Greece part 1 - Kenston Local Schools

Report
 Foundation of European civilization.- copied by almost
everyone.
 Two parts to Ancient Greek history
 Hellenic 800 bc- 338 bc
 Hellenistic 338 bc to 147 bc
“Intrinsic” Values
 Intrinsic means “Core” or
“Central” the ideas at the
heart of society
 For Greece: creativity and
individuality
 Experimentation and
invention (art,
literature, science,
government,
philosophy)
 Peninsula between
Aegean and Ionian Sea
 Land Rocky- sea best
for travel (great sailors)
 Landscape encouraged
development of small
city states (not one big
gov’t)
 People have lived in Greece since the stone age.
 Permanent settlements began around 2000 bc.
(Bronze Age)
 Still learning about first peoples
 Minoans- Oldest Greek Civilization- began
2000 bc. On Island of Crete. Named for legend
of King Minos and the Minotaur.
 What do we know? Wealthy- Built large
palaces. Peaceful-few weapons. Culture
destroyed around 1400 bc- don’t know how
 Mycenaeans First civilization on Greek
mainland-1600 bc
 What do we know? Built fortified citiesmuch more aggressive. Also disappeared
w/ no certain cause- around 1100 bc
 1100- 800 bc “dark ages” of Greek history- a time of chaos
and confusion
 The basic unit of Greek civilization.
 Started around 800bc as a fortress- grew to include town
and surrounding countryside
 The idea is a “city state”- but there is more to it. It is a
community- all people are connected to each other.
 Defined by
 Geography
 Citizens
 Politics
 Economics
 Not very large (even for ancient world) you are
supposed to know people and your place- and
understand that polis is the most
important thing in life
 Same (0r similar)
 Language
 Religion (but each focus on different gods)
 Different governments
 Different $$- and focus of the economy
 Different patron god/goddess
 Different calendars
 Poleis were often competitive: both peacefully
(Olympics) or violently (war)
 The variety shows creativity. In all types citizens
have rights/duties that are clearly understood.
 Monarchy: “rule of one”, one person makes decisions
 Oligarchy: “rule of few”, small group makes decisions
 Democracy: “rule of many”, large group makes decisions
(shows faith in citizens)
 Tyranny: a government that gets its power illegally. Not
necessarily bad.
 Duty of all citizens to protect the polis. (Fighting
together increases feeling of connection)
 Hoplite: Greek citizen soldier. Had to have
 Helmet
Shield
Weapon
 Fought in Phalanx- a close
formation of soldiers working
together as a shield wall
 Before 800 bc
 An idealized time when the gods walked the earth.
(“once upon a time”….) the age of myths- full of heroes
and miracles
 Told as EPIC (storytelling) poems to teach moral
lessons
 Each polis had own local legends and heroes- all
Greeks could claim “legendary” ancestors
 No sacred work to pass on
moral code
 Pray when you need
something- give offerings
 No afterlife- everyone goes
to the underworld
 Three main purposes
 Explain nature/catastrophe
 Explain strong emotion
 Explain good/bad luck
 See Chart
 Lived on Mount Olympus- but could come
to earth. Jealous and easily offended.
 Several “sets” Olympians were main batch
(Zeus etc….) children of the Titans Cronus and Rhea.
There were also many “demigods” (Heracles etc…) and
creatures with special powers in nature (fauns
nymphs)
 Myths- traditional stories of the gods- no known authors.
Entertainment as well as religion- give explanation for how
the world came to be- warnings about improper behavior.
Two main concerns TYCHE (Fate) and HUBRIS (pride)
 Temple- Specific for each god/goddess Largest in the polis
would be for patron- though most gods would have
temples. Give offering in return for a favour.
 Oracle- a place to talk to the gods- and get an answer. Most
famous was the oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
Iliad and Odyssey
 Epic (storytelling) poems written by HOMER in
the dark ages (no proof he existed). THE classics of
Greek literature- tell us a LOT about what Greeks
valued in society.
 Iliad- story of the 10 year Trojan war
Odyssey10 year Journey of Odysseus
 Stories are about love/honor/heroic behavior- set
the standard for the Greek ideal. No matter how
great you are you will be tested, and the gods are
not impartial or fair. You can try- buy there is no
way to avoid your fate.
Daily Life in Ancient Greece
Home Life
 Houses built around a
courtyard for privacy.
 Dining room main “social”
area- women’s rooms
separate
 Food was mostly grains and
cheeses- wine was main
drink (meat for special
events)
 Olive oil used for cooking
and preserving food (no
fridge)
Family structure
 Marriages were arranged- large families
were encouraged (exposure for
unwanted children) take care of older
generations
 Husbands and wives were not equal- husband in
charge – could dictate anything
 Each encouraged to have own friends- friends were for
talking- not spouses.
 No family recreation
Education
 Greece first civilization to make education a priority- it
made people better citizens
 Only boys could get formal education
 Pedagogue- slave responsible for early education- you
went to “school” only for advanced learning
 Main subjects were: Philosophy, Ethics and Rhetoric
Economics
 Trade was the backbone of the economy. Greeks were
great sailors- easy to travel to distant lands
 Olive oil, wine and pottery were most prized Greek
trade goods
 Land hard to farm (and in short supply) so Poleis
founded colonies around the Mediterranean.
Increased contacts with other civilizations

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