DNP-Is it for me? Cindy Tofthagen, PhD, ARNP, AOCNP Assistant Professor University of South Florida Why the DNP? The Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP) is the highest practice degree any nurse can achieve. DNP programs prepare nurses with the highest level of scientific knowledge and practice expertise to assure the best quality of care and provide positive patient outcomes. ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE WILL MOVE FROM THE MASTER’S TO THE DOCTORAL LEVEL BY 2015. (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2004) History of Doctoral Degrees in Nursing Research-focus • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) • Doctor of Nursing Science (DNS) • Doctor of Science in Nursing (DSN) • Doctor of Nursing Science (DNSc) Practice-focus • Doctor of Nursing (ND) – no longer offered Hybrid of research and practice focus • • Doctor of Nursing Practice (DrNP) Time Line for DNP Program Development 1960—Boston University opens 1st clinical doctorate 1979—Case Western Reserve opens 1st ND program 1999—UTHSC opens DNSc practice doctorate 2001—University of Kentucky opens First DNP Program 2002—AACN forms practice doctorate Task Force 2003—Columbia University admits students 2004—AACN members approve DNP Position Paper Factors Influencing Need for DNP • • • • Expansion of Knowledge Underlying Practice Increased Complexity of Patient Care Major Concerns about Quality of Care and Patient Safety Shortages of Nursing Personnel Demanding a Higher Level of Preparation for Leaders Who Can Design and Assess Care and Lead • Shortages of Prepared Nursing Faculty, Leaders in Practice, and Nurse Researchers • Increasing Educational Expectations for the Preparation of other Health Professionals Contributing Factors • IOM called attention to problems facing health care • 1999—To Err is Human, focused on fragmented nature of health care • 2001—Crossing the Quality Chasm, calls for a restructuring of healthcare • 2003—Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality call for educators to prepare health care providers for a new type of practice as members of interdisciplinary teams that emphasize evidence based practice, quality improvement, and informatics Contributing Factors • Increasing length of Master’s Programs in Nursing – Many 60+ hours, requiring 3 + years to complete – didactic and clinical increased by 72 and 36 hours respectively for NP programs between 1995--2000 – Need for additional content in informatics, practice management, health policy, risk management, evaluation of evidence, and advanced diagnosis and management Contributing Factors • Movement of other disciplines to the doctorate (MD, DDS, PsyD, DPT, PharmD, AudD) • Emerging and active interdisciplinary teams “The tipping point for me was when I was at a team meeting and everyone there had a doctorate in their respective fields except the nurse.” National Academy of Sciences 2005 Report • Focuses on Increasing the Number of Nurse Scientists and Increasing the Number of Productive Research Years for Nurses Prepared in PhD Programs • Recognized a distinction between the educational needs of nursing as a practice profession that require practitioners with clinical expertise and nursing as an academic discipline and science that requires independent researchers and scientists to build the body of knowledge National Academy of Sciences 2005 Report • Proposed that “The need for doctorally prepared practitioners and clinical faculty would be met if nursing could develop a new non-research clinical doctorate, similar to the M.D. and Pharm.D. in medicine and pharmacy, respectively.” The Mission “Nurses prepared at the doctoral level with a blend of clinical, organizational, economic and leadership skills are most likely to be able to critique nursing and other clinical scientific findings and design programs of care delivery that are locally acceptable, economically feasible, and which significantly impact healthcare outcomes.” • AACN Position Paper on the Practice Doctorate Reasons to Consider the DNP • Data suggest that health outcomes improve as the educational level of nurses increases • Surveys of graduates indicate they have acquired new knowledge and skills that have enhanced their practices • Reports from employers are indicating DNP graduate are bringing added valued to their places of employment DNP programs Focus heavily on practice that is innovative and evidencebased, reflecting the application of credible research findings. • Advanced nursing practice is broadly defined by AACN (2004) as: “any form of nursing intervention that influences health care outcomes for individuals or populations, including the direct care of individual patients,management of care for individuals and populations, administration of nursing and health care organizations, and the development and implementation of health policy (p. 2).” Benefits of DNP programs • development of needed advanced competencies for increasingly complex practice, faculty, and leadership roles; • enhanced knowledge to improve nursing practice and patient outcomes; • enhanced leadership skills to strengthen practice and health care delivery; • better match of program requirements and credits and time with the credential • earned; • provision of an advanced educational credential for those who require advanced • practice knowledge but do not need or want a strong research focus (e.g., practice faculty); • • enhanced ability to attract individuals to nursing from nonnursing backgrounds; and increased supply of faculty for practice instruction. What Kind of People are Attracted to the DNP? “I have been waiting for a program like this, I am not interested in a research career, but there is more I need to learn to make me a better practitioner.” What are your career goals? Are you committed to career in practice or community leadership? Oriented toward improving outcomes of care? Will all NP’s have to get a DNP? • Current NP’s will retain their privileges, after 2015 but all NP programs should be offered through DNP programs. Will faculty with DNP be eligible for tenure? Tenure is an institutional prerogative with two two major considerations: • 1.Who is eligible for tenure? If the institution tenures holders of other professional degrees (EdD, MD, PsyD, PharmD, JD, PTD, AudD, etc.) then DNP graduates should also be eligible. • 2.What are the criteria for tenure? If the institution defines scholarly productivity broadly to include external funding and publications other than that associated with only NIH R--Level grants, then the DNP graduate should be eligible. DNP Curriculum Components Two components: 1. DNP Essentials 1 through 8 are the foundational outcome competencies deemed essential for all graduates of a DNP program regardless of specialty or functional focus. 2. Specialty competencies/content prepare the DNP graduate for those practice and didactic learning experiences for a particular specialty. Competencies, content, and practical experiences needed for specific roles in specialty areas are delineated by national specialty nursing organizations. Essential I: Scientific Underpinnings for Practice The DNP program prepares the graduate to: 1. Integrate nursing science with knowledge from ethics, the biophysical, psychosocial, analytical, and organizational sciences as the basis for the highest level of nursing practice. 2. Use science-based theories and concepts to: determine the nature and significance of health and health care delivery phenomena; describe the actions and advanced strategies to enhance, alleviate, and ameliorate health and health care delivery phenomena as appropriate; and evaluate outcomes. 3. Develop and evaluate new practice approaches based on nursing theories and theories from other disciplines. Essential II: Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Improvement and Systems Thinking 1. Develop and evaluate care delivery approaches that meet current and future needs of patient populations based on scientific findings in nursing and other clinical sciences, as well as organizational, political, and economic sciences. 2. Ensure accountability for quality of health care and patient safety for populations with whom they work. 3. Develop and/or evaluate effective strategies for managing the ethical dilemmas inherent in patient care, the health care organization, and research. Essential III: Clinical Scholarship and Analytical Methods for Evidence-Based Practice 1. Use analytic methods to critically appraise existing literature and other evidence to determine and implement the best evidence for practice. 2. Design and implement processes to evaluate outcomes of practice, practice patterns, and systems of care within a practice setting, health care organization, or community against national benchmarks to determine variances in practice outcomes and population trends. 3. Design, direct, and evaluate quality improvement methodologies to promote safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable, and patient-centered care. 4. Apply relevant findings to develop practice guidelines and improve practice and the practice environment. Essential III: Clinical Scholarship and Analytical Methods for Evidence-Based Practice 5. Use information technology and research methods appropriately to: collect appropriate and accurate data to generate evidence for nursing practice inform and guide the design of databases that generate meaningful evidence for nursing practice analyze data from practice design evidencebased interventions predict and analyze outcomes examine patterns of behavior and outcomes identify gaps in evidence for practice. 6. Function as a practice specialist/consultant in collaborative knowledge-generating research. 7. Disseminate findings from evidence-based practice and research to improve healthcare outcomes. Essential IV: Information Systems/Technology and Patient Care Technology for the Improvement and Transformation of Health Care 1. Design, select, use, and evaluate programs that evaluate and monitor outcomes of care, care systems, and quality improvement including consumer use of health care information systems. 2. Analyze and communicate critical elements necessary to the selection, use and evaluation of health care information systems and patient care technology. 3. Demonstrate the conceptual ability and technical skills to develop and execute an evaluation plan involving data extraction from practice information systems and databases. 4. Provide leadership in the evaluation and resolution of ethical and legal issues within healthcare systems relating to the use of information, information technology, communication networks, and patient care technology. 5. Evaluate consumer health information sources for accuracy, timeliness, and appropriateness. Essential IV: Information Systems/Technology and Patient Care Technology for the Improvement and Transformation of Health Care 1. Design, select, use, and evaluate programs that evaluate and monitor outcomes of care, care systems, and quality improvement including consumer use of health care information systems. 2. Analyze and communicate critical elements necessary to the selection, use and evaluation of health care information systems and patient care technology. 3. Demonstrate the conceptual ability and technical skills to develop and execute an evaluation plan involving data extraction from practice information systems and databases. 4. Provide leadership in the evaluation and resolution of ethical and legal issues within healthcare systems relating to the use of information, information technology, communication networks, and patient care technology. 5. Evaluate consumer health information sources for accuracy, timeliness, and appropriateness. Essential V: Health Care Policy for Advocacy in Health Care 1. Critically analyze health policy proposals, health policies, and related issues from the perspective of consumers, nursing, other health professions, and other stakeholders in policy and public forums. 2. Demonstrate leadership in the development and implementation of institutional, local, state, federal, and/or international health policy. 3. Influence policy makers through active participation on committees, boards, or task forces at the institutional, local, state, regional, national, and/or international levels to improve health care delivery and outcomes. 4. Educate others, including policy makers at all levels, regarding nursing, health policy, and patient care outcomes. 5. Advocate for the nursing profession within the policy and healthcare communities. 6. Develop, evaluate, and provide leadership for health care policy that shapes health care financing, regulation, and delivery. 7. Advocate for social justice, equity, and ethical policies within all healthcare arenas. Essential VI: Interprofessional Collaboration for Improving Patient and Population Health Outcomes • 1. Employ effective communication and collaborative skills in the development and implementation of practice models, peer review, practice guidelines, health policy, standards of care, and/or other scholarly products. • 2. Lead interprofessional teams in the analysis of complex practice and organizational issues. • 3. Employ consultative and leadership skills with intraprofessional and interprofessional teams to create change in health care and complex healthcare delivery systems. Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health for Improving the Nation’s Health 1. Analyze epidemiological, biostatistical, environmental, and other appropriate scientific data related to individual, aggregate, and population health. 2. Synthesize concepts, including psychosocial dimensions and cultural diversity, related to clinical prevention and population health in developing, implementing, and evaluating interventions to address health promotion/disease prevention efforts, improve health status/access patterns, and/or address gaps in care of individuals, aggregates, or populations. 3. Evaluate care delivery models and/or strategies using concepts related to community, environmental and occupational health, and cultural and socioeconomic dimensions of health. Essential VIII: Advanced Nursing Practice 1. Conduct a comprehensive and systematic assessment of health and illness parameters in complex situations, incorporating diverse and culturally sensitive approaches. 2. Design, implement, and evaluate therapeutic interventions based on nursing science and other sciences. 3. Develop and sustain therapeutic relationships and partnerships with patients (individual, family or group) and other professionals to facilitate optimal care and patient outcomes. 4. Demonstrate advanced levels of clinical judgment, systems thinking, and accountability in designing, delivering, and evaluating evidence-based care to improve patient outcomes. 5. Guide, mentor, and support other nurses to achieve excellence in nursing practice. 6. Educate and guide individuals and groups through complex health and situational transitions. 7. Use conceptual and analytical skills in evaluating the links among practice, organizational, population, fiscal, and policy issues. Additional DNP education Falls into two general categories: 1) roles that specialize as an advanced practice nurse (APN) with a focus on care of individuals 2) roles that specialize in practice at an aggregate, systems, or organizational level. DNP Signature Residencies at USF • Prepare graduates for highly specialized clinical roles • Focus on application of new knowledge and research findings in the clinical setting • Maximize interprofessional training and practice • Optimize clinical leadership and scholarship DNP Signature Residencies at USF • Residency placement will be dependent on the DNP Resident’s current clinical expertise, interests and tailored to optimize the individual’s professional and practice goals. • Residency clinical hours will vary depending on the clinical residency concentration selected and the type and scope of embedded clinical competencies. • DNP students may choose from traditional primary care residencies, or one of the USF Signature Clinical Residencies. DNP Signature Residencies at USF • • • • • • • • • • • Brain/Spinal Cord Injury and Rehabilitation Cardiology Cognitive Impairment Dermatology Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease Gerontology/Aging Nurse Anesthesia Oncology Orthopedics Polytrauma Psych/Mental Health Why USF? • The USF DNP program offers an unprecedented opportunity to train with nationally-recognized clinical faculty, pursue advanced specialty training in high-demand signature clinical residencies including dermatology and preventive cardiology and to experience state-of-the-art, interprofessional training through advanced and high fidelity simulation experiences. A DNP degree from USF will allow you to expand your clinical expertise and professional goals to excel as a practice leader! - Frances (Rankin) Sahebzamani, PhD, ARNP, FAANP Director, DNP Program, USF College of Nursing Why USF? • USF Health lives its mission of Making Life Better. We are taking an active role in breaking through barriers of traditional healthcare models through interprofessional education and research involving everyone in USF Health: Nursing, Medicine, Public Health, Physical Therapy, and Pharmacy.” • - Stephen Klasko, MD, MBA Senior Vice President, USF Health Dean, Morsani College of Medicine Program Requirements »»Full time students can complete core and clinical courses in 2 years »»52 credit hours »»Part–time plans available »»USF allows 8 years to complete a DNP degree »»Most USF DNP students graduate with at least one scholarly article published! Finish in 3 Easy Steps! STEP 1 - Complete core and clinical courses • Knowledge Building Core Courses: Epidemiology, Statistics, Writing-Publication, Evidence Based Practice, Pathophysiology, Leadership & System Analysis, Ethics, and Health Policy Issues • Advanced Practice Cognates: Additional courses to allow you to tailor your DNP program to best meet your goals. Finish in 3 Easy Steps! STEP 2 - Complete evidence-based projects • The EBP project provides students with an opportunity to demonstrate their clinical and scholarly expertise through the development of a relevant, practice-related project to affect change or improve outcomes in the clinical setting. The EBP is reviewed and evaluated by an academic committee. Finish in 3 Easy Steps! STEP 3 - Complete DNP residency DNP Residencies: Residency placement will be dependent on the DNP Resident’s current clinical expertise, interests and tailored to optimize the individual’s professional and practice goals. Residency clinical hours will vary depending on the clinical residency concentration selected and the type and scope of embedded clinical competencies. DNP students may chose from traditional primary care residencies, or one of the USF Signature Clinical Residencies.