JIT and Lean Systems

Report
Operations
Management
Chapter 16 –
JIT and Lean
Operations
By :
Hermawan Susilo (13)
Istiyana Ulta K (14)
L. Tri Wahyudi (16)
Aditya Narendra M (20)
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 1
TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION

Largest vehicle manufacturer in the world with annual
sales of over 9 million vehicles

Success due to two techniques, JIT and TPS by Taiichi
Ohno

Central to JIT is a continuous problem solving by making
only what is needed, when it is needed

Central to TPS is employee learning and continuing effort
to create product under ideal conditions, without waste

San Antonio plant, small building but high levels of
production
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 2
DICTINCTION JUST-IN-TIME, TPS, AND
LEAN OPERATIONS

JIT emphasizes continuos forced problem solving by
reduced inventory

TPS emphasizes employee learning

Lean production supplies the customer with their exact
wants when the customer wants it without waste
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 3
ELIMINATE WASTE
“ Waste is anything that does not
add value from the customer
point of view ”
THE 5S JEPANG

Ohno’s Seven Waste

•Overproduction overproduksi
•Queues antrian


•Transportation raw matrial

•Inventory penyimpanan
•Motion pergerakan orang
•Overprocessing proses yang
tidka perlu dilakukan
•Defective products
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Sort/segregate – keep what
needed
Simplify/straighten –
methods analysis tools
Shine/sweep – clean daily
Standardize – remove
variations from processes
Sustain/self-discipline –
review work and recognize
progress - motivasi

Safety – build in good
practices

Support/maintenance –
reduce variability and
unplanned downtime
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REMOVE VARIABILITY

JIT systems require managers to reduce variability caused by
both internal and external factors

Variability is any deviation from the optimum process
(variability = problems)

Less variability results in less waste
Source of variability :
1.
Incomplete or inaccurate drawings or specifications
2.
Poor production processes resulting in incorrect quantities, late, or
non-conforming units
3.
Unknown customer demands
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 5
IMPROVE THROUGHPUT

Throughput time is the time it takes to move an order from
receipt to delivery

The time between the arrival of raw materials and the shipping
of the finished order is called manufacturing cycle time

Driving down manufacturing cycle time can make a major
improvement in throughput
PULL SYSTEM
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16 – 6
PULL SYSTEM

Pulls a unit to where it is needed just as it is needed

By pulling material in small lots, inventory cushions are
removed, exposing problems and emphasizing continual
improvement

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Pulls systems are standart tools of JIT system
16 – 7
JUST-IN-TIME (JIT)
• Powerful strategy for
improving operations
• Materials arrive where
they are needed when
they are needed
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 8
JIT PARTNERSHIPS
 JIT partnerships exist
when a supplier and
purchaser work together
to remove waste and drive
down costs
 Four goals of JIT
partnerships are:
 Removal of
unnecessary activities
 Removal of in-plant
inventory
 Removal of in-transit
inventory
 Improved quality and
reliability
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 9
CONCERNS OF SUPPLIERS
 Diversification – ties to only one customer increases risk
 Scheduling – don’t believe customers can create a smooth
schedule
 Changes – short lead times mean engineering or
specification changes can create problems
 Quality – limited by capital budgets, processes, or
technology
 Lot sizes – small lot sizes may transfer costs to suppliers
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 10
JIT LAYOUT
 Reduce waste due to movement
 Distance Reduction – major constribution of work
cells, work centre, focused factories
 Increase Flexibility – easily rearranged, change result
of product & process
 Impact on employees - flexible & efficiency
 Reduced space and inventory - with reduced space,
inventory must be in very small lots
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 11
JIT INVENTORY
Inventory is at the minimum level
necessary to keep operations running
JIT Inventory Tactics
Use a pull system to move inventory
Reduce lot sizes
Develop just-in-time delivery systems with suppliers
Deliver directly to point of use
Perform to schedule
Reduce setup time
Use group technology
Table 16.2
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 12
REDUCE INVENTORY AND VARIABILITY
Inventory level
Inventory level
Process
downtime
Scrap
Setup
time
Process
downtime
Scrap
Setup
time
Quality
problems
Quality
problems
Late deliveries
Late deliveries
(b)
(a)
Inventory level
Process
downtime
Scrap
Setup
time
Quality
problems
Late deliveries
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
(c)
Figure 16.3
16 – 13
JIT SCHEDULING
 Schedules must be communicated
inside and outside the organization
 Level schedules
 Process frequent small batches
 Freezing the schedule helps
stability
 Kanban
 Signals used in a pull system
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 14
LEVEL SCHEDULES
 Process frequent small batches rather than a few
large batches
 Make and move small lots so the level schedule is
economical
 Freezing the schedule closest to the due dates can
improve performance
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 15
KANBAN
 Kanban is the Japanese word for card
 The card is an authorization for the next
container of material to be produced
 A sequence of kanbans
pulls material through
the process
 Many different sorts of
signals are used, but
the system is still called
a kanban
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 16
JIT QUALITY
 Strong relationship
 JIT cuts the cost of obtaining good
quality because JIT exposes poor
quality
 Because lead times are shorter,
quality problems are exposed sooner
 Better quality means fewer buffers
and allows simpler JIT systems to be
used
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 17
JIT QUALITY TACTICS
Use statistical process control
Empower employees
Build fail-safe methods (pokayoke, checklists, etc.)
Expose poor quality with small
lot JIT
Provide immediate feedback
Table 16.4
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 18
TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM



Continuous improvement

Build an organizational culture and value system that stresses
improvement of all processes

Part of everyone’s job
Respect for people

People are treated as
knowledge workers

Engage mental and
physical capabilities

Empower employees
Standard work practice
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.

Work shall be completely specified as to content, sequence,
timing, and outcome

Internal and external customer-supplier connection are direct

Product and service flows must be simple and direct

Any improvement must be made in accordance with the scientific
method at the lowest possible level of the organization
16 – 19
LEAN OPERATIONS
 Different from JIT in that it is
externally focused on the customer
 Starts with understanding what the
customer wants
 Optimize the entire process from
the customer’s perspective
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 20
BUILDING A LEAN
ORGANIZATION
 Transitioning to a lean system can be difficult
 Lean systems tend to have the following attributes
 Use JIT techniques
 Build systems that help employees produce
perfect parts
 Reduce space requirements
 Develop partnerships with suppliers
 Educate suppliers
 Eliminate all but value-added activities
 Develop employees
 Make jobs challenging
 Build worker flexibility
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 21
LEAN OPERATIONS IN SERVICES
 Suppliers
 Layouts
 Inventory
 Scheduling
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 22
VIDEO CASE :
JIT at Arnold Palmer
Hospital
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 23
ABOUT ARNOLD PALMER
• RS Ibu dan Anak, berdiri tahun 1989
• Melayani 10.000 kelahiran per tahun
• Ranking 5 kelahiran selamat tertinggi
• Diperlukan $ 30 Juta/ tahun untuk kepuasan
pelanggan dan biaya inventory.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 24
JIT ARNOLD PALMER
• Obat didistribusikan melalui
dispensing machines (seperti
vending machines).
• Custom Surgical
Packs, dengan 10
pack yang berbeda.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 25
SURGICAL
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16 – 26
MAYOR SET
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16 – 27
SURGERY PACKAGING
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16 – 28
JIT FOR SURGICAL PACKAGE
Jadwal Operasi
Dipersiapkan untuk
operasi
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
Order ke supplier
(1:00 – 2:00 PM)
Supplier kirim ke RS
(4:00 AM)
16 – 29
ADVANTAGE JIT ARNOLD
PALMER
• Waste reduction
• Variability reduction
• Inventory pull when needed
Menghemat biaya inventory harian
dari $400,000 menjadi 114,000.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 30
JUST-IN-TIME MODEL IN
CONSTRUCTION LOGISTICS
Agung Sedayu Group
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 31
• Proyek konstruksi sangat kompleks
• Resource intensive
• Perlu perencanaan matang dalam hal pembelihan,
pengiriman, penyimpanan, dan pemindahan material
konstruksi
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 32
KEY SUCCESS
• Hubungan kerjasama yang stabil dan jangka panjang antara
developer dengan suppliers
• Suppliers memiliki akses langsung pada informasi progress
project dan kebutuhan material
• Mutual understanding & komitmen semua pihak mengenai
Biaya-Mutu-Waktu
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 33
TAHAPAN KONSTRUKSI
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 34
ASG JUST IN TIME MODEL
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 35
KESIMPULAN
• Dengan adanya tranfer informasi selama proses konstruksi,
pengetahuan mengenai kebutuhan bahan bangunan dari
Planning Department dan suppliers akan semakin baik.
• Planning Department bisa menyiapkan rencana jauh-jauh hari
dan mentranfernya kepada Purchasing Department sebelum
material bangunan habis.
• Good logistics system relies on good communication among
the parties.
© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc.
16 – 36

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