PLATE TECTONICS - Londonderry School District

Report
PLATE TECTONICS
http://volcano.und.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/plate_tectonics/introduction.html
Continental Crust
http://www.amonline.net.au/geoscience/images/earth_diagrams/cont_oceanic_crust.gif
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Cooling rate
Crystal size
Density
Composition
Thickness
Oceanic Crust
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http://faculty.weber.edu/bdattilo/parks/plume_ocean.jpg
Cooling rate
Crystal size
Density
Composition
Thickness
Lithosphere/Asthenosphere
Tectonic Plate
• is a rigid piece of lithosphere floating on a
partially plastic substrate (asthenosphere).
Pangea
http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/Pangaea.shtml
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/dinosaurs/glossary/Pangaea.shtml
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
• Continents ‘fit’ together
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
• Continents ‘fit’ together
• Fossil evidence
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
• Continents fit together
• Fossil distribution
• Glacier evidence: deposits, striations
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
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Continents fit together
Fossil distribution
Glacier evidence: deposits, striations
Climate distribution
Location of Trenches, Ridges,
Mountains
http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html
http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
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Continents fit together
Fossil distribution
Glacier evidence: deposits, striations
Climate distribution
Location of mountain ridges, rifts,
mid-ocean ridges, trenches
Testing the Sea-Floor Spreading
Hypothesis
Magnetization
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/geology/tecmech.html
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
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Continents fit together
Fossil distribution
Glacier evidence: deposits, striations
Climate distribution
Location of mountain ridges, rifts,
mid-ocean ridges, trenches
• Magnetic pattern of rock
Same Age Rocks
http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
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Continents fit together
Fossil distribution
Glacier evidence: deposits, striations
Climate distribution
Location of mountain ridges, rifts,
mid-ocean ridges, trenches
• Magnetic pattern of rock
• Common rock formations: same age
Volcano
http://cgz.e2bn.net/e2bn/leas/c99/schools/cgz/accounts/staff/rchambers/GeoBytes%20GCSE%20Bl
og%20Resources/Images/Plate%20Tectonics/Plate%20Tectonics/VolcanoStructure.jpg
Earthquake
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/world/04/earthquake/img/earthquake.gif
Ring of Fire
http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html
The Hawaiian - Emperor Volcanic
Chain
LOCATION OF HOT SPOTS
Evidence for Plate Tectonics
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Continents fit together
Fossil distribution
Glacier evidence: deposits, striations
Climate distribution
Location of mountain ridges, rifts,
mid-ocean ridges, trenches
• Common rock formations: same age
• Magnetic pattern of rock
• Location of earthquakes and volcanoes
How does it work?
Wegener’s Continental Drift
Wegener’s Theory Problems
1) Continents plowing through the crust would
destroy the crust
2) Continents are not moving apart at the speed
Wegener proposed
• Didn’t have a good explanation of the
mechanism involved
Holme’s Convection Currents
Convection currents
• Gravity causes the
heated mantle to sink
• The mantle heats up near
the core and then rises
again
• Conduction is the transfer
of heat between 2
materials in direct contact
with each other
library.thinkquest.org/C003124/images/convect.jpg
http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=SCE304
Click animation
• Movement of mantle by convection allows
melting and force to move plates
CONVECTION
http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html
Hot Spots – Hawaiian Islands
http://geology.com/nsta/plate-tectonics-cover.gif
Evidence for Convection
Sea-Floor Spreading Hypothesis
by Hess & Deitz
CLICK Animation:
http://www.uwsp.edu/geo/faculty/ritter/glossary/s_u/sea_flr_spread.html
SEA FLOOR SPREADING
SUBDUCTION
Types of Plate Boundaries
Plate Boundary
Transform, Divergent & Convergent
http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/~barnes/ast110_06/tprai/Tectonic_plate_boundaries.png
SIMULATIONS ON ALL BOUNDARY TYPES
CLICK http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/shockwave.html
CONVERGENT BOUNDARIES
Types of Plate Boundaries
• Convergent boundaries
Convergent Boundary
Oceanic & Continental
CLICK http://geology.com/nsta/convergent-boundary-oceanic-continental.gif
Andes Mountains
Convergent Oceanic & Continental
blue.utb.edu/paullgj/images/Conv_Cont_Ocean.JPG
CLICK
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/convergent.html
Convergent Boundary
Oceanic & Oceanic
http://geology.com/nsta/convergent-boundary-oceanic-oceanic.gif
Japan or Aleutian Islands
Convergent Oceanic & Oceanic
ceeps.colostate-pueblo.edu/.../smM1P1Fig15.gif
Convergent Boundary
Continental & Continental
http://geology.com/nsta/convergent-boundary.gif
Himalayas
Convergent Continental & Continental
CLICK Convergent Simulation
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/crush.html
DIVERGENT PLATES
Types of Plate Boundaries
• Convergent Boundaries
• Divergent Boundaries
Divergent Boundary
Oceanic
• Sea-floor spreading, Mid-Ocean Ridges
CLICK http://geology.com/nsta/divergent-boundary-oceanic.gif
Mid Atlantic Ridge
Divergent Oceanic
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http://www.odp.usyd.edu.au/odp_CD/sr/images/textpics/Fig7.gif
DIVERGENT SIMULATIONS
CLICK http://geology.com/plate-tectonics.shtml
CLICK http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/divergent.html
Divergent Boundary
Continental
• Rift Valley
http://geology.com/nsta/divergent-boundary-continental.gif
Mid Atlantic Ridge
Divergent Oceanic
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http://www.odp.usyd.edu.au/odp_CD/sr/images/textpics/Fig7.gif
DIVERGENT SIMULATIONS
CLICK http://geology.com/plate-tectonics.shtml
CLICK http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/divergent.html
TRANSFORM BOUNDARIES
Types of Plate Boundaries
• Convergent boundaries
Transform Boundary
TRANSFORM SIMUALTIONS
CLICK http://geology.com/nsta/transform-boundary.gif
CLICK http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/transform.htm
San Andreas Fault
Transform Boundary
www.wiley.com/college/herenow/ptect/pt-map1.gif
Types of Plate Boundaries
• Convergent Boundaries
• Divergent Boundaries
• Transform Boundaries
http://geology.csupomona.edu/drjessey/class/Gsc101/Plate.html
Location of Plate Boundaries
Seven Major Plates
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Pacific
North American
South American
African
Eurasian
Antarctic
Indo-Australian
External Energy For Earth
• Sun & Moon keeps air and sea in motion,
shapes surface
• Sun warms atmosphere & crust unevenly
creating winds
• Winds drive ocean currents and water cycle
• Erosion from winds, rains, rivers, glaciers, and
waves shape surface
• Weathering from winds and rains
• Sun & Moon Gravitational Energy, produces
tides
• Planetesimal collisions
Internal Energy for Earth
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Radioactive element decay
Core heat from layers pressure
Convection currents
Volcanoes
Hot Springs
Earthquakes

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