Unit 2 PowerPoint 2.1 and 2.2

1. What is communication?
Cell Phones
 Talking
 Email
 Text
 Morse Code
 Snail Mail
 Hand Signing
 CB Radio
 Fax
Facial Expressions
Body Jesters
Would travel be effected?
 Cell Phones work?
 Email?
 What about TVs or Radios
 Trains?
 Boats?
 Snail Mail ?
How does communication take place in
What does it control?
What happens without it?
Partners back to back, each with 12 blocks
 Partner 1 builds a structure (not a box)
 Partner 1 gives instructions to partner 2 on
how to build the structure.
 Give one sentence at a time , Once said it
can not be repeated.
 Give 1 direction/step for each of the 12
 Compare structures for accuracy
 Complete C.Q. and team activity questions
Get into groups of 4
 Take about 20 minutes to discuss and
answer the questions the teams are to
 Discuss as a group your team responses
2 . What are ways communication occurs in
machines and in the human body?
3. What are consequences of
miscommunication in the body?
The Secret Life of the Brain
Your alarm goes off and your arm flies up to hit the
snooze button. You drag yourself out of bed and
decide what to wear and what to have for breakfast.
Your sister’s pancakes smell good so you grab a few
bites while she’s not looking and head out the door.
Running late (as usual), you sprint to catch your bus.
You struggle to keep your balance as you head to
the back of the already moving vehicle. A younger
kid slams into your side with his book bag. You are
about to yell, but you figure it’s not worth it and grab
a seat. You finish up the last of your math homework
and turn on your iPod to clear your head. You have
two tests and then a game after school. You think to
yourself, “How am I going to get through the day?”
Why do
or folds
area in
or folds
• Cerebrum
-Frontal lobe
-Brain stem
Region of the
Primary Function
Lab Journal for table drawing as above
 Anatomy in Clay manikin
 Terra cotta, blue, green & bone color clay
 Wire loop or wooden knife
 Body system Organizer handout
 Directional terms
 Activity 2.1.2
4. How do the central nervous system and
the peripheral nervous system work
together to control the body?
5. What are the functions of the main
regions of the brain?
Nervous System 2
major divisions
The Central Nervous
 Peripheral Nervous
Verbal Projection
 Auditory Reception
 Visual Reception
 Touch Reception
ALL of these are NERVE Connections that
travel to and from the Brain
Plus Cranial nerves 1
Spinal Cord is a two-way conduction path
carrying impulses to and away from the
brain through the hole in the skull known
as the foramen magnum.
 The Brain is divided into four major regions:
cerebral hemisphere, diencephalon, brain
stem, and cerebellum
Peripheral Nerves are all nerves that are
not part of the brain or spinal cord
 Example: fingertip nerves for pain and
 Cranial nerves 2-12 originate in the CNS.
However the cranial nerve axons extend
beyond the brain and are therefore
considered part of PNS
 Spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord
and the autonomous nervous system
(divided into the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous system).
There are 12 pairs of
cranial nerves.
Olfactory I
Optic II
Oculomotor III
Trochlear IV
Trigeminal V
Abducens VI
Facial VII
Glossopharyngeal IX
Vagus X
Spinal Accessory XI
Nervous system communicates with the
organs and tissues by way of electrical signals
Afferent Pathway
takes information TO
the Brain--known as
Sensory Nerves
•Efferent Pathway takes
information AWAY
from the brain--Efferent
Pathway known as
Motor Nerves
 neuron
– Only responsibility is sending
and receiving nerve impulses or
 Glial
cells, the forgotten brain cell-are
non-neuronal cells - provide support
and nutrition, maintain homeostasis,
form myelin, and facilitate signal
transmission in the nervous system
Myelin is a electrically insulating material
that forms a layer, the myelin sheath,
usually around only the axon of a neuron.
A. Gathers information both from the outside
world and from inside the body. SENSORY
 B. Transmits the information to the processing
area of the brain and spinal cord.
 C. Processes the information to determine the
 D. Sends information to muscles, glands, and
organs (effectors) so they can respond
correctly. Muscular contraction or glandular
secretions. MOTOR FUNCTION
View to 3:36 = 4 girls demo brain
 Equipment
 Computer /Internet / Microsoft
 White Latex free swim cap
 Sharpie colored markers
 Anatomy in Clay Maniken
 Lab Journal
 The
motor cortex
located on the left
side of the brain
controls movement
on the right side of
the body.
Part II
On one side of the cap map the structures
located on the external view of the brain.
 On the other side of the cap display an internal
view of the brain and show functional areas .
 An example layout of the exterior and interior
brain found at the National Geographic: Brain
Anatomy site:
/health-and-human-body/human-body/brainarticle.html View this site for map structure model
The cartoon-like
drawing shows how
the motor cortex is
devoted to
controlling specific
body parts.
 Some body parts are
depicted larger than
others (for example,
the hand is larger
than the shoulder)
because there are
more muscles
controlling those
Part III
Add the last column to the journal table and
add activities/processes
Region of the
 Can
we live with out part of the brain.
 What are the functions of the different
lobe of the brain. What are the facilities.
 What is Phrenology?
 Franz Joseph Gall 9 March 1758 – 22
August 1828 early pioneer in the study of
the localization of mental functions in the
The frontal lobe, behind the forehead,
 controls thinking, planning, judgment and
The parietal lobe, on the top of the head,
 interprets sensory information, from the nerves
regarding taste, smell and touch. Spatial
The occipital lobe in the back of the head
 main center for visual processing .
The temporal lobe, on the sides near the
 organizes sensory input, auditory perception,
language and speech production, as well as
many memories are stored there.
Cerebrum is the
wrinkled upper half of
the brain, what you
think of as "brain."
 The deep wrinkles,
called sulci,
increase the surface
area so more
information can be
 The cerebrum is
divided into two
 Each hemisphere
has four lobes:
frontal, parietal,
temporal and
The cerebellum is
located in the back of
the head below the
occipital lobe.
 It combines sensory
information to help
coordinate movement
– Balance
 It is also the part of the
brain that helps you
pass a field sobriety
test from law
enforcement by
enabling you to touch
your nose with your
eyes closed and walk
a straight line heel to
The brain stem
includes the
midbrain, the pons
and the medulla
 The brain stem is
very important to
life, regulating heart
rate, blood pressure,
body temperature
and sleeping.
 Any nerve impulse
traveling to the
brain from the spinal
cord must first pass
through the brain
Diencephalon is just
above the brain
Made up of the
thalamus and
The thalamus is the
gatekeeper for
messages sent to
and from the
cerebrum and the
spinal cord.
The hypothalamus
controls body
temperature and
vital urges such as
thirst, hunger and
6. How do scientists determine which areas
of the brain are associated with specific
actions, emotions or functions?
Brain Stem- The part of the brain composed of the midbrain, pons, and
medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and
Central nervous system- The part of the nervous system which in vertebrates
consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are
transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises
and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
Cerebellum- A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned
especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily
equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum
and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
Cerebrum- The dorsal portion, composed of right and left hemispheres, of
the vertebrate forebrain; the integrating center for memory, learning,
emotions, and other highly complex function of the central nervous system.
A convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves.
Limbic System- A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus,
the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned
especially with emotion and motivation.
Lobe- A division of a body organ (as the brain, lungs, or liver) marked off
by a fissure on the surface.
Peripheral nervous system- The part of the nervous system that is outside
the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting
the optic nerve, the spinal nerves, and the autonomic nervous system.
Phrenology- The study of the conformation of the skull based on the
belief that it is indicative of mental faculties and character.
Sulcus- A shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating
adjacent gyri.
 1.
How does communication happen
within the body?
Cells are the basic building blocks of all
living things.
 The human body is composed of trillions of
 They provide structure for the body, take in
nutrients from food, convert those nutrients
into energy, and carry out specialized
 Cells also contain the body’s hereditary
material and can make copies of
Sensory Neuron
Motor Neuron
Neurons are similar to other cells in the body
Neurons are surrounded by a cell
Neurons have a nucleus that contains
Neurons contain cytoplasm, mitochondria
and other organelles.
Neurons carry out basic cellular processes
such as protein synthesis and energy
Neurons differ from other cells in the body
Neurons have specialized extensions
called dendrites and axons. Dendrites
bring information to the cell body and
axons take information away from the
cell body.
 Neurons communicate with each other
through an electrochemical process.
 Neurons contain some specialized
structures (for example, synapses) and
chemicals (for example,
2. What is the basic structure and
function of a neuron?
3. How do the different types of
neurons work together to send and
receive signals?
discuss your
Small, branchlike projections of the cell
make connections to other cells and
allow the neuron to talk with other cells
or perceive the environment.
 Dendrites can be located on one or
both ends of a cell.
 Provide a large surface area for
connecting with other neurons.
 They carry nerve impulses away from the
cell body
This main part has all of the necessary
components of the cell, such as the
nucleus (which containsDNA),
endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes
(for building proteins) and mitochondria
(for making energy). If the cell body dies,
the neuron dies.
This long, cable like projection of the cell
carries the electrochemical message (nerve
impulse or action potential) along the length
of the cell.
 Depending upon the type of neuron, axons
can be covered with a thin layer of myelin
sheath, like an insulated electrical wire
 Myelinated neurons are typically found in the
peripheral nerves (sensory and motor
neurons), while non-myelinated neurons are
found in the brain and spinal cord.
Myelin is made of special cells called
Schwann Cells that forms an insulated
sheath, or wrapping around the axon.
 Myelin is composed of 80% lipid and 20%
 Myelin Sheaths greatly increase the speed
of impulse along an axon.
 Some myelinated axons conduct impulses
as rapid as 200 meters per second
SMALL NODES or GAPS of un-insulated axonal
membrane called the Nodes of Ranvier are
between adjacent myelin sheath cells capable of
generating electrical activity
The Synapse is a
structure that
permits the
electrical impulse to
pass from one cell
to another cell by
way of chemicals
Multipolar neurons are so-named because
they have many processes that extend from
the cell body: Functionally, these neurons
are either motor or association (CNS).
Unipolar neurons have but one process from
the cell body. However, that single, very
short, process splits into longer processes
Unipolar neurons are sensory neurons conducting impulses into the central nervous
Bipolar neurons have two processes - one
axon & one dendrite. Also sensory, example,
neurons found in the retina of the eye.
Carries impulses from receptors
e.g pain receptors in skin to the
CNS( brain or spinal cord)
Carries impulses from sensory nerves
to motor nerves.
Carries impulses from CNS to effectors- e.g.
muscle to bring about movement or gland
to bring about secretion of hormone e.g.
An action potential is part of the process
that occurs during the firing of a neuron.
• During the action potential, part of the
neural membrane opens to allow positively
charged ions inside the cell and negatively
charged ions out.
• This process causes a rapid increase in the
positive charge of the nerve fiber. When
the charge reaches +40 mv, the impulse is
propagated down the nerve fiber.
• This electrical impulse is carried down the
nerve through a series of action potentials.
Established due to an unequal
distribution of ions (charged atoms) on
the two sides of a nerve cell membrane.
Expressed as -70 mV, (the minus means
that the inside of the neuron is slightly
negative relative to the outside.
Called a RESTING potential because it
occurs when a membrane is not being
stimulated or conducting impulses, (in it's
resting state).
Passive Transport
• Movement of molecules with the
concentration gradient i.e., from high
to low concentration, in order to
maintain equilibrium in the cells.
Active Transport
• Use of ATP (a form of energy) to
pump molecules against the
concentration gradient i.e., from low
concentration to high concentration.
To transmit an impulse over a
distance without weakening
requires the signal to be reamplified along the way.
• Takes a +charged ion and pushes
it to an area of even greater +
• Plus more Na+ outside the cell so
pushing against a Na+
concentration gradient – to an
area of more Na+ concentration
Active Transport=
Step 1- 3 cytoplasmic Na+ ions from inside
bond to the pump (or Protein)
Step 2- ATP donates a phosphate group for
energy & changes shape of the protein
Gary Kaiser
Na+ K+ Pump- Continued
Step 3- Through active transport, Na+
is expelled to the outside.
Step 4- 2 extracellular K+ bind to the
pump, releasing the phosphate
Step 5- The pump resumes its original
Step 6- K+ is released inside
Na+ K+ Pump- Active transport
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_HONQFjpQ – Sodium Potassium Pump
Write a paragraph
Diagram and label 2
neurons passing a
Create 5 trivia questions
4. How are electrical impulses created in
the human body?
5. How do neurons convey information
using both electrical and chemical
Reaction is voluntary while reflex is
Reaction takes place through sensory
nerves that bring back message from the
brain to the motor nerve whereas
sensory nerves bypass brain and go up
to CNS only in the case of reflex.
This is why reflex is faster than reaction.
REFLEXES are very fast, and Most Reflexes Never
Reach the Brain
They are a rapid MOTOR RESPONSE to a STIMULUS
because the Sensory Neuron connected
DIRECTLY with a MOTOR NEURON in the Spinal
Blinking to protect your eyes from danger is a
Sneezing is another examples of Reflex.
31 PAIRS of spinal nerves originate in the spinal
cord and branch out to both sides of the body.
Carrying messages to and from the spinal cord.
Within the spinal cord, motor and sensory
neurons are connected by INTERNEURONS
A. Step on a tack with your bare foot.
 B. Receptors in the skin are stimulated.
 C. The Sensory Neurons carry the impulse to
Spinal Cord.
 D. A group of Neurons in the Spinal Cord
 E. These Motor Neurons cause the Muscles
(effectors) in your leg to contract, pulling you
foot away.
 5. Notice that this message did not go to the
Brain, but was completed in the Spinal Cord.
Logger Pro-Human Physiology-14A Reflexes
with ACC
 Vernier EKG sensor w adhesive pads
 Vernier 25g Accelerometer
 Reflex hammer\rubber bands\ tape
 Alcohol pads
6. What factors impact our ability to react
to a stimulus?
7. How and why does reaction time differ
in reflex and voluntary actions?
What is reaction time?
Who can reaction time be important
factor in our lives?
 Can
be Voluntary –Due to a thought and
directed by the Central Nervous system–
Reaction time test
 Can
be Involuntary- generated by a reflex
Papillary light reflex
Jaw jerk reflex
Corneal reflex
Gag Reflex
Knee Jerk reflex
Achilles Reflex
Rooting reflex of newborn
19/technology/20090919-drivinggame.html. Driving –texting activity
ion/reaction.html time to think -act,
think act, read think act, read think
negate act activity for logger pro.
 Divide into groups by your assigned case
 Research symptoms of your case study
 When you decide on diagnose Ck with
your teacher. If correct prepare
presentation for the class.
 Search : disorders of the nervous system
8. How do errors in communication impact
homeostasis in the human body?
9. How can biomedical professionals help
treat, cure and improve the quality of life
of those suffering from nervous system
Provide background on your case
List of the symptoms
Discuss the areas of the brain affected and
the symptoms exhibited to help diagnose
your patient
Describe the prognosis of the patient
Describe what is life going to be like for this
Discuss two biomedical professionals that
may be able to help this individual deal
with his/her disease
Also include any information that is listed in
your Activity.
Action Potential- A momentary reversal in electrical potential
across a plasma membrane (as of a nerve cell or muscle fiber)
that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus.
Axon- A long nerve cell process that usually conducts impulses
away from the cell body.
Dendrite- Any of the usually branching protoplasmic processes
that conduct impulses toward the body of a neuron.
Ion- An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or
negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one
or more electrons.
Myelin sheath- In a neuron, an insulating coat of cell membrane
from Schwann cells that is interrupted by nodes of Ranvier.
Neurologist- A physician skilled in the diagnosis and treatment
of disease of the nervous system.
Neuron- A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous
system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct
signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its
cell membrane.
Neurotransmitter- A substance (as norepinephrine or
acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.
Reaction Time- The time elapsing between the beginning of the
application of a stimulus and the beginning of an organism's
reaction to it.
Reflex- An automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus
that involves a nerve impulse passing inward from a receptor to
the spinal cord and thence outward to an effector (as a muscle
or gland) without reaching the level of consciousness and often
without passing to the brain.
Synapse- The place at which a nervous impulse passes from
one neuron to another.
 Neurons
use impulses to relay
messages from throughout the
 What other means do humans
have to provide
communication within in the

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