AS Revision Introduction to Physical Education - socio

Report
AS Revision Introduction to
Physical Education G451
Why do you participate in Physical
Activity (or not)?
Key
• ET = Exam TIP
• KT = Key Term
Physical Activity
Physical Benefits
Eg improved CV fitness
or maintenance of a
healthy body weight
Personal Benefits
Eg knowing own strengths
and weaknesses or
Increasing self esteem.
Mental Benefits
Eg stress relief, mood
Enhancement, or feel good
factor
Social
Eg feeling of belonging or
Having healthy
relationships
ET = you need to be able to give examples of physical, mental, personal and
social benefits of regular participation in physical activity.
Sedentary Lifestyles
Recommendations
Barriers to Regular
Participation
•30mins moderate intensity
Physical activity x 5 per week
Lack of:
•Energy
•Perceived ability/skill
•Friends who participate
•Suitable facilities nearby
•Money eg to join a gym
•Suitable/correct kit
•Children and young people
60mins of moderately intense
Physical activity each day. At
Least two sessions should
include higher impact activity
To improve bone health, muscle
Strength and flexibility.
KT
Lack of opportunity
Lack of provision
Lack of esteem
Also:
•Anxiety about being out after
dark
•Preference to stay at home
when it’s cold or wet
•Dislike exercise or sweating
•Embarrassed to show body
In brief
Key Terms
Physical Benefits – to do with the
body Eg potential to reduce the risk
of heart disease.
Personal Benefits – to do with self
Eg improved self-esteem
Social Benefits – to do with others
Eg having positive relationships
Mental Benefits – to do with the mind
Eg stress relief
ET - always use these key terms especially for ten mark questions
Esteem – Confidence to participate
Opportunity – The chance to take part
based on factors such as time, money etc
Provision – the availability of facilities
which allow for participation.
Physical Recreation
Physical Recreation
Enjoyment is a key
characteristic
Who?
Available to all who
choose amateurs
When?
Where?
Decided by
participants in
their free time
Decided by
participants
Benefits?
How?
Physical, mental and
personal. Learn skills ,
health and well-being,
stress relief, relaxation be
sociable and enjoyment
Relatively unsophisticated
level. Limited
competition. Limited
Funding. Limited skill or
fitness
Physical Recreation
Emphasis on:Participation not performance
Taking part, not winning
Enjoyment and satisfaction, not
record-breaking
ET - when asked to identify the characteristics of Phys Rec it is important to be specific
and clear in your answers. If simple bland terms are used such as ‘anyone, anywhere at
anytime’ to describe characteristics you will not gain marks. Be specific not vague!
Benefits of Outdoor Recreation
Appreciation of the
natural
environment
Respect for the
natural
environment
Gaining a sense of
adventure
• A chance to be at one with nature
• Escape from modern hectic lifestyle
• Chance to tune in to one’s inner-self,
thoughts and feelings
• Being in the natural environment can
intensify the appreciation of the need to
preserve, conserve, value and protect the
natural environment.
• Due to unpredictable, risky and sometimes
potentially dangerous nature of the natural
environment.
• Once all real risk has been eliminated and
safety measures followed a sense of
exhilaration and excitement can be
experienced.
Remember that outdoor recreation is physical recreation in the natural environment eg a walking holiday
Exam Tips
You need to be able to compare
characteristics of Physical
Recreation with characteristics of
Sport
Remember that Outdoor Recreation
means using the natural environment,
(eg hills, lakes or rivers) to gain physical,
mental, personal and social benefits.
Outdoor Recreation is not simply playing
a game of Hockey or golf which happens
to be outside.
Characteristics of Physical Education
Characteristics
Of
Specialist Staff
Opportunity for
GCSE,AS/A level
Variety of
Practical activities
and theoretical
elements
National
Curriculum
PE
Schoolchildren
and
Young People
Benefits
PE can be defined as :1. Learning about and through physical activity
2. The learning of physical, personal, preparatory and qualitative values through
formal physical activity in school
Benefits of Physical Education
Personal (and social)
Enjoyment, confidence, leadership,
teamwork, loyalty, responsibility,
commitment, overcoming challenges,
emotional control, decision making,
problem solving,
sportsmanship,positive behaviour,
respect
Preparatory
Preparation for leisure (eg joining a
club) or sport, a career or work
Benefits of
Physical
Education
Physical
Skill, health, fitness, physique, agility,
knowledge of
activities/sports/coaching/leading/offi
ciating
Improved quality of life
Influence on lifestyle(eg balanced
healthy lifestyle), experiencing
excellence, mental well-being,
opportunity for creativity, aesthetic
awareness
Outdoor Education
Constraints of widespread
participation In Outdoor
Education by young
people:•Lack of adequate funding, specialist
staff and transport costs
•Distance from natural facilities
•Insufficient voluntary contributions
from pupils
•Outdoor activities can take up too
much curriculum time.
•Parents anxieties over H & s concerns
and staff reluctant to take responsibility
Beginners
Perceived Risk
Completely safe
Imagined
Experts
Real Risk
dangerous even fatal
challenging
Who?
Young people
qualified, specialist
leaders /staff
Where?
When?
As part of a
structured school
programme
Special trips or visits
Benefits?
Physical Health and Skill
Learning eg climbing
Personal and social
development eg leadership
Preparation for Active leisure eg
love the outdoors
Enhance quality of life eg
appreciation of environment
In the natural environment,
(eg hills, lakes or rivers,
coastlines, mountains, caves )
Sometimes using semi-natural
or artificial facilities
How?
According to strict H & S regs
Sometimes by overcoming
potential constraints eg
Distance for location
Expense of activities
Lack of expert staff
Time constraints
Characteristics and Benefits of Sport
Who?
Those with Physical prowess
(skill)
Those with physical endeavour
(effort and Commitment)
The Elite
Some Professionals
When?
At a designated time
and pre-determined
length of time
What makes a sport?
1. Tradition
2. Vigorous exertion
3. Competition
4. Administration
5. Behaviour
Benefits?
Intrinsic RewardsPersonal satisfaction
and achievement
Extrinsic rewardsmoney and/or fame
Where?
At a designated space with
specialist or purpose built
facilities
With fixed boundaries
How?
High level organisation, that is:
With officials formal rules NGBs
High level of competition
Commitment to training and coaching
Aesthetic quality
Sportsmanship
Sponsorship and media interest
Element of chance
Key Terms
Physical Prowess – Skill
Sportsmanship– Fair Play
Physical Endeavour– Effort and
Commitment
Gamesmanship– Stretching the rules
To gain an unfair advantage.
Aesthetic– movement that is beautiful
to watch and pleasing to the eye
Deviance – seriously breaking the rules
Sledging– Attempting to undermine an
Opponent by verbally abusing , taunting
Characteristics of Surviving Ethnic Sports
Occasional/Annual
Ritualistic
Local
Natural
Tourism
Rowdy
Traditional
Social
Relatively Isolated
Exam Tips
You need to remember
specific surviving ethnic sports
and games eg not Mob
Football…. Royal Shrovetide
Football
You need to describe the
characteristics of surviving ethnic
sports and give reasons for their
continued existence and popularity.
Eg Occasional/Annual often
participated during bank-holidays.
19th Century Public Schools
Community Members
Oxbridge Blues
Teachers
Community Leaders
Vicars/Priests
Parents
Industrialists
Assistant Masters
Army Officers
Move From Popular Recreation (B4 IR) to
Rational Recreation (PIR)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Popular Recreation
Localised
Uncoded
Cruel/Violent
Irregular/occasional
Courtly/popular
Rural
Ritual
Wagering
Rational Recreation
Local – regional – national
Formal codification
Channelled aggression
Regular
Gentry – middle – working
Rural – urban
Moral
Gambling curtailed
Have a go! what do these key
words mean
•
•
•
•
•
An amateur
A professional
An amateur approach to sport
A professional approach to sport
Gentlemen amateur
USA
Win at all costs
American dream
Ivy League
Conference- Similar to a league
Highly Commercialised State
Capitalist State
300 million people
In 50 states
American football
Rags to riches
Franchise- The business that
Owns, runs and has voting rights
for a team
Australia
Population 21,007,310 (2008 est.)
Young Nation
(1770)
James Cook of England
charted eastern coast,
claimed it for British Crown
Retained Colonial Influences
Rugby 2 codes
Cricket
Association football (Socceroos)
Immigration
Complete time-line on map!
Australia
Reasons
• Favourable
Climate
Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious
Give reasons for physical activity (physical
education, physical recreation and sport)
being of such high status in Australia. [5]
Sporting Success
Sport for All
Media support and interest
Colonialism
White Australia Policy
Bush Culture
Give reasons for physical activity
(physical education, physical recreation
and sport) being of such high status in
Australia. [5]
Reasons
• Favourable
Climate
Outdoor Lifestyle/Health Conscious
Government Support
• The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) leads the development of elite sport
and is widely acknowledged in Australia and internationally as a world
best practice model for elite athlete development. The AIS is a preeminent elite sports training institution in Australia with world class
facilities and support services. The AIS has 35 sport programs in 26 sports.
• AIS scholarship holders to become tomorrow's world-beaters and all the
information on how to join the AIS family is available through the
scholarships section.
• The AIS has been the nation's sports training powerhouse mainly due to
the AIS facilities and the cutting edge Sports Science Sports Medicine
support.
• The AIS campus is located in the suburb of Bruce in the Australian Capital
Territory.
Sporting Success
Sport for All
Media support and interest
A forum for advertisment
Tradition of Success
Unites a ‘Small Nation’
High status in Schools
Impact on young Peoples aspirations
Funding of Physical Activity
In: business profit, ticket
sales, TV rights
Out:- sponsor individuals,
teams, running and
maintaining private sports
clubs and facilities, buying
TV rights, Sport Aid Grants,
National Sports Foundation
Private
Public
Funding from
businesses,
companies and
investors often by
way of sponsorship.
Funding from
government and
local authorities
including National
Lottery Funding
In: taxes, gaming duties
and National Lottery sales.
Out:- Local authorities,
awards
and grants eg UK sport.
Sportsmatch
Sponsorship, Armed forces
sport
Voluntary
Funding from donations or
charities or private clubs
In: national lottery grants, awards for all, sportsmatch grants, local authority grants, NGBs, fundraising,
Foundation for sports and arts, National sports Foundation, Commercial Sponsorship and members subscription
Out:- facility building maintenance and development, developing performers (coaching), running a club
World Class Pathway Programme
Years from podium
0
World
Class Podium
-2
This programme supports likely medal
contenders. Funding is based on
performance success at previous
olympics.
-4
World Class Development
-6
For performers who are about 6 years
from a medal
World Class Talent
Highly gifted performers with world class talent are
selected by NGBs.
-8
For performers who are a maximum of 8 years from a likely
medal
Home country talent development systems
UK Sport’s Organisations
Provision
Policy
What is their political ideology?
•
•
•
•
•
Winning Medals
Participation
Equal Opportunities
Increasing our status
Pursuit Of Excellence
How can we provide to meet our potential?
• More grassroots = more elite.
• Who are they targeting?
Administration
•
How is sport structured, organised
and funded?
•
What role does each of the
organisations play in the pursuit of
participation and excellence?
Other Bodies Influencing and Promoting
Physical Activity and Sporting Excellence
Name
Overall Aims
To develop elite sport in the UK inc. Ethics, major events, administrative
efficiency, works with home countries, helps elite sports development, supports
world class performers/coaches etc
eg
To provide the best performers with the practical support needed to win and
compete at the highest level with: sports science and medicine, physiology and
biomechanics, performance analysis, massage, physiotherapy, strength and
conditioning, career and education advice etc
To get people more active and involved. Invests advises and promotes
community sport. Promotes voluntary work such as coaching leadership and
officiating. Focus on priority groups (minority groups). Supports school sport.
Works closely with local, national and regional bodies in line with NGBs.
To increase participation, improve performance and improve the image and
management of sport in NI. Develop disadvantaged groups etc
To increase participation and improve performance in Scottish sports.
Developing sporting people, organisations and facilities, create pathways and
promote equality of opportunity tackling discrimination.
To get more people more active more often. Active young people, active
communities, high level performance and excellence focusing on talented
performers.
Exam Tip 1
Key sporting bodies and orgs
such as UK sport are not told
what to do, however they are
answerable to the DCMS
due to the funding
they receive.
Gifted and
talented
Kite Marking
Activemark
Sportsmark
JAE
programme
The PE, School
Sport and Club
Links Strategy
Partnerships
National
Curriculum
PESSCL
strategy
Exam Tip 2
You can only be asked questions
on material that is in the
specification, so you will not get a
question specifically about PESSCL
strategy, you may have to identify
current government initiatives.
School Sports
Partnerships
SSPs
Exam Tip 3
There will be five parts to your AS
Socio-cultural studies q’s. The
Final part will be an extended 10
mark question. You have to
‘critically evaluate’, and therefore
prove how you can think and
make judgements.
Government Initiatives
Answers
Answers ctd
Excellence and Participation in UK
•Highly skilled/elite
•Fully committed with high level support
•Emphasis on winning and competing
•District, county or regional commitment
•School or club participation, recreational
•Non-competitive extra curricular - enjoy
•Introduction to sport-basic skills
•Positive attitudes to physical activity
Exam Tip
You could be asked to
name and explain
each layer of the
sports development
pyramid in the
examination. Ensure
you can recall the
ones beginning with
‘p’, candidates often
get these confused.
The Sports Development Pyramid
Mass Participation
Sporting Excellence
The continuum from mass participation to sporting excellence
Opportunity Provision Esteem
Ethnic Minorities
‘White Flight’
Groups who are different in their ethnic origin Are we ‘guided’ into sports due to our race?
from the majority of the population.
Do we avoid sports where our race has not
traditionally or currently been represented?
Race
The physical characteristics of an individual.
Stacking
‘Self-fulfilling prophecies’
Countries may concentrate on a particular
sport e.g. Kenyan and middle/long distance
running.
This is where players are put into
positions and sports on the basis of their
ethnic background.
Target Group
How do we get Equal Opportunities?
Awareness
Changing Attitudes
Allocate Funding
Adaption/Modification
Access
Key Terms
Attitudes: Outlooks, feelings or
thought about something.
Stereotyping– Typecasting, labelling
or pigeonholing people.
Social Exclusion– the negative result
of factors such as low income,
discrimination, poor housing etc that
can put some communities at a
disadvantage.
Myths– Untruths eg black males
can’t swim and women can’t park
cars.
Positive Discrimination– Favouritism
Or special treatment for the focus
Group in order to give them a chance
Socialisation– the process by which people
Learn acceptable cultural beliefs and
behaviour including how to interact with
people who are different to themselves.
Drugs Media Sponsorship and Violence
"In the name of all
in Sport
competitors I promise that
we shall take part in these
Olympic Games, respecting
and abiding by the rules
which govern them,
committing ourselves to a
sport without doping and
without drugs, in the true
spirit of sportsmanship, for
the glory of sport and the
honour of our teams."
Reasons for Use
Consequences
Possible solutions to Drug Use
• Stricter more rigorous out-of season testing
• Stricter punishments and life bans
• Co-ordinated education programmes for
athlete and coach
• More funding for testing programmes and
scientific research
• Unified policies across NGBs
• Role models promoting drug free sport
ET -If a question is asked for solution to the problem of drugs, make sure
that you don’t list drug types, respond using the bullet points above.
Technology in Sport
Exam Tip:
Be aware of modern
technological products are
up-to-date, technical
scientific or high-tech items
that impact on sport.
The impact is usually
Considered to be good, but
In some cases may increase
The chance of injury
Eg Football Boots
Safety
Eg , Cricket
helmets,
gumshields
Technology
Retractable
Stadia roofs
Ball feeding
machines
Materials
Carbon fibre
Sprung floors
Footwear
Officiating
Comfort
Blades
Electronic
timers
Goretex
Insulated
clothing,
boots
Breathable
footwear
Science
Medicine
Clothing
3rd Umpire
Motion
Analysis Golf
swing
Ice baths
physiotherapy
Video replay
Surgery
Lycra body
suits
Swimming
caps and suits
The roles of the media
To Inform
• Eg informing about a match result, team analysis or player preparation
and behaviour.
To educate
• Eg on global sporting issues, sports, skills, coaching techniques, sporting
issues or local sporting provision.
To entertain
• Eg with live coverage of an event or information about star’s private lives
or a documentary on a particular team’s pre-competition preparations.
To advertise
• Either directly or indirectly through sponsorship
ET - If you are asked to critically evaluate the impact of the media on sport – it simply
means that you should way up ( in good written form) the advantages and disadvantages
of the media in sport eg additional funding for sport v rule changes and off-peak viewing
times.
Media
Golden Triangle -The Inter-relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media
Sport and Media
High level sport is a media
commodity.
Sport available 24/7
Media control over some sports
Celebrities are created and role
models can have +ive or –ive
image
Low profile sports get little
attention so minimal sponsorship
opportunities.
Relationship can increase match
fixing and other examples of
deviance.
Sport and Sponsorship
Sponsorship increases popularity
and stability of sport.
Sport is a relatively inexpensive
form of advertising.
Money from sponsorship can help
improve spectator provision.
Powerful sports such as premier
league football have some
control over their sponsors
Sport
The Golden
Triangle
Media
Sponsorship
Sponsorship and Media; When sports are covered by the media sponsorship ultimately
Increases.
Violence by Players
Causes Of Violence by Players
‘Cauldron Effect’
Aggression
Provocation
Sledging
De-humanised
Crowd Behaviour
Cheating
Solutions to Violence by Players
Education
Harsher Penalties
Rule changes
Greater authority
Technology
Violence by Spectators
Reasons and Solutions
• AddPre-match
here Hype
Police Liaison
Primitive
All-Seater
Intimidate
Segregation
Incite
Deterrents
Ethics and High Level Sport
Deviance
Sportsmanship
Gamesmanship
Fair play
Etiquette
Letter and Spirit of ‘The Law’
The Olympic Games
KT Olympic Charter- The ‘rule book’ that governs how the Olympic
Games and IOC are run.
The Olympic Charter
Principles
Aims
Philosophy
Designed to link sport with
culture and education. The
founders wanted to promote the
practice in sport and the joy
found in effort. The Olympics
would help build a better world
by bringing people together
from all over the globe the spirit
of fair play and friendship
To enable and strengthen
sports, to ensure their
independence and
duration.
Balance between body and
mind and will; effort-for
the joy is can bring; role
modelling to educate and
inspire others; tolerance,
generosity, unity,
friendship, nondiscrimination and respect
for others
BPDC
The bringing together of people from 5 different
continents
Promotes Olympic games
Fund raises
Appoints official
sponsors of 2012
Manages Team GB
Inc. transport and kit
Helps select Team GB
Organises visits to
Host City prior to
games
Helps athletes and
NGBs prepare for
Olympic Games
Works on Olympic Bids
Key Terms
Centralised System
• A system where political and administrative power is held centrally with no regional or local
government control
Shop Window Effect
• When sporting success equates with political success and positive role models promotethe
country’s status
Communism
• A centralised political system that opposes capitalism and democracy
Elitism
• To be exclusive or to select the best and to forget the rest
Appeasement
• To pacify or provide a feel good factor

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