L-shell data for Fe, Ca, Ni, … Recombining plasma W49B (Ozawa+09) Fe24+ Ka What’s the origin? - collision with dense stellar wind matter and following adiabatic cooling? (HY+09) - thermal conduction into cloudy matter? (Zhou+11) Abundance & density are important information. RRC (Fe25+ -> Fe24+) Recombining plasma W49B (Ozawa+09) Fe24+ Ka RRC (Fe25+ -> Fe24+) a (recomb rate) : Badnell+06 k = nFe25+ / (nFe26+ + nFe25+ + nFe24+ + …) We only know nFe25+ /nFe24+ from the RRC/line ratio… (~ 0.06 in W49B) Fe16+ Fe24+ Fe26+ Fe25+ Fe ion population in CIE (Mazzotta+98) We (wrongly) assumed that ion pop in arbitrary recomb plasma is consistent to that in CIE plasma with a certain electron temperature. then, used k = 0.04 to estimate Fe abundance and density. Temperature (keV) Recombining plasma Fe26+ Fe24+ CIE Fe16+ Fe25+ temperature (keV) kTe = 0.5 keV ne t (cm-3 s) Recombining plasma model in XSPEC must be useful. We do already have atomic data! Ionizing ne t (cm-3 s) Some difficulty… Ionizing: kTe, net, abundances, normalization Recombining: + initial ion population -> 3-dimensional Summary Ionizing NEI plasma - APEC is ready. - Fluorescence data are completed for all elements (Z <=30)! except for Kb lines from lowly-ionized atoms (Kaastra & Mewe’s is no longer needed.) - EII/EIE rates for Fe & Ni are calculated by Kris & collaborators! - EII/EIE rates for Cr & Mn would be mostly important now. - and other abundant elements, Si, S, Ca… Recombining plasma - APEC & APED are both (almost) ready. - one more parameter (init ion pop.) is needed.