Respiratory Protection Training

Report
•Respiratory Protection
Training
Company Confidential – Do Not Distribute
1
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN
Evacuation Procedure in the event of a fire
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
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Trigger the Fire Alarm system by “pulling” or
“pushing” the switch, long and loud sound
will be heard.
All employees, contractors and visitors must
evacuate the building from the nearest fire
door as soon as the alarm is heard.
If visitor, let your guide Trane employee
leads you to the nearest exit.
Walk fast but do not run.
Do not stop to return or pick up personal
belongings until informed it is safe to do so.
Proceed to designated Assembly area,
remain and follow instructions.
2
In the event of a Fire
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
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R-Remain calm, do not panic. Rescue
person in immediate danger.
A-Alarm, Activate the nearest Manual
Fire Alarm Switch
C-Contain fire at point of origin by closing
all doors and windows. Extinguish fire
by using a portable fire extinguisher.
(Unless you have been properly
trained, never attempt to use a fire
extinguisher)
E-Evacuate the facility using establish
procedure.
3
In the event of an Earthquake
DROP to the ground;
take COVER by getting next to a sturdy table or
other piece of furniture until the shaking stops.
 If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your
face and head with your arms and crouch in an
inside corner of the building.
Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors
and walls, and anything that could fall, such as
lighting fixtures or furniture.
Note: If the walls are crumbling and the ceiling is
falling in… In these conditions, the triangle of life
created when a bookshelf, wall or part of a ceiling
falls against a large piece of furniture is your best
chance of not getting crushed.
4
In an event of Chemical
Contamination
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Ask for assistance from any Trane
personnel
Wash contaminated clothing and body part
under running water within 15 minutes. Use
eyewash, shower station if available.
STAY CALM, DO NOT PANIC!
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1
Identify
the
PURPOSE:
Respiratory
Hazards
2
Understand the
contaminants’
effect on workers’
health
Four-Step
Method
3
Select the
appropriate
respirator
4
Train in proper
respirator use
and care
6
What are Respiratory Hazards?
Airborne Contaminants
Particles
Gases and Vapors
Oxygen Deficiency
7
What are Airborne Contaminants?
Particles
• Dust: solid particles
Dusts are formed as solid materials
are broken into smaller particles,
such as by drilling, sanding crushing
or grinding.
The smaller the dust, the longer it
hangs in the air and the easier it is to
inhale.
Common dusts come from
Asbestos, Fiberglas and Ceramic
Insulation materials
Aluminum, Galvanized Metal and
Stainless Steel
Coal and Carbon Products
Minerals and ores
Wood products
8
What are Airborne Contaminants?
Particles
Metal fumes
Occur in high-heat operations,
such as in welding and certain
other types of metalworking
Metal is melted, vaporized and
quickly cooled in air
Form very fine, small, solid
particles that float in air
Are often oxides of the
vaporized metal
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What are Airborne Contaminants?
Gases
Gases are substances that are
neither liquids nor solids at room
temperature and pressure.
Gases can travel far and fast from
their source, often undetected
Gases occupy the space one places
them in such as a cylinder.
Common examples are
Ammonia (NH3)
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Chlorine (Cl2)
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
Liquid Propane Gas (LPG)
Ozone (O3)
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What are Airborne Contaminants?
Vapors
Evaporated from liquids or solids
Solvents
 Acetone
 Benzene
 Isopropyl Alcohol
 Mineral Spirits and Naphtha
Products containing solvents
 Adhesives
 Glues
 Paints
Mercury
11
How airborne contaminants
occurs?
Occurs when the percentage of
oxygen in the air falls below a
specified level
< 19.5% by volume (US)
Caused by oxygen consumption
(chemical reaction, welding, fire)
Other chemicals displace oxygen
from the air (e.g. degreasing
tanks)
Often a concern in confined
spaces (e.g. tanks, silos)
Usually considered Immediately
Dangerous to Life or Health
(IDLH)
Oxygen
21%
Other
Gases
1%
Nitrogen
78%
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13
Measure Exposure Concentration
• Personal sampling
– Sample is taken in worker’s
breathing zone to estimate actual
worker exposure
• Area sampling
– Used to assess concentration at a
certain area or point
 Investigate confined spaces
 At contaminant source to estimate
worst case exposure
 In middle of the room to evaluate
effectiveness of general exhaust
ventilation
14
Occupational Exposure Limits
High
Concentration
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
Ceiling, Immediately Dangerous
to Life or Health (IDLH)
15 minute Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL)
8 hr Time Weighted Average (TWA)
Action Limit
Low
15
2
Understand the
contaminants’
effect on workers’
health
17
Anatomy of the Lung
18
Importance of Lungs
Surface area of alveoli is
equivalent to the area of a tennis
court
Alveolar membrane is extremely
thin (0.2 um) (equivalent length of
10-6 meters.)
Used to transfer oxygen to blood
and remove carbon dioxide
Can also collect contaminants
and/or distribute them to the rest
of the body (systemic effects)
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Inhalation Toxicology
Acute
Immediate response from a single short exposure
 Coughing, dizziness, nausea, sneezing, vomiting
 Acute effects aid in detection of exposure
Chronic
Delayed response from repeated exposure to low
levels
 Decreased lung function, damage to other organs
 Caused by workplace exposure, living environment or life
style (e.g., diet, drugs, tobacco)
 Gradual process, so may be difficult to detect
20
Normal Lung
Very elastic
Easy expansion and
contraction
The coloration of this
illustration is due to iron siderosis
minimal damaging effect
21
Cadmium Exposure
Emphysema
Symptoms:
Difficult breathing
lack of air
likely to lead to
cancer
22
Air Pollution Lung
City air pollution
42 years old; unknown
cause
Color contrast lung tissue is
evident - caused by air
pollution
23
Foundry lung
36 years of exposure in a
foundry
Classic Silicosis
63 years of age
Death by Cor Pulmonale
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Welder’s Lung
34 years of exposure to welding
fumes
Siderosis and fever; fibrosis
death at 52 years of age - cause
unknown
discoloration of pulmonary lung
tissue
25
Mesothelioma - Cancerous lung
15 years of exposure to
asbestos - textiles
Asbestosis and
mesothelioma (cancer of
membranes that line
chest and abdomen)
42 years of age at death
pulmonary cancer cancer of the pleura
26
Smoker’s Lung with Cancer
White area on top is the cancer, this is what
killed the person. The blackened area is just the
deposit of tars that all smokers paint into their
lungs with every puff they take.
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3
Select the
appropriate
respirator
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Hierarchy of Hazard Control Techniques
• Engineering Controls
–
–
–
–
Change the process - eliminate the hazard
Substitute a less hazardous material
Enclose or isolate the operation or the worker
Use local exhaust ventilation
• Administrative controls
–
–
–
–
Train workers on safe operating procedures
Use good housekeeping practices
Rotate employees in/out of exposed areas
Conduct medical monitoring
• Personal protective equipment
– Only if other methods are not feasible, adequate or
while they are being implemented
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Respirator Classes
Air Purifying
Half Mask
Full Facepiece
Powered Air Purifying
(PAPR)
(half mask, full
facepiece, loose fitting
facepiece
helmets or hoods)
Atmosphere Supplying
Supplied Air
(half mask, full
facepiece,
loose fitting
facepiece
helmets or
hoods)
Self Contained
Breathing
Apparatus
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Immediately Dangerous to Life or
Health (IDLH) Environments




Unknown environments
Oxygen deficient
environments or
concentrations > IDLH
Self contained breathing
apparatus (SCBA) or
combination Supplied
Air/SCBA (ESCBA)
Escape respirators
(contaminant specific)
31
Non-IDLH Atmospheres
Chose
a particle and/or gas/vapor filter that will
filter all of the selected contaminants

If no suitable filter, then need supplied air
respirators
 Cartridges or filters vary by country
Select
a respirator with an Assigned Protection
Factor (APF) greater than the hazard ratio
– APF is the amount that a respirator may reduce
exposure e.g by a factor of 10, 100 etc.
– APF is a function of respirator type and in some
cases the type of cartridge or filter that is used
32
US APFs (as an example)
Supplied Air
Half mask
50
Full facepiece
1,000
Loose fitting facepiece
Hood or helmet 1,000
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34
Non-IDLH Atmospheres
•Particulate Contaminants
– Atmosphere supplying respirator
 SCBA
 Supplied air respirator
35
Activated Carbon
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Carbon derived from
coconut shells or
coal.
Crushed and
conditioned at high
temperatures, low
oxygen levels.


Creates extensive network of internal pores and
large internal surface areas.
Organic vapors adsorb into micropores
Micropores may be treated to react with certain
gases and vapors (acid gases, ammonia, etc.)

Not for filtering particles!
36
Cartridge Change Out Schedules
• Must
have warning properties below exposure
limit, otherwise use supplied air respirators
–
Odor, taste, or irritation not always reliable indicators of
end of service life
• US
–
–
–
OSHA
Regulations with mandatory change schedules for
acrylonitrile, benzene, butadiene, formaldehyde,
methylene chloride, vinyl chloride
End of service life indicator (ESLI), or
Service Life Software™ on 3M website
 Helps determine when customers need to change
cartridge
37
Other Concerns Regarding Selection
• Comfort
• Facial fit (multiple sizes?)
• Maintenance (reusable vs. disposable)
• Non respiratory hazards
– Impact protection (head, eye, face)
– Visible and UV light (e.g., welding)
– Splash or eye irritation
•
•
•
•
•
Compatibility with other PPE
Communication
Medical fitness of wearer
Mobility requirements
Facial hair
38
4
Train in proper
respirator use
and care
39
Training
• Why respirator is necessary
– Contaminants
– Health effects
• Limitations and capabilities of the respirator
– Helps reduce exposure to ______
– Does not reduce exposure to ______
– (If applicable) Does not supply oxygen
• Demonstrate how to put on the respirator and
have them practice
• Need to properly fit, maintain and wear
respirator in order for it to work properly
• Decontamination of Respirator
40
User Seal Checks
Positive Pressure
Negative Pressure
•To be conducted each time before entering
contaminated environment
41

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