The syllabus says… “This module requires students to explore various representations of events, personalities or situations. They evaluate how medium of production, textual form, perspective and choice of language influence meaning. The study develops students’ understanding of the relationships between representation and meaning.” http://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/syllabus_hsc/pdf_doc/en glish-syllabus-from2010.pdf Fine… ok… great… What does all this actually mean? Explore ? = • search / investigate / open up / go into / delve into / pull apart and see how something (a text) works / discover the details of something and see how it’s “built” Representations ? =• interpretations / images / illustrations / points-of-view / demonstrations / accounts of / versions / descriptions / depictions Events ? = • proceedings / actions / individual experiences / local incidents / national occasions / international processes / global events / personal celebrations and/or tragedies Personalities ? = • diffferent people / characters / traits / natures / behaviours / individualities / personas / temperaments / dispositions / VIPs / public figures / famous person / celebrities Situations ? = • circumstances / states of mind / state of affairs / positions / settings / locations / status quo Hero or villain? Evaluate ? = assess / estimate / judge the value of / calculate / weigh up / appraise / gauge Medium ? = method / mode / / type of material / form / vehicle (eg: hard copy – paper – digital – interactive – static image – visual – multi media) Production ? = construction / creation / invention / assembly / manufacture Textual form ? = how a text is composed / text-type Perspective ? = viewpoint / standpoint / point of view / perception / angle / take / outlook Influence ? = change / effect / control / manipulate / persuade / impel / talk into / win over / sway Meaning ? = ideas / understanding / what the composer really means / what the responder understands the text really means (for different audiences) / intended purpose » evaluate how medium of production, textual form, perspective and choice of language influence meaning. Weigh-up How the techniques / processes of Documentary? Animation? Youtube vid? Article? novel? Website?TV show? Poster? Film, print, digital, audio Dominant? Resistant? Subversive? Marginalised? Disenfranchised? Popular? Cultural? Christian? NonChristian? Post-modern? Feminist? Capitalist? Marxist? Formal? Colloquial? Idioms – simile – metaphor – modality – dialogue – imagery – symbols – motifs – audio effects – camera angles, shot types and movement – contrast – irony – satire – persuasive – positive or negative tone – emotive language – factual language – stereotypes – cliches – catch phrases – journalese - Show specific ideas, events, people, values, attitudes about history and memory. » Record of the past » Chronicle of events » Encarta dictionary states that history is: » Recollection of individual experiences » Retention of knowledge and specific, individual interpretation of events » Encarta Dictionary states that memory is: These texts are to be drawn from a variety of sources, in a range of genres and media. TO BE CONTINUED… WATCH THIS SPACE In their responding and composing, students consider their prescribed text and other texts which Students to broaden their understanding of how history and personal history are shaped and represented. In your answer you will be assessed on how well you: _________________________________________________ demonstrate understanding of and evaluate the relationship between representation and meaning organise, develop and express ideas using language appropriate to audience, purpose and form _________________________________________________ In your answer you will be assessed on how well you: ___________________________________________________________________ ■ demonstrate understanding of and evaluate the relationship between representation and meaning ■ organise, develop and express ideas using language appropriate to audience, purpose and form ___________________________________________________________________ Question 11 — Elective 2: History and Memory (20 marks) To what extent has textual form shaped your understanding of history and memory? In your response, make detailed reference to your prescribed text and at least ONE other related text of your own choosing. The prescribed texts are: • Multimedia – Smithsonian National Museum of American History September 11 website, http://americanhistory.si.edu/september11/ 1. History and Political Context Few fundamentalist movements in the Islamic world gained lasting political power. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, fundamentalists helped articulate anticolonial grievances but played little role in the o struggles for independence after World War I. Western-educated lawyers, soldiers, and officials led most independence movements, and clerical influence and traditional culture were seen as obstacles to national progress. After gaining independence from Western powers following World War II, the Arab Middle East followed an arc from initial pride and optimism to today’s mix of indifference, cynicism, and despair. In several countries, a dynastic state already existed or was quickly established under a paramount tribal family. Monarchies in countries such as Saudi Arabia, Morocco, and Jordan still survive today. Those in Egypt, Libya, Iraq, and Yemen were eventually overthrown by secular nationalist revolutionaries. 2. The secular regimes promised a glowing future, often tied to sweeping ideologies (such as those promoted by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser’s Arab Socialism or the Ba’ath Party of Syria and Iraq) that called for a single, secular Arab state. However, what emerged were almost invariably autocratic regimes that were usually unwilling to tolerate any opposition—even in countries, such as Egypt, that had a parliamentary tradition. Over time, their policies— repression, rewards, emigration, and the displacement of popular anger onto scapegoats (generally foreign)—were shaped by the desire to cling to power. The bankruptcy of secular, autocratic nationalism was evident across the Muslim world by the late 1970s.At the same time, these regimes had closed off nearly all paths for peaceful opposition, forcing their critics to choose silence, exile, or violent opposition. Iran’s 1979 revolution swept a Shia theocracy into power. Its success encouraged Sunni fundamentalists elsewhere.