Types of Respirators

Report
Respirator
Program
Agenda
• WorkSafeBC Requirements
• Definitions
• Hazard Identification and Risk
Assessment
• Types of Respirators
• Respirator Selection
• Fit Testing
WorkSafeBC Regulation
• Workers who are or may be exposed to
air contaminants that exceed:
• an 8-hour TWA
• ceiling limit, or
• short term exposure limit
Definitions
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Air purifying respirator
Canister and cartridge
Escape respirator
Fit check
Definitions
•
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•
Fit test
Hazard Ratio
HEPA filter
IDLH
Definitions
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Maximum Use Concentration
Qualitative fit test
Quantitative fit test
SCBA
Respiratory Hazard Identification
and Risk Assessment
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Identify hazards
Control risks
Assess and control remaining hazards
Select and provide respirators
Fit test, train and issue respirators
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• When a respiratory hazard is identified:
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Determine nature of contaminant
Determine probability of exposure
Determine frequency of exposure
Determine permissible exposure limit
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Breathing Hazards
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Particles (dusts, fibres, mists, fumes
Gaseous (gases and vapours)
Oxygen deficiency
Combination hazards
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Particle Hazards – Dusts and Fibres
• Formed by breakdown of solids
• Sanding, milling, cutting crushing, grinding
• Irritate the airways
• Can cause disease
• Asbestos, silica dust
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Particle Hazards - Mists
• Very small liquid droplets
• Formed by spraying, shaking, mixing,
stirring
• Irritate or damage exposed skin, eyes,
lungs, airways
• Damage to internal organs
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Particle Hazards - Fumes
• Tiny solid particles
• May be formed by welding, smelting,
soldering, brazing
• Irritation to serious lung and nerve damage
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Gaseous Hazards
• Gases – Carbon monoxide, Chlorine
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Vapours
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Mix with air
Solvents, gasoline, acetone
Enter blood stream
May cause damage to nerves and internal
organs
Hazard Identification & Risk
Assessment
• Oxygen Deficiency
• Normal air contains 21% oxygen
• O2 deficiency can develop from
• Rotting, rusting, burning
• Displacement by other gases
Types of Respirators
Types of Respirators
• Types of respirators
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Half facepiece
Full facepiece
Air Purifying Respirators (APR)
Air Supplying Respirators
Escape Respirators
Types of Respirators
• Half facepiece respirators
• Cover only nose, mouth and chin
• Available as
• Filtering facepiece (disposable), or
• Elastomeric facepiece with cartridges
Types of Respirators
• Disposable Half Facepiece Respirators
• Known as single-use or disposable
• No replacement parts
• Must have two straps
Types of Respirators
• Elastomeric Half Facepiece Respirators
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Made of silicone, thermoplastic or rubber
Cartridges or filters
One-way valves
Greater level of protection than disposable
respirators
Types of Respirators
• Full Facepiece Respirators
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Cover full face
Silicone, thermoplastic or rubber
One or more cartridges or filters
Clear lens
Used when contaminants irritate the eyes
Offer greater level of protection
Types of Respirators
• Air Purifying Respirators
• Use a filter, cartridge or canister
• Must know the concentration of the
contaminant
• Not for oxygen deficient atmospheres
• 2 types: non-powered and powered
Types of Respirators
• Non-powered Air Purifying Respirators
• Either half face or full face
• Similar operation in both
Types of Respirators
• Powered Air Purifying Respirators
(PAPR)
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Battery powered blower
Easier to breath
More protective than non-powered
Still air purifying only
Types of Respirators
• Powered Air Purifying Respirators –
continued
• Available in
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Half face
Full face
Hood
Helmet
Types of Respirators
• Escape Respirators
• For emergency escape only
• Never used for entry into contaminated
area
• Must be carried on worker in potentially
hazardous area
• Air purifying or air supplying
Types of Respirators
• Filters and cartridges
• Remove specific contaminants from the air
• Must use proper cartridge
• Only effective up to certain concentration
of contaminant
Types of Respirators
• Particulate Filters
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Nine classes of particulate
N series (Not resistant to oil)
R series (Resistant to oil)
P series (Oil proof)
Types of Respirators
• Gas and Vapour Cartridges
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Remove gases and vapours from air
Trap or react with contaminants
Act like sponges
Limited capacity
Breakthrough
Types of Respirators
• Air purifying canisters
• Work like cartridges
• Larger and last longer
• Worn on chin, chest or back
Types of Respirators
• Cartridge Warning Properties
• Contaminants must have warning
properties
• Smell, taste, or breathing irritation
• Warning properties differ for each
contaminant
• Odour threshold
Types of Respirators
• Cartridge / Filter Maintenance
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Store in sealed container
Replace filters / cartridges regularly
Date filters / cartridges when installed
Match cartridges with contaminants
Types of Respirators
• Air Supplying Respirators
• Supplied air (airline)
• Self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA)
Types of Respirators
• Supplied Air Respirators
• Provide clean air
• High pressure or low pressure systems
• Must be approved airlines
Types of Respirators
• Supplied Air Respirators – continued
• Hood or helmet
• No face seal
• No resistance to breathing
• Full face airline
• Face seal
• Positive pressure minimizes leaking
Types of Respirators
• Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
• Provides air from cylinder carried by
wearer
• Highest level of protection
• Permitted in IDLH conditions
Respirator Selection
Respirator Selection
• Respirators must be selected in
accordance with:
• The WorkSafeBC Regulation
• CSA Standard Can/CSA-Z94.4-93
• 13 Step respirator selection approach
Respirator Selection
1. Identify the Breathing Hazard
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Ensure atmosphere is not oxygen
deficient
Is there an emergency?
Are there hazardous air contaminants?
Respirator Selection
2. Check the concentration of each
contaminant
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Monitor to determine concentration
Done by knowledgeable person
Use historical measurements if available
If unknown concentration use positive
pressure SCBA
Respirator Selection
3. Compare with WorkSafeBC Exposure
Limits
• If no exposure limits use positive pressure
SCBA
• Compare workplace concentration with
WorkSafeBC exposure limits
Respirator Selection
4. Check IDLH Concentration
• Is concentration less than IDLH?
• If not, use supplied air respirator
Respirator Selection
5. Check Contaminant Properties
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Inhalation hazard
Eye irritation
Skin irritant or skin absorption
Warning properties / odour threshold
Decomposition products
6. Assigned Protection Factor
• Each type of respirator is assigned an APF
• Examples:
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•
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Half facepiece (non powered):
Full facepiece (non powered):
Full facepiece (powered):
SCBA (positive pressure):
10
50
100
10,000
Respirator Selection
7. Calculate the Hazard Ratio
• Airborne contaminant concentration / 8hour TWA
• Compare with assigned protection factors
• Choose respirator
Respirator Selection
8. Calculate Maximum Use Concentration
(MUC)
• 8-hour TWA x APF for respirator being
considered
• Air purifying respirators up to the MUC
• If over MUC, supplied air must be used
Respirator Selection
9. Identify General Type of Respirator
Required
• Air supplying – go to Step 13
or
• Air purifying – go to Steps 11 - 13
Respirator Selection
10. Consider State of Contaminant
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For air purifying respirators
If contaminant is a gas or vapour go to
Step 11
If contaminant is a particulate only go
to Step 12
Respirator Selection
11. Warning Properties
• Smell, taste, breathing irritation
• If no adequate warning properties use:
• Air-supplying respirator
• Air-purifying respirator with end-of-servicelife indicator
• Air-purifying respirator with cartridges
changed out regularly
Respirator Selection
12. Select Filter or Cartridge
• Each cartridge protects against specific
types of contaminants
• Must protect against all types
• Nine classes of filters for particulates
• Some contaminants have no effective
cartridge
Respirator Selection
13. Special Requirements
• Consider other PPE being worn
• Ask workers for input
Respirator Fit Testing
Fit Testing
1. User seal check
• Negative pressure check
• Positive pressure check
2. Fit Test
• Quantitative fit test
• Qualitative fit test
Fit Testing
• User Negative Pressure
Seal Check
• Don respirator and other
PPE
• Block inlet opening
• Inhale slightly
• Hold for 10 seconds
• Facepiece should collapse
slightly and not leak
Fit Testing
• User Positive Pressure
Seal Check
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Don respirator and PPE
Block exhaust valve
Breathe out slightly
Hold for 10 seconds
Facepiece should bulge out
and stay out
Fit Testing
• Must be done by a qualified person
• Must be documented
• Must be done at least annually
Fit Testing
• Two types of fit test:
1. Qualitative
2. Quantitative
Fit Testing
1. Qualitative fit testing
• Irritant smoke
• Smell - Isoamyl acetate (banana oil)
• Taste – Bitrex, Saccharin
Fit Testing
• Fit Test Exercises
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Normal breathing
Deep breathing
Turning the head from side to side
Nodding the head up and down
Talking out loud
Normal breathing
Care and Maintenance of
Respirators
Respirator Care
• Cleaning
• Remove filter/cartridges
• Remove head straps, valves, etc.
• Wash facepiece with mild soap and warm
water
Respirator Care
• Cleaning – continued
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Rinse facepiece in clean water
Disinfect facepiece
Dry facepiece
Wash valves and air dry
Reassemble
Respirator Care
• Inspecting the Respirator
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Inspect before each use
Check for dirt, holes, tears, cracks
Rubber / silicone should be flexible
Inhalation and exhalation valves
• Make sure they are there
• Cracks, dryness
• Not stuck closed
Respirator Care
• Inspecting the Respirator – continued
• Head straps
• Cartridge and filter holders
• Cartridges and filters
Respirator Care
• Storage
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Position respirator to prevent damage
Don’t fold or bend parts
Keep in sealed container
Seal filters
Medical Limitations /
Assessment
• Medical assessment may be required if:
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Claustrophobia
Breathing problems
High blood pressure or heart disease
Diabetes
Seizure disorders
Facial skin problems
Medical Limitations /
Assessment
• Medical assessment:
• Type of work being done
• Types of contaminants and their
concentrations
• Work conditions / environment
• Type of respirator
• Duration of use
Summary
• What we have covered:
• WorkSafeBC Regulation
• How hazard identification and risk
assessments are done
• The types of respirators available
• How to choose the right respirator
• How to do a user fit check
Summary
• You should know – continued
• How fit testing is done
• How to clean store and inspect your
respirator
• About medical conditions and assessment
Questions

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