SATELLITE BASED BROADBAND IN NIGERIA, PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES THE 2013 e-NIGERIA CONFERENCE ON IT LOCAL CONTENT DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: THE JOURNEY SO FAR Presented by: ENGR. T.AHMED-RUFAI MD/CE, NIGCOMSAT LTD December, 2013 NIGERIAN COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE (NIGCOMSAT) LIMITED “...Broadband has become synonymous with state of art economy of any nation. It is a developmental tool and must-have for competitiveness of nations.” --Engr. T. Ahmed-Rufai MD/CE NIGCOMSAT LTD, 2012 Picture Source: http://www.itu.int What is Broadband? 3 Broadband is enough two-way transmission capacity and speed to allow interactive high-quality fullmotion video, data and voice applications simultaneously via one “pipe.” (Meredith Singer - ITU & Europe/NIS Programs) Broadband… 4 Consequently, broadband definition could vary from country to country depending on its level of ICT applications in use (Stage of ICT development). Broadband… 5 India with over 1.3 billion people revised definition of it’s broadband from 256 kbps to 512 kbps on on 1st January, 2011. Considering consumer trends and projections, particularly on mobile network data speeds, the Government of India approved stipulated download speed of 2 mbps for any broadband connection based on any technology with effect from January 1, 2015 based on its national broadband plan (India TRA, 2010). Broadband… 6 Recommendation I.113 of the ITU Standardization Sector (ITU-T) defines broadband as a transmission capacity that is faster than primary rate ISDN, at 1.5 or 2.0 Mbit/s Broadband definition currently in US by FCC is an internet connection with 1mbps upstream and 4mbps downstream speed and subjective to applicable technologies (Based on 6th Broadband Progress Report and subject to review again) Broadband within the Nigerian context (The Nigerian National Broadband Plan; 2013-2018) is defined as an internet experience where the user can access the most demanding content in real time at a minimum speed of 1.5 Mbit/s. Why Broadband? 7 Policy-makers may be sceptical that broadband can actually deliver benefits and they often ask these questions: Why would a nation struggling to provide basic amenities to its citizens worry about broadband access? Will broadband connectivity really drive the nation’s economy or just make Internet connections faster? Can it create jobs, enhance safety and security, improve health care, literacy rate and promote an all-inclusive democracy? The following slides provides veritable response. Why Broadband 8 Year 2020 ”Everything that benefits from being connected will be connected” Impact of Broadband on the Economy 9 Source: Impact of Broadband on the Economy 10 Source: Impact of Broadband on the Economy 11 Table 3 – Research results of broadband impact on employment in the United States Source: Broadband Applications 12 Broadband has the potential of enabling entire new industries and changing how we educate our children, deliver health-care, enhance farming, ensure public safety, engage government, and access, organize and disseminate knowledge. Tele Medicine Agriculture Tele Education E-Government Public Safety and Security Delivering Broadband 13 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a technology similar to the DSL technology. With ADSL, information is downloaded more rapidly than it is uploaded. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Broadband a technology that delivers broadband over your phone line to be used in the home or office. Cable Broadband - Broadband is delivered through a cable. You can only get cable broadband if a company has cabled your street. Wireless Broadband – using variants of Wireless systems such as variants of CDMA, GSM, WIMAX and WIFI. Symmetric broadband (SDSL) is a technology similar to ADSL broadband. SDSL broadband downloads information at the same speed as it uploads information. Satellite Broadband: Two-way services via Communication satellite on varying bands (Traditionally on Ku and C- band and most recently higher spectral frequencies Ka-band and beyond. Africa’s Realities 14 Africa remains the least wired continent in the world in terms of robust telecommunications infrastructure and systems to cater for its more than one billion people. Reasons why wireless systems in the form of Communications satellites and variants of terrestrial wireless systems are in great demand more than any other continent (Non-military use); for the sole purpose of bridging its digital hiatus and complementing the inadequate terrestrial ICT infrastructure in the hinterland, swampy and landlocked cities thus playing critical role of delivering ICT readiness in unserved and underserved areas. Broadband in Nigeria, State of Play 15 The combined landed submarine optic fiber capacity is over 10 Tbit/s. Broadband in Nigeria, State of Play 16 Over 10Tbps cable landing capacity at the shores of Nigeria with only limited 0.5Tbps being transmitted to the hinterlands. Internet penetration is quoted at 33% and Broadband penetration stands at 6%. 72.25% access through wireless networks mainly GSM which leaving 27.75% access via other media. 2G Mobile coverage is 65% while 3G is only 35% and concentrated in Urban Areas, therefore broadband is only available in metro cities. Our Realities in Nigeria 17 Urban Suburban Rural 70% of the Nigerian citizens resides here! Some degree of Coverage Minimal Coverage to zero coverage Why the Challenge – The Broadband supply chain 18 International connectivity National backbone network Metropolitan access links Local access network (the last mile) Whereas there is international connectivity (over 10Tbit/s), the local access network through a national backbone network and metropolitan access links is limited. The Nigeria’s Communication Satellite (NigComSat-1R) which could have served as conduit to improve the access links is grossly underutilized. Effect 19 Huge Capacity at shores, less utilization on land Due to high cost of setting up of land wire broadband infrastructure. The cost of distributing broadband in Lagos alone using cable outweighs the landing cost of Main One Cable from Europe to Lagos. (Funke, CEO Main One ) Annual Capital Flight of about $450 million A huge chunk of satellite capacity being used for connectivity in Nigeria is yet to be tapped from local capacity being provided by the Government through NigComSat-1R. This, according to experts, has resulted in an annual capital flight of about $450 million from bandwidth purchase from abroad Communications Satellite is the answer as a “low-hanging fruit” to meet short and medium term plans of the National Broadband Plan! 20 If we must optimize access to information and guarantee universal access in the short and medium term to all citizens, including those in very remote areas with little or no terrestrial network, then Communications Satellite as space-based wireless systems infrastructure should remain within the framework of our ICT policy and broadband implementation to complement existing and inadequate terrestrial infrastructure as well as strategic national and continental telecommunication infrastructure during natural disasters and emergencies. Communications Satellite is the answer as a “low-hanging fruit” to meet short and medium term plans of the National Broadband Plan! 21 There should be government policy intent on use of satellite broadband as primary source of Internet in rural and swampy areas with associated ground technologies and redundancy in areas with optic-fiber to mitigate against cuts, damages and theft considering our geography, lack of channelized roads, subways, railways and poor urban and regional planning. Can Satellite Deliver Broadband? 22 Satellite communication as a major means of broadcast and mass media is unquestionable. The recently concluded London Olympics 2012 games is attestation to not just the broadband capability of Communication Satellites but also the HDTV and 3DTV transmission quality assurance. The 2012 First HD Olympic games was the first Genuine Major Carrier Cooperation for DVB satellite television transmissions, achieving historic levels of broadcast quality with carrier-ID implementations. Can Satellite Deliver Broadband? 23 Satellite platforms for both free-toair and pay services have proven more suitable for broadcasting a range of HD channels than Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) since the bandwidth spectrum is not scarce (frequency reuse through polarization and space diversity, utilization of higher frequency bands such as the Ka-band etc). HD CHANNELS IN EUROPE Can Satellite Deliver Broadband? 24 Using satellite broadband technology, several patients in a remote areas in Canada were treated over 900 miles away; without terrestrial connectivity, the patients would have waited for months until specialist arrives their area. The Tele-medicine Foundation of Russia is focused on using Satellite broadband technology to conduct telemedicine consultations between Russia and other countries in Europe and North America, as well as within Russia’s vast borders. Source: ITU SPU Broadband Workshop 2003 (Meredith Singer – Telecommunications Industry Association) Can Satellite Deliver Broadband? 25 A new “virtual university” in Pakistan provides learning using the television, video conferencing Internet via Communications Satellite. The university nearly 60,000 computer science graduates so that help build an IT industry in Pakistan. distance and the will train they can Source: ITU SPU Broadband Workshop 2003 (Meredith Singer – Telecommunications Industry Association) Can Satellite Deliver Broadband? 26 YES, WE CAN! 27 African leaders and stakeholders have recognized the many challenges that confront their countries and are addressing them with ambitious and adventurous ICT development programs. The Federal Government of Nigeria took the bull by the horns and responded with a communication satellite launch designed to meet West African Sub-Saharan needs amongst other regions. Yes, We can! 28 . The NigComSat-1R 29 The communication Payload comprises of 40 transponders; 28 active and 12 redundant as shown below. C-Band – 4 active transponders (36MHz each) Ku-Band – 14 active transponders (31.5MHz each) Ka-Band – 8 active transponders (120MHz each) L-Band(Navigation) – 2 active transponders And Seven (7) Service Antennas. NigComSat-1R… 30 NigComSat-1R has been in operation in the last 20 months (Commenced commercial activity on 19th March, 2012 after successful In-Orbit Test and In-Orbit Delivery) with modest achievement in terms of improving and driving national broadband access in homes, offices, business, schools and enterprise in Nigeria as well as prospects and potentials outside our shores. NigComSat-1R… 31 Communications Satellite (Comsat) It is the only technology that guarantees ubiquitous availability with its ability to drive the 3A’s of universal broadband plans with advent of High Throughput Satellite; Availability, Accessibility and Affordability. Provides secured and fast services for both civilian use and military operations. Not vulnerable to vandalisation and natural disasters on earth thus strategic and critical for all phases of disaster and emergency response. Services can be provided in ANY PART of Nigeria within hours. Prospects and Potentials of Satellite Broadband in Nigeria 32 With development and directive which will drive utilisation of NigComSat1R, there will be retained cash flow within the country with less burden on our foreign reserve and thus quantum leap on economic growth and development. NigComSat-1R together with the broadband capacity of the National Public Security Communications System (NPSCS) will facilitate the availability of broadband connectivity to at least 35 percent of homes by 2015 especially in rural and Local areas where the niche market is situated. NigComSat-1R will facilitate the Central Bank of Nigeria’s (CBN) pursuit of a cash-less economy and Government policies on e-government services. Prospects and Potentials of Satellite Broadband in Nigeria 33 With the advent of High Throughput Satellites (HTS), the capacity and efficiency of satellite in providing broadband Internet is exponentially improving. Viasat-1 with 140Gbps in North America. Ka-Sat with 70Gbps in Europe Achievable Terrabit/s Geo COMSATs (19th Ka-Band Conference by GLR in Florence, Italy). If the mentioned satellites above are serving the most wired continents in the world, then Africa must raise its bar to adopt next-generation satellites (HTS) as the least wired continent to bridge its huge ICT infrastructural gap aside strategic needs. Prospects and Potentials of Satellite Broadband in Nigeria 34 Africa is considered an emerging market for satellite-based platforms in terms of Free-To-Air (FTA) and Pay TV penetration Satellite Digital Television complements Terrestrial Television and offers an alternative to Digital Terrestrial Television considering huge challenges that comes with digital migration as we move close to ITU deadline of June 17th , 2015 for Analogue Switch-Off (ASO). NIGCOMSAT Ltd’s complete state-of-the art digital satellite TV Direct – To- Home (DTH) Head–End beckons to broadcasters, content providers, content distributors and media entrepreneurs. Prospects and Potentials of Satellite Broadband in Nigeria 35 Despite all the advances in science and technology, humankind remains vulnerable to the effect of natural and man-made disasters. Communications satellite remains the only platform for rapid response emergency networks and at all phases of emergency and disaster management. Response to disasters by national emergency agencies of underdeveloped and developing nations with inadequate or little terrestrial communication infrastructure should not only be limited to food, water and shelter but communications-disaster preparedness as the first line of action to facilitate timely disaster response. Prospects and Potentials of Satellite Broadband in Nigeria 36 Emergency response networks can broadcast information from the government of the affected nation and assist in facilitating and coordinating help from aid donors etc. A secured and integrated communications public safety network via COMSATs plays a pivotal role to security agencies (i.e Police, Military, Airforce and paramilitary units); specialized emergency service units and organizations such as: Fire Fighters, Road safety teams, Mobile medical units with such an efficiently delivered information symmetry to multiple agencies to ensure first-response coordinated effectiveness. Challenges of Satellite Broadband 37 Government Policy Implementation Challenges Aparthy to Communications Satellite Utilization: Latency syndrome. Back-up Communications Satellite Conclusion 38 The success of Nigeria’s information technology policy and infrastructure in the short and medium term remains wireless systems (Space and terrestrially based). Satellite Communications have a competitive advantage as they complement the present sparsely distributed terrestrial links. The NIGCOMSAT-1R as the first indigenously operated and managed communication satellite is fast-tracking development and playing a critical role in delivering ICT readiness with spin-off benefits too numerous to mention here. NigComSat-1R Communication Satellite remains a “low hanging fruit” ready to drive and improve broadband penetration in Nigeria. Conclusion The big picture of broadband internet access and connectivity in Nigeria and Africa as a whole. 40 Thank You!